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THE 



CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S 



JOURNAL, 



SCIENTIFIC AND RAILWAY GAZETTE. 



VOLUME IX. 



1846=- 



LONDON] 

R. GROOlfBRIDGE & SONS, 5, PATERNOSTER ROW; J. WEALE, 59, HIGH HOLBORNt WJUSYSi PUTNAM, NEW YORKt 

GAUGNANI, AND HATHIAS, PARIS. 



PitaM M4P»UUk*dbrWILLUM LUTON, IbiFtapikMr, at Itab lOb Vtid}w Btart WfettiML 



TH£ NEW YORK 
PUBLIC UBRARY 



MT»)t, LEN9X ANB 
TILDEN POtrNDkTiaNa 



INDEX TO VOL. IX. 



ACaDIMV, ROVAI., CllibiliMI •!, 

169. 1» 
A«ei4eMionthe Norfolk railmj. SI , 

AUnti at th4 rraidRnt of the BtU 

tab Auoc4«liaB. ^13 
A<&c on th« comwiaa ol meUla, 371 
Air tn|iDt, ParMjr'i, 107 
AUt^woyi iiupoiuion a<]u«iluctaw, 

47 
Abunae. eatnpuilDii ta (ratUw), 11 
■ lUre'i Ulu«ru«l (review). 



II 



.r»i!wij (rwitm), H 



Alii3i sad ■luaiinou) couipooiuUi 

CbS'i paunL, 02 
AMtlguuiion tad ietiiag ot nil* 

AnalMir 4tigiaMnn;, 3&S 
AnetiM, iieua-UeVitj In, 308 
AntwBj, ini itept lo. b; Drun* 

Avdcnou.oa tttcniUap of Uelsiom, 

17 
AMwcn 14 quettim* rMpectins the 

houci of pjuliacntfit, 311 
AktbnciU eoal, aioclliag «llh, 21S 
AmatttX d(Mae«ti« archiudufe. l.uab 

M the Utidlea ef (rari«w). WJ 

.- . ■ and modem arcliiieciuf e, bj 

GailhBtiaud (rttion). 13. 156 
A^educl. MifpcnuoiitOicr Clic Allcg- 

liear. 47 
AngoaelimCiiniailui tail ociucaU, 

3S 
Arch, obliqae, trcatitc on, i>J Mchol- 

•«• {r(?i«w), ;& 
-^ ikeor, tfi old inTentlon. 118 
thcui70f,b; Blur&odP)illltp<. 

151 
ArtliKdtopcal eongmt, Tteach, 21$ 
^— — — ^ ia III lute, M 
Atchitcotunl competitioa, by Tlslor, 

lU 
—^^.^— dAWptiant, 2, M 

lituUtiaai,!tfiIi 

^ fcoalleetiont of lul;, 

bf F. Liuh. 108, 219.!G3,19e 

ijaofitu ol bnildiugt in 



KdliiUurfl), 8 
Anbiiecttt DrWth, Royal In»tllnifi 

of, 27,M,S4, I23,U3. ifH.iU 

387 
AmliiuetaTe, ireiuU ud trtbcaif, 

33», 361 
— - ■ , ehuroh, Cindidui on, 

IM 
- " ■ Khibliion of. ti (be 

Royal AcwlciDT, ItiS, ISa 

in MincheaMr, I.iver- 



fool, tail Birktnlirad, 3 

-, n«diKi»l, tvXvxt det4- 



lopaxnt of, tii 

-, uofiilhfulncn in, 105 



Arcute »aJ iiabeaie arcbiuciure, 

3M.M1 
AmiUag rtUwiT carritjiei, Cm*- 

fard'i pattni, 166 

TOj^aat tad D«ianlieM fiigatca, the, 

M 
' AfToariaiytb uid Bai!r«'i map of 

SpkUoi] and Vfiln i,revi«w), 17C 
Art, Dfcorttiir, Snirkiy of, 56, li9 
Aftnun wctli in (.him. 1^9 
Artiftcial uIirMUkiiiie. && 
A/tixao Club, iieam cnglac by (re* 

ikw),3S,Ul3 



Art), Fine, iattitute of, reporU, 42 

inilutlntl. rtpotLlion of, 30 

, Royal ScolUth Sodaly of, 7% 

U. 89, 123, 156. 35G 
■ ■■ , Sneietf for the Snranragamcat 

of, 28. 09, 124. HI, \»3 
AawUnt tflajtioar'a railway nlde, 

HsakoU'a (r«*'e-3. Vi 
Atha'a pateut aXmoifhttie tagia**, 

ISS 
Alltotle leaa, ieebafga In, 19 
Almoaplurio eoguiet, Aiba'a palMit, 

1S& 

prapulilon, Ilill'tpaUiil, 



3IH 



104, 1S8 



■ rallwayt, BaaUfoitb on. 



t<Al. 247 



ual.92 



91 



tcn^2£2 



-, JobitMfi'i pa- 
-, Palmar' t pi- 
-.Ward'ipaUDl, 
-, M' heeler '• pa- 



37 



tradioai Baabforth go, 



Hayd(>rtaii,2a 
ADgurt, Palmat'i paiaot tor makiB^r 

IS 
Auriferou) land of the Rbine, 1S9 
Au*t paaMgc-bndsOi Baahlortb'a ic* 
ply to FulDanaa, 199 

-, Fulljamta'a n- 



markt an, 190 



-, P. GUu'i notiM 



of, I'ia 

Andllary iieam engine far tuitplyini 
iieaici boilen tiiili watu, Cocb* 
rane'i pMent, 216 

Dtito, Coda'a jwicnl, 210 

B. 

IJagt'a patent hot air eaeine, 03 
nariuart'i patent for rafiiilDg copper 

orea, 120 
Banker'* noiei, priniing and prejiBT* 

ing of, Mqii'i patrnt. 10 
llarrntiin, tauw of caUiUophcat. 71 
liatkcf't ralU, leuer »p, mth ibe 

cilicor'* reply, 319 
Darry'i evidence on the boiueo of 

parlkntinl, 241 
B uhforth on atnoipht tie t ranion, 3 7 
oa aiBoapheno nilvari, 104, 

188 

on cbatigc uf iiioiion. 10 
reply t« Fulljainct, oa iha 

Aiut pastage bridf e, 199 
Batilica *l Ruinc, 269 
Uatemon't letter on eia ban k meat*, 

224 
Bcrifard'i patent for alahiiag and 

e(«hiap gliiB, 384 
Delfry turieti, 21 
Belipuni, ratlwaji of, Aodenon on, 

17 
Dcnion'i paUDl tUe- making machine, 

Bex'* pa(<n( for dccoialins home*, 

2i2 
Bidiltt'i Btidonee on the gauge quea- 

lion, 3(J'J 
Birch't pajifr ou fictile itianufactiim, 

178 
Birkenhead, atcbiieciure ia, & 



Blair and Pbilbisi en the eaaitnie- 
lioit of viailucla, faridgei, 6cc (re. 
liew), 72 

on the theory of tbc arch, 
Ul 
UUko Garry, tieam ihlp, the, 192 
Utut furnace, Smiib do tbe opctatioa 

«f, I4t 

Blaitting iindtr water, 369 
Blindt, wire, fabrlet for, UlU'i pa- 
tent, 16 
Board o( Trailr, dacinioo of, on the 

gauge qiiettlun,2IO 

and Hume Ofioe, WUlt»> 

ball, 2GI, 293 
BooJriMin marbtei, 119 
Uooki, rrtiairtqf, 1), 3B, 72, 154, 

m, l»9.28e.3)7,3M 
Bnvtll'i patent for tho misufkatore 

u( iroa. .192 
BoydeU'a paiaot ItnprDvemeDtt in 

ihip-bu tiding, la^ 
Botolpb'a, St., church, Botton, Lla- 

colotbire, resioraiiaii of, i3i 
Bo£ek*t patent railway carriage- 

wheel*, 246 
Brudling'i patent railway eaniagea, 

186 
Braailon, Menn., on jarlab ehurehca 

(retiew). IM 
Bnck and Ule machine, llall'a patent, 

a&a 

maklns preaa, ^Vaita'i palcat, 
183 
Brieki, tetwra of dutita oo, IGO 
Bridge aoroM the Autt pauagc, r«* 

nia/ka on. hf F. Gilet. 122 
Bridge, Huagerfurd, atabLIity and 
fireogt)) of. 393 

WeitoilEulcr, demolition of, 

Bridgea, rmlway, faUof, 353 
Bndfe, luipcotioa, at the Palb of 
Niagara, 73 

at Runcorn, 7 
tabalai, over ibe Meaal 
Strait, as. 100, 172. 298 
Drtiinl, partial deatruciiaa of lock* 

at, 2U2 
Bntiab Archiiecta, Royal Intlitvle of. 
27, 58, Si, 183, 138, 183, 217, 
387 
Briliah and Aneiican it«iD tetaela, 

UbUor,26S 
Britiah AModalion, proceedingt of, 
301,313,341 

tliHenm, fa<ade of. CA, 133 
aiodda of Paitbe- 
DOD ia, 14, 44 
Broad and narrow gauge, cipeti- 
nenta 00,-19 

gioget, junc- 
tion cf, 187 

gaage, report 
at rotal eonnnluionera on, 71 

S T.MfttCTOn.iaO 

Brooke 00 telf-rogiaicrlog ioitru- 

Bruycre'a evidence on the gangn 

qucatioo. 213 

niejit*, 341 

Budd'e jMtent fee iho maaDfactDre of 

Iron, 3JG 
Buffera fnr railway CBrriage), MiU'a 
> patent, 61 
UutTfra, talety, Cheulilre'i pateut, 

Buildinga, dampneaa in«I87| 216 



Dnaien'i plaoe of Bjypt >ii th a liia- 

tory of tbo warld (nriew). 1 74 
Diiry'i evidenoa oa toe gan^ qast- 

tlOD. 2^4 
Byroe*! descriptioo and oiea of Uw 

Bymc«ripb (review), JijS 

ucn theory of the itrenctH 

and iireta uf material!, 1(3, S3I, 

2S7 
Byrne on (rigoaoiSAlrietl eurieyin;, 

272 



Camltridite ntivlBUnt miueuni, 31, 

103,129.11)7 
Canal aucoM the lalliaiua of Panami, 

339 
Caodi, warping haulage on, SSi 
CaadiJitt on chitreh arL-hlt«ctore, lOS 

OQ nittieaiion, 2C9 
Ciodidnt'* Nat*-Book, Faidmilat 

LXVIII. LXIX, LO.aad LXXI. 

134. 233, 262. 327 
CinTaa, laaued, UiUett oo, 310 
CapUlant*. IW. Ueaty'* obacira- 

tioui 00, KG 
Carnago propn3*ion, Calloway'* pa- 
tent, 61 

wheelt, Seriptare'a patent 

245 
Caitin** Siemcatarr Text Book (re> 

liew), M 
Catattropbe at Barantin, oaaw ofi 71 
Cathedral of Cologoo, 48, 390 
Cathedral of Si. Ueoia, 9 
Cement, Kcating'a patent tmproTe- 

manta m, Hi 
Change of latiUoa, F. Baahforth oil, 

10 
Cbannd ii{aadra«, trial of itaamen, 

2S'j 
Chaiitrlll't letter on Rite and Lcrm 

cbtir«b,llolderae**,Yorkahire, 100 
Ckenieal Society, 169 
Chcaabire'a patent lafaty bnAr, 28$ 
Ctalmney dfaiighl. Watton'i patent. 

2S1 

pota, Ewatt'i patent, lU 
China, aitcaian well* la, 139 
Cliriu'i church, Plymouib.S.SO ,«| 

lOe, 149 
Cburrh at Sacrow, near Potadam, 161 
Churebci, Dadem, clecetlorica ia, 

Wiahtwickon, 149 
Charchoi, new, looal. il, 391 

n^etiopoUian, 171, 

IS4.26U 
Charch rc*t<iratianii8l,209 

prindpleo of, 143 
ipirc, raialng of, 41 
Church'* |i«i«ni coke oioa, 281 
Circlet, PruiKr** metfaod of project- 
ing them iionietiirallj , t| 
Citil Eugiueen, college for. 256 
InalituiiuD of. 57 
Clark and Pitnie'i pateut iteerlDg 

spparaiiM, itii 
Clere*(oiica in niodeta dinrthe*, 

W^htnick oo, 149 
Cliff'* paUBl for the uaDufacturti of 

alum. '.'2 
Clyde riiei wtira. report on. S4 
Caali, Kaniomt'i paieat, 16 
Cochrine'i patent auilliary Hum 

engtae, 2(S 
Coiliii'ipileotaniiliaryituaai eng^na 

S4< 



""^« 



INDEX. 



Coko ovra, Cbirdi'i jitUat, Hi 
CokiBi ■liUdd 1m\. WuUoh'i pt. 

lcoi.384 
Culrhater. Botnui ttnutni it. 199 
Colk^ati of loiiBKe lunur*. DS. ZM 
CollffG foT CtrU B*|iDccn, iit 
ColtiTiitt, gMt* aud cxfiliMtoiia in, 

report on, S41 
C»Iliiig'i goibis eniiBicDU (mte«), 

Colognonlhftlnl. 48, 190 
CotoMVD, RirgcntVpiik. 6 
ColouRi) ilnulMions. £0 
C«lDmn> *nil iitdiiiKntBCiupluiTJror 

wtiidvH tn»illili«K», 161 
Coosbiniog •imI and ir»o, S«iii)et> 

■en'* p«l»l. 180 

17 
Coiupariwia of ictew propeUcn ud 

)ndi]ic-«hti;l*,349 
Ctuii]Kt!ibn, tccliliectuiil, Vlitor on, 

Ul 

iliusiM, UlKr on, I7 

Vlndn, 290 

public, RporU of. 42 
Compute lr«oiiM on the oliliqao 

■rch, bjr P. NicboUon (»Tie").73 
C«mpi>Diiil iDoiion. ntw liw of. lid 
ConoCL-ling bollcn, (iufunh'n poMnt, 

at 

rod* foi crscha, Hlntktcj'* 

pktcDl, 24« 
C«B^n*uoD^, Sir John Rsnnie**, 

21B 
Ceiijitr ofM, Ittnlsn'« intent hr re- 

DnkDg. 120 

extracted from iW or» bjr 

dccitkiii.lUH 
GvrrffiiaDdeiiM, 32, Gl, 94, 129. 193, 

224,2ft<>, 292,321.30-J 
Corrotiea o[wcUU,A(Jw'i piper on, 

371 
Cou|>lii>p nd ituffing-bos for ibtlU, 

Lopcr'tpalenl. 90 
Craniplon'« pntcut eofinr, £20 
Crauck moxatiU jiti. 3C7 
Crairfofd'i palrnl fur blapping nil- 

way carriagva, I8C 
CiilUat liiiecrurKin 00 Prof. Willii'i 

ai<bii«eturaL biitur; of Cwitttliaij 

calb*ilr(l ((«!vie«), 287 
Cubilt'ft, b., ttiddice on (be gan^ 

aiutUon, i^* 

W.. diuo, 239. Ui 
CupoU, Impraml. (or inelitn^ Iron, 

IZt 
Cnneni wiWc-irhKl, RotiiatoD'* pa- 

uui, 90 
Cnnra. railway. SGS 
CdUhii^i aid enihavkm^nd, wiling 

out uf, b; llawtim. 136 



Dimpneu in liuitilinKi. 1G7.SI0 
lafbfiliite'i UIiIfi for letting out 
rail«*)r cunti (revic*), 289 
|A)aMnll<M frlfitr. V6 
ISrce^iloDt, an t'tieciural, 3, M 
I'peduan of lh« Btard'or Trade OB 
■be glUgc <(urttliia, SIQ 
Dccoraliuns, lulouftd. tU 

of the Opera llouit, 99 
of boHK*, Bei'i piMnt, 

' 252 

of the TovDi lull, Lifer. 

poo], 24S 
Lpcooralitc Art SotiMj, 56. 119 
llknioliiiun of M'MimiiHier Bridge, 

' a: 

Denti, SL. tallieUni of. 'J 
I)*nBi!t*i paicut honiaiitslwindmili*, 

UcMiiptltin of llie Byrncfiapti. tgr 0. 
JJrnic (rerww), 288 



Dnldnati tot the stndj of imdiatnl 

tri-h iter lure, hf Koniiullua, 309 
DibLling a|>p*nUin, FuUer'i pileat, 

Dftbton, on (he eii1tt*a(!on ard ma- 

■lagciDCUt of Hu (review), 269 
D'RcrrrktUI hi'liautic pieii, 311) 
Donjtlai, Sir llotcartl, on noclropttU- 

Un biidg«4, Ac. (rciiew), 2M 

reply to ofcBrrrt* 

ttonien th« inctropoliiaii brldgei. 

Ac.. 368 
DowBhIII lunocb.Hranil Mut at. Hi 
Dredging taacblnn j fi>r Cr^pI, lOt) 
Drumuioad'i flnt tiepe to auttumr 

(rrVKw), ) t 

Unbtin, port of, improteineDti, 3S3 



B 



Earl'* gonioroclriedn. .169 

Eanh anil *ei, temperature of, by 

Tailor. 110 
Eoriltwoib, llogtm'i tabid (or cal. 

culaliaji (rci^w^, 73 

ori lidtlung groundi,bf J, 

HDghet.3.13 
Ebii India Compinr'a ni%7. ID 
KaiiUke. on eitlet anil ntellioda of 

paiiiiing, 112 
Bcceiitno. rcniarkt 00, IckKorlli.CO 
Ediiiburflu. »Tnnptiiof buildlnnlOiS 
Udunttun, profmiunnl, of IM en. 

gincc', arcbitect, builder, and di- 

ebinitl, £83 
Rgj pt, <lr«d^iiig ninehinar; fnr, 108 
pla«« of. la the blitUiry of (be 

world. Itonien (r»vi«it), Wl 
Elrrtrie conducton. Tnuujf'a pileiit, 

lamp, OrecDcr'* pttcnt, 28S 
lii^lit. Kiug'« paicnl, 230 
IttegTipfa, lleigbtou'a pa- 
tent. 321 
ElemeoU of ph>'aiea, bgr C f. PcRbel 

(roiiew), 3A» 
Elettieiilarj text book for tunefon 
and Ictdlwi. by Cattle (reii«w), 
.tali 
BmbankineDtt, Datcman'a letter on, 

SiDpluinent of cotumnt and pedi- 
ment* *• nindow ixouMini^, 162 
Uneioiiie painiinit, .^37 
£n(V)itragnn>cnl of A'tt. Sodely for, 

w,s9.n*. i.%r. n'i 

Engine<>[, an.'lilu-ci. liuiIJi^r and mo. 

rhiniil. 09 IhR cilitcaiiun of, WZ 
EofiiticciinK, Weak'* Quarterlf Pa- 
per* on, >I9 

note* on, Xe*. 4, i.tt 6 
on the ilrtojith and form 
ofihe Ucnai luliular bridge, 

1IKI.173.398 
Bngtneettnp, amateur, 363 
Eiiginerr'iiiluitiaiedaluianic.Hsie'* 

(reijpw), 14 
Eagiiieei't mnnDal of iDinenlog^nni 

gt'Olo^^i Mri, V*fle_-- (rttii."«},3CT 
Eofioe* q( lie it«tiii fiijata Glrnlia'- 

tor, lOJ 
Epglind and Frunre, t«legfap!hic 

rnnimiinicsiinn bi'tween. KiO 
Englinil Kfiil \V*Im. ritlni.v Dip of. 

At rowinotb ami Baiirc'* (review), 

176 
Bnia*i* anil otlier corTed tine* of tho 

PaiiliciiuD, H P. PcoiviD, 97 
Etntta. U4, t2H. t'J'J. 26U. V2i 
Erii<^»M>n'» pAIeut piO|irllcr, SS-S 
Enay on an inproied mciboft of 

cnimidicting vio'tucti. bridge*. 

IuubfIi. etc. (reiirw), i'i 
Eiatmriiiie power of mrf, ZO 
kaart't paieiit diiwncj poll, Iti 
Saeafatlag mwhioc, Poolc'* patent, 

219 



Exebange, Rn ja), pBpnr on tbe original 

founditlDii of, by M'. Tli«. 28 
BihlMtioii at tbe Uoyal Aadtfmj, 

Id9 
Eaa*ting railway, worklnn ttock of, 

2(& 
Expanvlon of >t«am, IlaUiJ'f paper 

no, 381 
Esperini«fita1 rei«arche* on the 

tirength of Mil-lrnn.by E. Hodg. 

kimon (mTiew), 31T 
Expcriniciili on tbe bioad and nar* 

tow gauge, 49 

on tteatj, 9 
Esploiion in a icvvr at Ixellei.lll 
Expoiiiion of nimiufactuKt aii'l io- 

dMttlal an, 30 
Exiraeiion ef copper rrom il« ore* by 

(Icclricilf , 2ud 



Ttfkie of the Britiab Kfoieum, 6i, 

123 
Fxirbtirn'* report of tbe Mc<>ai tvbu- 

lar bridge, 145 
Fill of railway l.rirtg**, 313 
Fall* of Niigaia. luipeDaiot) brid^ 

at, 73 
Farad*;, Prof., on Unio prcH/red 

far fresao painting, 1 17 
7«De)Uatjan ami niuUuwi, 270, 293, 

323 
nbrvii* nairrialt, prepttfingof, Sew> 

ton's pilrnt, 3SJ 
Fietile minafaciure*, potter/ and 

pureekin, 178 
Pillrrer. WilklTiiori'* patent, 322 
Fine Arli, Inttiiule of. n^pnrta, 13 
Fine Alt artliilcaurr, Kerr't Now* 

leafi? dttcour*ct on (renew), 377 
Fire tlaruni, Taylor** pilent, liu 
Firr-enginri, White'i patent, 221 
FitiwlIIUm muieuiD, Caiubriduc, 31, 

103. 120. 16T.3lil 
Fitxwilliam muiniTn. Interior Of. 3(1 
Flnon. ornimenial. IIC 
Forrigri public norlii. 190 

note*, -ai, ZiX .1&9. 390 
Fartifii'atiou*, old, Sticeincat, gnai 

for. 80 
Frane* anri Eo|1aQd, lelegrapUa 

CommunieatEon between, I'iO 
Francii'i. Eleni^, patent gu ippjra- 

tui. 1H3 

Joiopli, patent Iron boat*. 

IM 
Froucb arcbnulagical eongrei), 2IS 

railway*, 43 
Pretoo painiinR, oa Ibe lime pre. 

*«rved for, bj Prof, Ytftiij, 1 1 7 
Frigale*. Dtundea* and Arrogant, OS 
Fuller'* patent dibbling apparBiui, 

355 
Full;*itiet't letter on (h« Au*I *oi. 

(K-aiion bridge, ISO 
Fulton on llic inodiUcalinn anil 

adaptation of tiie Greek order*, 1 17 
Future developmcnl of mcdiKval *r- 

cbitecture, 32} 



Ga* apparaiu*. Francii'i pateni. ling 
burner*. I,ci1ie'> iiateiit. tit 
manufacluie of, Jdurdijib'* pa- 
lent. 62 
purifying of, Phillip'* patnl. 01 
Gailliabauid oo ancient mil aiodcro 

•Tchii«clure (review), lii. us 
Oaltoway't piient for propelling car- 

tiagea, *I 
CarfoTtb'a patent for connecting 

boilera, 2si 
Oate tower, Si. Bdmnnil'* Bary, S3B 
Uaugci, deciaioo «f tbe liavi of 
TraJf on, 210 



GaugM, btnail toil nirrev, cxperi- 
maota on, 49 

Junttien of, IDT 
a.T.'i letter on. 130 
Gauge Gonrniiitioncn, icjiurt of, 74 
cORiiiiiaiion, anahii* of cri- 
denw, i7i>, an,:;:.*, jo9 

Gunlogv, riilwiT, 2H 

Gilei'i, F,. pTopOMi for a tutpen^n 

br>iI)K at the Auit paau^e, I2:i 
Gillard'i |Mteat for Ibe piodoction of 

heat. 320 
Oladiutur iieain frigate, rnginta of, 

UI*ki, Mr. Pcllatt on the Diaoofac* 
turo of, 121 

painting on. 140 
tiUi. Riitieir* patent, 347 
window*, ttainrd, :!^4 
Glua iiaining and elclimg, fkd- 

fnnt't patent. S8-I 
GoHlie'a liuuae. 21)5 
Ouniomelorand ciyiiallnnnine, paper 

on, by Dr. Leetun (retiew), 163 
Coniaiuclrioiin, l^arl'i, 3611 

Galhifl archiirciiire. it>*i>ual of, Paiey 

(rertew). 377 
Gotlile ornament*, by Colling (r*. 

riew), 2hV 
Coirrnon of attain enginet, $iienien'a 

ptteut, 247 
Oreud tUat al tbe Downhill tMMeb. 

2^3 
Gravel, white, 1A3 
Great Britain iteam ibip, 9 
Gioat W«RterD, oew lantmotlve ra- 

Kine, IIM 
Oreener'a p*Ient elecliic lamp, 38S 
Ortenbow'i piiciii railnayi and car- 
riage*, 2il 
Grc^g'* patent bjdroatalie point 

marhine, 2-l6 
Oue«>'* patent for removing add* 

from eintn. 3ilS 
Gun cotton, 3ltC 
Gunpowder, leparl of experiment* 

on, al Waibington, 1 19 
Cuna for old (oililliraiiant at Sbeer- 

Dcu, 90 
Cua ilcanier*, 379 

H 

Ilatl'a puent briclc and tUt macblMT 

Hi 
IlAoil-Uoolcof niappini;, &c. U'llrno 

(n-view), 301 
Hnre'alllUdlraled alnanoo (review), 

Haikuir* aaaiaiant eoginepr'a rail- 
way guide (rrrirn), 371 

Hiiwttinii tfu leitin^ oulcuitlngstuid 
nnibeinkmcDlf, 130 

H»wc,rlb'it patent »lcum enK'HC, O'J 

Htxard'a paper on Ilkp uxpitaMOD of 
sieaiti,mi 

Hrald uu eLitliirtg out railway euric« 
(n^viow),-j(»a 

Hculli'n patcnl bydrautio eafe. 91 

HrniiO); by bjdrotfcu, OilUni's pa- 
tent, S-JV 

Hvnebluf Vpiuviut, 111 

I lcii;b!uti'* patent deelrie leCegrapb 
»l 

llcur>'e. Prvfenor, obHTvation* 00 
THpiiUriiy, 176 

Hiittilub'a (inU'iit rHitwa) i:hainr,0S 

Hill HUd litxWl palrnl fur lubli* 

«'aliR(: lU'cbiupr), VI 
IIiII'b, Jutrph, piti«DC wire gaim 

fur Min'is, 10 
Jubull., patriii for alnraa* 

ptierlc prupuUiuii,s|B 
■■~ " - — — ■ pHitot printing 

pieis, 319 
HliiDkley'voonnecrJDK rode. XtO 
Hind DO Ihc TibrutloQ of tram* in 

luuDcIt, :IU7 



I 



INDEX. 



Hod|litnMb'i apvrlmvDlJi on tk« 

■Inngtbtifciattna (rititwi. IIT 
■ report »■ ihe H«a«i 

iDbvlartirMgp, Hfi 
OollBapnvi on luroiDi; timl tnasipu- 

laliDu CmiEw), ST2 
Hvmt Office. WbiMitll, am 
Hfifhina's patrut rajU n»'l Itam*, PS 
HonlUDlftl tvaicr uhfi-li, lurlxnea, 

&B.I by tiuliliniin (rfiifw). !^()1> 
' wmJiuilU, lipuucl'l 

pfttcni, DO 
But-air inKinr, B«(k'« p*>leDl> M 
Hoatuuf Coniaiooa, (IMitliBti uiilcn 

Uktl reporli. t>I 

HouKPiof pNriinmml, Mr. Baft;'* 
oidi-ucD on, 111 

■ , miiHtknon, tJC 



I 



■ 



— — . ■ ., iccuuj rcporioo 

tll«l'CBtilBtiODof,2l4 

HovranI, llcnrf. on plite gUfi 

■mltinic in K&gUiiil, lUT 
Honaril*!! |itttrul kla-ani rnjiioc cun- 

llrDirtl, I'll 

Mo«t«iil*», I'liomax, paU-Dt for roll* 

iac irao barn, 1 M 
Hash**, Juba, vD raitfiwQtk «a 

■iilvli'iig KruuniJ, 333 
Huxbri'k, Jobn. ULIrt far Ihfciil- 

calwiunnf ranliHoik (rtm«).l3 
Huutttfuiii htuitr, subilily ud 

■miiflli of, 3C3 

HoBliiixiiMt't uUm Tut Ibt eateii- 
Ul>0« «r evdiwvrk, &c. (r«ti«w) 
US 
Hjdratilic f sle, Hfalh'8 pattBt, Bl 
^^^^^ I'aiDl, Uaircn'c (lllio. IM 
I — — - prcs*, didcicutiul, 31(1 
lljiJruulicraui, aolrmtt, SfiH 
Rjrdraalic*. rcMaixbc* in, VtS 



I 



levbcrfs of iJie AUcalk ku, IS 

Ickwurih on (cciairlc* 00 

Itirk for lbs fuf^ile of iJiC Brilieh 

UuMum, 65 
IaUaiiui>», aichitMlural, 160 
ImproteMeauodbe flier Severn, eo 
IpMrpotalcd »!]«■)>, •)iieiiBt( uf, 

SI 
liid»*lrtkl art and oiBuufacturr*, 

eapoiitiua of, SO 
lantM of rwilway InUot, power lo 

atercomeilrSae 
iMtHuie. ArctimloKical. SS 
pfFii»eArimniivrt<i»r.l3 

, Cojal, of Bnliili Arclu- 
Ircta. 37, M, M, IU3, ISH, 1»H, 
X17, 387 
InmiiBiiMiar Citil eaglii»r«,S7 
iMtrutUTDl fur imtiDg ikilnay 
ciirrrt, bj W. Tail. 333 

I>l«T>OI uf lie f ilXWllluiUI MuMuin 

Ml 
lUmlMtor; Note, I 
Iroa liuais. yiaucU't patent Iv 
pruvvinmu in. IM 

.IntrDTcil cupula for metliDKi 

IXI 

, imprmM) BaDufacture of, 

Itotili'a patCKt, US 

.d.tio. Hadd^a patent SM 

IwHTd aind AicreiBt'* ateau engioa, 

M 
iaMud'a patent fi» obtiuuiriK motive 

puwcr, 131 
ItUiBtta uf Pacaaia, esnal aeroo, 

I» 
llalj. Loiih'l Arcliilrclural RecuU 

leclkina of. IBB, 2^:J, ilii, ICM 
larile»i tiploalMi iuseonerat, 111 



Jib, novraUe. tmwa, IQT 
JohntoD'a, lt6b«Tt,iHiiMiir«raliii«t- 

pti^rlc ratlaafa. I4T 
Jiftiiuaii'a. K., |wient Tar imiifjing 

JuiiciiuDof ihe liroad and narrow 
gaagea, 167 



KeatlRic'a patent cencnt, 2as 
KfuIiaIi raijstuoe, 177 
Ktri'a Nenkafe J,*coarMa im tko 
e»<-Brt aKhil«clu(e(n:<'irw), )T7 
Klbj'it patent elMlnc ligbl, UW 



i: 



JaBoa atniBi tbip, H 



Lnke'apatent propetline power, inS 
Lamb oo llie tludica of tiai-trat il,>- 

nip»lic tarthilrdDrc (leview), 189 
Lanilmann'l. Cal., e*tJri><« on iLo 

(EUURV qimliua, XI3 
Laaach uftnutiieani tlitpa at LIvm- 

pIHll, 100 

Lan, iieVT, of compoiiiid molltiti, 136 
LrXning tow»r at I'lM, S'SI 
LerMJo'itUr., paper o(j a nt^ fioiEii- 

■>in«trranc( crjaullunamc, liS 
I.«4llii'* paltnl Ru trarnrn, 231 
LMMDins fttrUaniaclorka, Terrji'a 

paieol, 364 
Letter <iD Barker's mill, v'nk ihc 

rtJttor't rrply. S19 

on Hic Wyalt H'ellingtnn.lU 

Lallert on the ei>lti>alt«n and mii> 

naKeiiitni of flai, Uitkiuu'* (r»- 

ilenJ.XSD 

Letm amJ lOie rbnnli, Holiler- 

Ilea*, by Cbautrill, Ifftt 
I.iHbInii)g nxit.tl 
Lime pfiiBtrveJ fur ttvMo painliaji, 

Pruf. Faraday oc, IIT 
Limet. murtarw, and cpmenls, A ragt) 

uo, S3 
Liniga'a paper uo encanilic paint- 

i«C, SST 
LiTcrpvol, arcbtteclnre in, 5 

, lauecb of |wa aUan (Aipa 
at, 160 

TotTQ-bait ilecoraiiaoa, X4fi 
Local rburvlie*. new, Bl 
Locke'toficleuixuuthe gAngequts- 

liuu, )B9 
Locuinuiive ea^nea, Craniptoa'a 
pauDi, XIO 

, Niabei't paieul. Stl 

, lUyiier'i paltiit, 152 

, Huwe and tiieplien* 

eon'a paleot, tSi 

L"':il«ii, -Sotiety of Art* of, SS, tP, 

ui, U7, ittg 

Londonderry aad ColeniMrailnaf, 

Kranil tilut vn, 2!tt 
LoBKnilct'* patent ilide ta'tea, ISt 
Lonbe'i'a patent fijr liuuiug pitica, 

181 
LubricaliDg machinerjr, Hill aiid 

Dlion't paieul, Bt 
Lunar corrector, Capl. Tliunipsoc'* 

mo 

Lu»1i'a Arcbiteciun.! Orri'llrctiuaa 
«r iUlj, Itfe, UiO, 303, iOU 



Hkchice forprinliag 13,000 Rhecta 

pc( Uuur, 107 
Uachiucr;, lubricallng, Kit] and 

Diaoij't patent, Bl 
Machiaorj Tor niakiog uugura, I*al- 

iDer'a paleai, 16 
MiLbnDell'a eviilcuDo on the (anga 

qiirkliuu.SIl 
Maciulutti'* rroMrki on S(. Mlcbacl 

HeaiiiffF, 319 
MacnuBlil'n patent improrciDratl 

ia Bieain eostnea, 310 



MiRaetic «iipenB«i»la ca nHab, 

tic, Rlurpieno'a pap^r na, 300 
Mail ttfamrr*. inul of. 19b 
Maaibeaief, arrbiirtiure in, t 
MaDoal o( Ooihir architcclure. 

I'aiej (rr»tew), 377 
Maaata<.-<Dra of Utoac, Pdhtl'a 

pap<r oDi 114 
MaDDfarinrea, llelile, pottery ond 

pofcelalo, ns 

and iniluatriai art, «i po* 

alrlon of, 341 
Manuf*, Mu)pnitt*apaleai,(tl 

, leoafe, collecttM of, M, 

Marble-polltbing madiiM.ZJeflai'i 

patent, IB3 
MarblfA, Duudroum. IIS 
Marine eleciric Iflegrapb^ PrrcC' 

"hK'b palcnl. 3S0 
Maauntjilroinlhr Etrlttiefogul ,tt3 

. foalic, 3)1. 3»0 
IilBi*rUI*. b>iue'a urw ibeury of, 

lr>3. »!, 2^7 
M4iLli''i'B|inlrnlaielalticpig|<in9,SSt 
Maliict* fur c«*linK p'luling l)p«, 

Start '■ paleni, 34C 
MaMl»lB)'a palmi pr^prllinf ma- 

etiiaeiy, 333 
Maj'i patent machine tor pumhing 

■od >lie«nag inriat pUtri, 1N4 
Media>raJ arohitrciurr, det-iderala 

(vr Ibe Undf of, bj .N uiinul!ii*.S09 
, fuloft dcvvlvp- 

veat of, 9S5 
Meuai tuliuliir bridge. MrcDglb and 

twm of, lou, iTit, XW 

>irait, tubolw bridge o*«r, 

63 
MHsllic pittoof, Hatber'f pateat, 

IUcIhI*. Adie*a paper on tha earro* 

■iiiti nf, 371 
Melrop»liian brid|r« and Weatnito- 

Bler ioiproitniriil* Oou|lu,8lr 

Honnrd (rctien), 380 
Mi-iropoliian cknrcbca, atw, 17), 

lUl. 300. 
Mitliaol Anitalo, diacovnry of kla 

Hutka, SOS 
Uilltlton uanni caona, MO 
MtH'a patent buffcra, 61 
Hiniiifi (utivyini; inilrutnent, oeie, 

by W. IViKf, 3»> 
M iacellaora, 3 1 , M, 35U, 303 
niudeta of Um Partbaoon, It, 44, 

I^lvdern clmrclirt, derraioriea io, 

Minbiwi. k. 117 
Hodlbculiui, nod adaptfiliikn of dig 

Greek ortieni. H. Fullua, 137 
MuDunent, ^rlwn't. ii, thl 
ftlorderai'aejipenBtnlaoa (aDpow- 

der, II II 
Slvtrit«u'( pateut veuUlalinf atovea, 

184 
Muiu'i paicnt for pnobag banker** 

uuieit, IC 
Mniiun, Biuhfdrlb on the cfannge of, 

lu 

conipnund, new Ian of, ISO 

Motive poner, Ivoard'i |i«lrul, Idt 

Nn*<ii)lh('« patpot, 330 

H ilkioaon'a palcnl, tfi 

Moulding cif Iruo, Mutbel'i paleal, 

X4« 
Moieable Jib craoea, S07 
Mud, •BDd-bara, tic, VeraPJ<n'a 

patent for rriiicKin|[,BO 
Klnllf J and AlawHi'a patent r«r Mik- 
ing BubituDeea from under water, 

IC 
MuJljuaou prat bojt (review), 337 
Uiirctiisuu'i, S\i U., addrcM to tho 

Itiiiirh \*H>ci«lion, 313 
Alurdoth'a paiebt fM tU« nuau^o- 

■ureof put, 03 
Uurdock'* piteot file Uia preparft- 

Uwngf paint, S30 



lii 

Hnaenm, Britiah. Tacatle of, idea 

for, B, 6&, 133 
Hritiib MuHan, aicidHaof Partke- 

nnti in, 14.44 
Mnnuni, Piixnillinin, at CaaB* 

bridge, 31, 103, 12H, IfiT 
tmrrknof, 3fil 
Unaliet'a paleot ht DMuldloe !r«a, 

34« 
Mnapratt'a pntani maoure, 61 



Naimrili'B pnlent for obtaiab^ 

■uutirn pgwer, 330 

Narji of tba Eaai India Companj, 

IB 
Nelacin'a Monnmeoi, 55, 1B7 
Neville on ibc pm»utc of retalaing 

wall*, 136 
Ncwca**)e Pbila4vpbk%l Sociuii 3 1 
Nam chureb*«, loesl, Bl, 190, Ml 
New jnnioRipier and cryatultoaome, 

103 
Mew law tif compound Diotlua, ISO 
Newleair diBouurset oo tl>e Buc art 

lu-cbiireiure. Kerr (review), S77 
Kew kxka at nnalol, partial d«> 

alrucli-innf, 3H3 
New lucomuiiie engine, ibe Great 

Mrtlrrii. I»H 
New ineiinpulllan cburchct, tTI, 

Nvw iiiiiiioK Bortcjiug iaattuDitnl, 

W. P-ac«, 336 
Nrw pianel, 311,360 
New ibeiir; of (b« atreaelb of 

maletiala. (1. Bjnie, 103. 331, 

tiT 
Newton'* patent apparalua fur pre- 

l>ariii(( liiirDua n>ami«l», 3HJ 
N Ingara, falb *f^ BU»p*Bkioo toidj* 

at the, 73 
NlcliuliHin, Peter, on tbc oblique 

airli (review). 73 
Mabri'* patent lucomotlit anglur, 

in 
Konuultii* on ntediaval arebilee* 

ture, 300 
h'oriolk rulnaji, ncckleota oa, 91, 

&3 
Nute book, Candida's. Pateicfllaa 

LXVIII. LXIX. LX.\, LXXl, 

134, 333,363, 337 
Note, iairodiictor} . t 
Note*, baakera', Mu(is*s patent for 

printing, 10 
Nvlea un enicioeerins. Noa. IV 

and V, on the ttiTeaglli and form 

of Itic Menai tabular bndgc, I UO, 

1T3 
Note*, foreign. 83S, 323, Sa». IVO 
Nutri of Uie nionth. IZT, liO, 191, 

323, 3a», 3B1, 831. 300. M9 
Netca 00 ibe bydnuljc ram, Itt 



O 



Obliqne areb, Lrealite oa, by Patar 

NicbulMto (review). 73 
OtMervaimna on rapillnrit^r, 170 
Oeeiu vraieo, Walk'f uu, 109 
OKicc'e propuul fur a f;<ncral nn- 

trupoliiau ruilwfl) (ri^vic-w), aeu 
OpeiB HuDH', (l«.f>raiic>ut u(, (IB 
Unien of Ibe (irrrki, t'utton a«' 

tbc inodifii:iition and adaiilailoa 

of, 137 
Ore*, copper. Bankarl'i patent for 

rvtoiun, 130 
Orea, reiluctitiu tif, Tower'* palaol, 

»l 
Oiiitin and rrclamalioo of pent bog, 

Mullina on (rcilon). 370 
OiiMincBial llu>«rs, 216 



Paddle-box boftia abaadonnd^ 73 



■ 


INDEX. 


^^^^B 


^M Palming «n nl*", I4T 


Patonl* — {.-on/iNkcd ) 


I'ateBiA— ( MM /> a Kfd. ) 


Problrmi IB plane eurrtyiag, Vlsi^l 


^H I'alt!^'* mnaiMl nf Uulkie areliilftc- 


Rriek U)d Ills naehiDe, Hall 


Hallways and carriagu, 


dex's letter, too ^^| 


^B lurr (nr»irw),S1T 


m 


Graeabuw. 389 


Proceedinft* of ■clentilti! aaeMicf^^l 


^H faliner'M, W^ maiMplMrto railmy. 


Bnllaro. tthtj, CbMablra, 


RaiBinit tvliiiancea fruni un- 


27, U. M, 133. no, lnH.Ue,3ST ■ 


H 


t6i 


der nsler, Mulley and Muno, Iti 


Academy. Bojal, 10(1, ig:i 


^H J.i paloat auKwr atofaine- 


Uuffsri forrnilvrayctnlacea 


Itolliiig iron ban, Hotrard, 


ArcbKulogicalcungret*, Frencb 


■ 


MiU*. fil 


1S4 


218 


^H P«T>«r *Uieia|{, PollAr** palMl, IM 


IViuMil, Krialiae, SHS 


Ship buiUing, Boydell, U3 


ArebiMlcigieal In»l)(iitc. 69 


^H Parii, Kfljal ObinrvBlorj of, M 


Cbiuney dranjsbt, Walaon, 


jiri>p«U*ri, Parliiur, 321 


ArehllecU. BHttih, Itujal Ia> ^ 


^H Pariak churcbM, Ate., br MMtrs. 


Xil 


Slide riiiiF*, Lougndge, ld3 


Stiliilf of, 37, SS, 84, I33,1&S^I 
164,3)7.367 V 


^B Brandon (rcTieir], lit 


Cbimiivr pot*. P.<rart, lU 


&lulr« rutki, Ualler, 319 


^1 Pariibar*l't patent fur pn^elliag 


Caku 01 eo, Cburcb, itX 


SUioiog and cicliiug glui. 


Alt, Deeunlire, Society of, SO, H 


^B >mnI», IH 


Coking aniAcial fiwl. War- 


Bedfonl, Stsl 


IM '■ 


^H Pirianr'a paient ship proptllon, 23t 


licb, K>s 


Ktexm engine condtiiaen, 


A rta, Floe, lnt>titgt« at, -IS ■ 


^H Panay'a air anciBv, 107 


C-ixnbining enal and preMr*- 


Howard, SS3 


A riR, Iloyal hFoKiah S.icioij of. .^| 


^M P«r1fctnoa, nodcit of. 1 1 , 4 1 , 8S 


log woiti!, Rauaonw, IQ 


Steam eogine improremaols. 


39, as, HO. VJi. 15(1. 25ft ^M 


^K .(nUaUnnd uiIih vvrml 


Cotnbioine atec4 and jnui. 


McNaugtil.:^«U 


Art*, SiMLiely fur ilin F^cno- 


^^^ liaen «Jf, by F. P. Fcorw*. 97 


SandertuD, Ibtt 


tiieaia eogitim, Haworlh, 03 


rasoBicnl of, M, 67, »», 134, U7, 


^^^H Patf nta, Aucricwt. •peciBcftHaaa of 


Couticciiiic bollcrt, tiarforUi 


Sleaniaogiac*,U«[Un»oD,ft!Jl 


IBS ^ 


^^H M,ltPS.Slfi,»9e 


9&] 


•ad propel ten. 


Brltl»h AMociatiaa, SOt, SII. ■ 


^^^^ AuTillniy MMra anglaM, 


Copper ofns, Baakari, 1!HI 


P«A0 aad C[i., 217 


Ml ■ 


^F Coehraoe, SM 


I>«cor*tkiB of hoUMt, B«x, 


Sleani trogiur* and prnpellerB 


Chemical Society, Ifl9 H 


■ anut. Camo. ms 


3SS 


Seaitard. 384 


College for CjvilF.Dgineerri.SSO ^M 


^H Brick -nialuog ftvtt, Waito, 


DibbliDg apparatus, Fuller, 


Steering apparatus, Clark 


InMliution of tlitfo, ST ^M 


■ 1S3 


S3S 


kadPiraic,l6S 


Procee^iagaof ratlnay cammKlee*, H 


^B Carriage-nlieel*, Scripture, 


£I«cln« coailucturt, Vcuof , 


Slu<e«, Searle, 130 


93, 130 S 


■ SIS 


S19 


Ttmiiilig, V> arrittgtati, 3BS 


Pmfetaiuoal eduonUon of ibe sogl- H 


^H OoDDMling-rada fu cruilu, 


lam^, Gre«ii«r, 26S 


Tile*. Meifef. 61 


neor, ttc, tH3 H 


^m HiDcklcr, lue 


llghi. King, 330 


Veulilatiuo iif iniiiea,Stra*t, 


Pn>pBlli»ni, i'lricMon'* pnlnnt. 388 H 


^H Coupling and aluBhig-box, 


telegrapk, HtighUio, 


SBI 


Pbleger'i pair-Hi. }<jO V 


^H Loprr. 91) 


m 


Wire Ubrlc* for blind*, Hill, 


PtvpelliuK ou canal* and railHay*. 


^H Cufceat irMcr-nhccI) Qobin- 


Eicavatinc mKbiot, PooIbi 


18 


Taylor auil Cundor'* pateul. Sit 


^B iMi, W 


aio 


Zine paint, Murdock, 330 


Propolliof power, Luke* patrol. U3 ^ 


^M F<tl(liag«lie«i«>«UI,R««,3Sa 


Fl)i«r«r. U'>lkio(OD,23ll 


Peaoe'a uuw mmiug turrnying lo- 


veM<!lB, l'AikUut*i'» iiaivui, H 


^^^^ Iliirizualal wind-iBilii;, U«b- 


Fire alariiiD,Tajlur, IM 


•Iruuieul, 330 


IM ■ 


^^^B DO 


•nBlne*. H'hile, S31 


Pcllaii uu ibc nianufnclureorgUas, 


Propotal Fur a general mi>in>polliaD H 


^^^V HjilraaIicg«le,Kraih,9l 


Gaa apparatus, Fr&ncJa, 185 


134 


railway, tigier (reTiew),3e9 H 


^V paial, U'arrrn, IHl 


buraers. Lfallr.atl 


P«na, Harlreu, and MaUbcws'a lot- 


ProMar'a luelliuid uf projccilog cir* ^| 


^H Bf droitAlic poTTtf nacblue, 


■uanufiiclurc, Murdocb, 


pruveiuemi in tleam cugiac* aud 


clea, 41 ■ 


H Cre;s. *I6 


SB 


pcopellm. 347 


Public hiiildlogt, Eutjake od lbs H 


^H Iron boftU, Francia, IB4 


pitrtf;ir>g, P>iillip«,6l 


Peiiru»p, un tlie ealasit, fcc. of Uia 


painting uf, 113 ■ 


^H LvBspiiiDg rricliiMi iu eJutki, 


Ji>h(iK>a.2IJ3 


Parlbeutm, 97 


Public wurki, fojTlgn, IDH ^M 


^B Terry, 3hU 


CluatU«t,DaMiel. S17 


Peraetara patent marine electric 


Puocbiiii; Bud nljenrmg muial plates ^M 


^H Liibneaiiac macbinery, Hill 


UovoriMra of shMin eagiaca, 


telcgrapli, 360 


May's pntciit, AHO ^M 


^H andDiKnn, 01 


Siemcn, !1I9 


Fefoliel's el E oieals of pbysicB, 


Purifyiutt goi, Julia«on'» iialcut, 3H3 


^H Uarbli) potiahiog Bacbini', 


HvBliug bj hjdnigea, Uil- 


Pan II. (fetieur), 359 


Putney, culleg* for uinl eugiuccra 


■ Zlegkr, I8S 


lard, StfD 


Piuilivu.St. Micliael'subumh at,OT 


at. 3^6 M 


^M Matrlma for caaliog prialing 


Dotair onclDM, Baggii, 9S 


Pbillipi'* palonl Tor purirjtug gas. 


■ 


^1 type, Siarr. IBS 


lroninana(iiclurt>, Htraill, SH3 


61 


■ 


^H Priatiu^ preoni, Stvtoo, 184 


Iruo monuracture, Budd, HO 


PbiloEupliical Society, Newiia«ttt,S 


„ . . I 


^H Frupelion, EncMon, SM 


LdcooiuUvo taginse, Craotp- 


Phleger'a patent [iropclli-r, 380 


Quality of the lime preserved Tor H 


^H Propeller*, I'lilc^cr, ift6 


ton, V30 


PUa, leania^ toner <I, lUH 


frvvcv palnUdg, Prof, Fnradai uo, H 


^H Itailroaa Iruoki, Itaj, IR4 


Nisbai,9SI 


Place of K^ypt In the history of Ibo 


117 W 


^H BnluctioQ of orct, Tow«rs, 


Rajner, 1S3 


Morid. iiunien [review^, 111 


Qunrledy papers on engiooeriBgi 


■ 


Sleplii^tuuii and 


Planet, new. 331. 300 


Wvale's (ravicw), 39,343 


^H Reraoriag acid* from clatb. 


Hoire,28S 


Plate gUu making in England, 197 


^ 


H Oumi, IM 


Manure, Muajiratl, (It 


Plale-iroa cutler, K couiagtou'i 


■ 


^H BcBoTiiig tDuJ, aaod, tie., 


Mqrin* elvvlna tclfgrapb, 


paieni , 3M 


■ 


^m Vermilion, oo 


Perce ral, HHd 


Playfuif UDd De La Beehe on nc- 


Ilainilone, Kentlth, 17T ■ 


^B^ S^triy i«I*««, Ra«b, ISI 


MntnllicplttonN. MalliAf, SSS 


pluiiuna in collierien, 211 


U-iila and irant, Huiikio'a pal«ot, H 


^^^^L Huaiii cogtae, Pomcrvy, XlU 


Mol[ve pi)ivpr, [lUBnl, isl 


djiiu DO tbu iiippreasion of 


9S r- , ^ 


^^^H TllhxiDllill, ftoKH. tM 


^ll!>l1l;tb,3]ta 


sniokr, 1 !lfl 


Railway bridges, fall of, 353 ■ 


^^^^'^ Tinning pipes, I^nber, let 


WilkiRKin. 132 


Plymuutb, Cliriit's charcbat, 9,00, 


bulTcrs, nafeiy, Cliessture'a 


^r VcnliUltng pipe*! MorrLtos, 


Moulding ur iraa, Mii»)iel 140 


e8,i(H:, H9 


patent , ttu 


^^^ 164 


Paper eUiniog, Poller, StO 


Plymouth, royal oafal steam yard 


carriage*, Brandliag'a patent ^ 


^^^B ll'ater gatet, Rablnaon, Pt 


PUtpand Hlieet ir«rt cutler, 


ai,3l7 


ISO M 


^^^P H ul» wliMin, liifiilli.IK) 


WaaninRioo. Sft4 


PoEueriiy'* paleat trnprfl-ramrnta in 


earriagfl wbeeU, Bouk's H 


^^^ PaldUa. EaiEliili, tUU of. Si. et. Oli 


Prrpariog litimua mnlerialB, 


tbe ilniin engini.-, VUi 


pticfflt, 310 ■ 


■ MS. lao, VJl,2U,2tia,i92-,yit, 


Ncwun, atiS 


Poole's patent ctcamtiog mackioc, 


chain, Highlon'i patent, 93 ^M 


■ MO. 3oa 


Priiiliug pr«a*, Hill, 319 


319 


eucTcsilnstrumeai fur tracing ^M 


^B I'aHDt*, rrgiiter of apccilleatlDDa of 


baiikw'a nutc*. Moat, Id 


patent railway rail*, IBS 


Ha ■ 


H BFiK, 16, 01, 91, ll!i>. I3», tU, 


ProMlllog <M railia«]r* and 
CtaRli, Tnjtiw and Cundor, 251 


Pope'* patent railway lifting appft- 


onrrej, K»tttDg out of, 900 V 


H xis, U4a, ass, u». a&s, sss 


ralua. 3M3 


staking out of. Htald 


^H Alum asd aluinliioua eom> 


Propetllog mncbioeiv, 


Port of Uublin, impruTement* of, 


(retiew), 3US 


^M poutid*. Cliff, »f 


Uaiidii)ax,]U2 


IS) 


curve*, Talt on, 380 ^M 
[cology, 318 ^M 
ifting apparalu*. Pope's pa- ^^ 


^U AnraUnjc railnaf carriage*, 


Prvi'clliag puwcr, Lake.lM 


Potter*! paleal lor paper staining, 


H Crawfijrd, led 


Propolluig rcitda. Park- 


ISO 


^M Atmoapbcria cDziDo, AUia, 


biir*t. IM 


Power to OTercnme tbe inertia of 


teol, 1»43 


■• ISS 


PuDchlngand abtwiog metal 


irawi us railways, IM 


map of England and Wales ^ 


^B Atiiui«)b«rlcprapukloD,.HUI 


ptat«*. May, |S4 


Poyutrrop tlaiiird gUns nindotta 


(review j, 170 ■ 


■^ ns 


Haila«Dd lram>,IIopkliU, 9a 


io 8aiote Cliapellc, I'Arit, 131 


Norfiilk, ftcrid«ota on, 51 H 


^^^K Aimoapheric nUlwajr, Jobn* 


Railway cerrutgeo, Braudliug 


Pracliso of selling outiailwayi,S19 


proceeding*, 93, lie ^M 


^^H UT 


160 


PreMur* on retaining walla, 199, 


raits, Poole'* paloat, 185 ^M 
Ilouen aud llatrt, fall of a ^M 


^^^B WLfvler, US 


oarringe wheels, Bo- 


1S& 


^^B 01 


cek, X46 


PreatuD, >ub»d*iico of viadiel at, 


viaduct c>n, A4 ^M 


^^^F Palmfr, 93 


obuira. Highton, M 


133 


aleepprs, subsfiluto far, 315 H 


^r Augur-iDaldogainehiiie,Ptl> 


lifting apparaiiM, 


Principles of church resloralloii, 149 


aUlMtics, 3110 H 


^^^^ mer, 10 


Popc.3EiS 


Pdultog pms, lllll'i puleot, 319 


>n*penslua bridge, Ruasal'a H 


^^^^^ 


rails, Pool<t ISO 


Sastoa's paieol, 164 


patent, 10 ■ 



INDEX. 



Sslltray mini, MMtJA of, IfB 

litickt, R*t'« paUnt, 184 
Bailnajf, ■nklcamniioa «od kuinf 

BtlsiM, 17 

l>atfB[, MS 

FreMb, U 

iDcorpormttit, iinopiu of. 11 
prtclkf of KlUDg out. U7 
L'niicO Sum, •! notk, SI 

OoBof. Bllcbi* {re<i#«). ITS 
BkilliiK ib« »plr« of a Bhureti, 41 
lUBMtDt't pattDt furcoalB soil wuml 

IS 
KcMrkk's CTiJrDre ua Ibe eb°S* 

quMilsa, SIS 
BalUrrtlrani >bip, ]9 
Ba^Mr'* p^eut locomoliie engine, 

1»2 
naji'i iMtenl raJIwnr Irurk*, 1S4 
UcKFUi's Piuk, CJuJoMum in.C 
Bcgialer «r new pitrntt, lU, fil, Ul 

l», ) Jt, lU, 916, 240, ItfS, sao, 

Btmotit)|; mcida fran eloUi,Gu«M'a 

palcei. SM 
BrtiBir'*, Sir J., f aliTprraiilnrfl. SIS 
Bnrarchtain tiydrktillfi.. IZS 
BcvtonticB of cliuichra, &1, lAi 
■claiainz nalli, prtrusra ou, 106, 

Bcturn of da(l«« on btirk*, 160 
B«<i«w of a KvlfWFr, as 
BniewB of booki— 

ArrowKulik ud Baiirt's 
nilnaj nap, 17fl 

Anlaaa CJub Mraa cegiae, 
18,109 

Blolr aod Pblllipi, on lh« 
cOBilruciion or liuducii, fit.. 13 
BniBiloD, Mta«ni.,(>npaiiah 
ciurcha*, lit 

Bnnimi't pbc« of Enjpt in 
Iba hitlorj of Ibe «i«rld, IT4 
B^mr'* byni«ftnph, 2BS 
CuUe'ttlemenUi; IcU book 



SM 

set) 



11 

SS9 



ColliPt'a fOlhIc flrnaincDU, 
CosipAoion to Ibo almaDae, 
Crwd)*! eicaialiun lablc. 



Darbjahire'a table for rail> 
naj carrrii, t&9 

Dicksoo'a culti^otiuD and 
mwif;((ii«Di of dm, 280 

lJoBj;l«i, Sir It., on mttro' 
pollUn trMJite*. &c., 2»A 

Ilrunmimil'a firet itopi to 
aaakoiijr, 14 

Oailbabaad'* andfnt tod 
a<N}'ra arcbilrctarc, 13, IS* 

tl4re'i iliuMmicil nlniaiiBC, 
1< 

HaalcuH't aui rianl ragiuoer** 
nilmjr cniili:, ITI 

Hcald'N Tail»B]> curvM, SOS 

HodgkiatM** rcaMrcfaca ea 
out ir»B.3l7 

HollBapflel** laniia^ and 
inaDipulaiiiin. 37:1 

Mustek'* ubln for Ui« cal> 
cnlalinnj of rarlhutoik.TS 

HunliDKton'a ditto, 1SS 

Keri't Nawlcaf* ditMintl 
OB arnhitf^lur*, ST7 

Lanli't siiKlIn nf nneipnl 
dooMliG arcMlKlure. lUtt 

Mullinson peal tmr. SJT 

NifboUon'fl tieatiM oa iha 
aUi<)uc vcb.fk 

tigiri't p«»poi4l for a K^oa- 
ral miimpolitan raltwaj, St>V 

Ptlrj't nuiDVul of Uolblo 
ftTcbilrclnra, 3(7 



Befiew*— rn>(tir«mt.) 

I>icht-t'> vlenetiU of pbji' 
tM, Part 11., SM 

Riilwar alainaMi, 14 

Bcpir •» obMttatioM on Um 
report cf ibc gauge coa-ioiMMA- 
era, IS 

Beplj lo obBrnatioDa on in*- 
liopolltao britlprm 3J9 

Bltdnc'iifallwMjti, ITS 

RuhlnaB on botuonlal walrr 
wbNit, SOS 

Varlcy'i, Mrs., fVgiDt«r'a 
BBDUal, 37S 

fleulo'i qDanerly paprra, 
S9, XOS 

Wlllls'a, Prof., ■fckllrctural 
bitlor^ of CaambiVTcalbedtd, 
SS7 

Wilme'e baod-book of nap' 

piDK. aoi 
Rhere— 

Allegbaaf , iiupcBBkni aquv* 

dact over, 47 

Cljdr, trualec*' report on lb« 

mtit qiiFflion, M 

lthiiie,aBrllercii* land of. 159 
Srtera Inpiottmrnii. SO 
Bobiniun'* paitiit ctixirnt waier- 

whter,tl« 
Bobibton's F«t«ot for oppniog asi 

clotlDji nalrf pair*, 01 
RodR, lifthlBleg. 31 
Boe'* pairnt uiKlilBe far foldiag 

ilifCt niplal. S&O 
Belling iron l«n, Huvtard'i palcal, 

1H4 
RoJli(ii«D*» patent ilfiiB ragioo.S$4 
Itoman remain* *t Cokbraler, IW 
HiJin*, Ibe Baiihca ut. 2tt9 
Bom'* |iArem tide niilli. 00 
Uuuro and H>irp Kailwajr, fall of 

a (riadoct nn, i4 
B(i>al Acndeinj, oliibiliocs at, IW 

19S 
Uoyal caminiuiooera' report oo Ibe 

paugf>, T4 
Ruyal Kidiaiige.ZH 
Bnyal IntitKuU: of RrilJkh ArchU 

tend, 87, S3, 64, I9S, IfiS, 1«6, 

S17, 867 
Bojal MTkl iteain fard, PljmaaD), 

SI7 
Royal ObterTatory of Pari*, 96 
Boyal Scoiliah Society of Aita, 3^, 

ai, 80, ISS, ISO, SM 
Bliblmanoi) borimatalnaler-wh«cIa 

(r*>U«), 200 
Buncnm lunprniUin briitge, 7 
Ruib'ii iisirul lufrly *alvr«. IM 
Buueir*,J., pairnc i!la» lilri, 217 
H., railway aiitpeuauiD 

brldico, 10 
Biialic Maicory, 9S4, SSO 
Bu*tieatitio, Cuididui ea, 98B 



S 



SaorlttJea, H 

Sacrow ocor FoUdan, cbnrch at, 

161 
Safety Tnlvns, Kuiib'a patent, lU 
Saint Hotolpb'*, church, KoiIiid, 

LinciiUibicp, iraliif il icin nf, 33S 
St. Cbnprllc, alaiacd floH wludQwa 
in,iai 

P^niii, calbedral of, 9 
Eilnundit-Bary gate towtr, 938 
Jninct'a. Ulii 
Michiil llcaTilrrr, 319 
MicbnrtV. Pitnlico, 07 
Savioar't, Vcrk, rMtarati«D of, 
SUV 
SaDdrmoa'a patent for eaabioinj 

tt»«l and iron, 186 
Sbo(I)«'i iJifa«rUitiuu on Prof. VQ. 
lia'i btituiy of Caulcrbury catbe- 
ilral (review), ibi 



SaxlBM'a paltBl prlaiiiig prMli, IBS 
ScitaiiSc •ocleifea. proceedinfca of, 
ST. K, B4, IIS, 190 IM, IM 

Str«w Hojwllrr (paiml Uw ca>r), 

WoodcruftrSaiilb, IIT 
Scr»wprvp«llert andt^dlewLrcIa, 

compartMO of, 340 
Scripttirr'a paifut <«tri«g« wbeels, 

S4S 
Stailc's paltcl iloir. ItO 
ScawaiO't pnirnt alrnnirogim aad 

projifllrrB, ZM 
S*lf-rfgi»l(r>Dg iDslrtitneaf, S(t 
Scniper, atcbitect of UtMdiu Gal- 
lery, I8S 
Setting o«l cuttiagt and tmbaok- 

■BCDta, ISA 
SetOog oat milnaj canrn, 300 
Sewage manijcc, coDccliou of, 8S| 

US 
Hewef al Iiie1l«a,«tpl«ifoii in. Ill 
Sbarp lui llie mlorBliun uf 81 !)a- 

>ltiur*» cburili. lorli, Ht9 
Sbecroeiis. itunn for ibe old ioctlfira> 

lioni at, 8» 
SbfM metal, marhine for foldio^t, 

Itoe'a p*ieril,S«6 
Sblp building, Bujdeiri paieol tm- 

ptuvtinenia in, IbS 
Sbip proprllrt!', Parlciii'a patcsl, 

331 
Siroirn'* patent go>tni<>r, S47 
bktxt anh an otd iii«enii<ia, IIS 
Skew areb, Nicbolion'a liaatiae on 

(review), 71 
filkle •all r*. Loniiriilgr'n ratrnl, ) A3 
Slnice cockii, U allrr'* pairiii, 2];i 
Smelling wilb •uthciciic coal, 3lC 
i>aiiiU oa ll>c lila»t furiiucc, IJ4 
!^iDilh'» patrol nalcr wbeeli, VO 
Smoke, tupprrMion uf, IDA 

Talueof, IdN 
Sa<iety of Art*. Loodno, iS, S7, S9, 
124, ia7, 160 

Rnyal Scvttuli, 30, 
B&, 8D, iss, isa, :iSB 
Dociety, Clivmical, I !t9 

ol liKoiallie Arl,S6,l90 
of Vtac Arik, 42 
, PbUoMptiical, uf Neitm- 
Ue,ai 
SUbililjr and atrengib of Hungcrford 

bridge, 3&3 
Stained gbu* windawt, in Silata 
Cbapellc, ParU. 131 

St. Janiea'i, 264 
atWooiwich. 204 
Staining and ttcliing g1ai«, Uedford'i 

puteot 361 
Silking tiutralloaycunu, Btaliim, 

SUading Urd#r* of th» Hooae of 

Comiueii). 93. 94, 352 
Starr'i paieni nxiricot lor cutlng 

printei'i Ijpai, 3it0 
Steering apptuvua, Clark ud Flinie'a 

piteiit, IM4 
S^m. cxperiinenta on, 9 

engine, Art iua Club (nilaw), 
38, 203 

Daworlb'i patent, 62 
laoird ud Uerdtt'i 
pattal,S8 

Pomerof '■ pat«nt, 24C 
&t*Nauchri patent im- 
provtnionla, 2l6 

oondenaert, llowanl'i 
patent, 3S3 

Rqllin*»Ei'tpa(«nt,3S4 
SUtm fngine* and propdlna, i'enn 
and Co.'* (ulent, 2l7 

Scawvd'a 
patent. 2S4 

factor; in Anierica, 208 
navigation, Kill, 2(17 
retadt, Uiittih tad Acociiai), 
26S 



SUan Teaie]*— 

BluM Carrr, IQS 
Daiiatleii. tl6 
Gladiator, 193 
Gicat Bittatn, 9 
Janui. 11 
Ratikr, li 
Tciribit, 137 
Steam »pauuuD, tiazvd'kplpo m, 
381 

na*igitI«D, 3'!). 391 
Sleam.jard at Plymuuib, 117 
St«|ibeiuon'«, Rubnrt, report oB iba 
■(cidenton the Norfolk nllwi.c.SS 
eiLdcace on tbe giug* 
qncition, 179 

luhalar bridge, Fali- 
baini't irp<»n on, 14& 

Uodgkio. 
•o&'i report on, 146 
Plepbenwn, Grurge. and H««e^ 

paieni lui-ocDbliie enginr. 20S 
Sto«Fi, Scatio'i patent. 120 
Stimgib and form of the Mnial 

tubular bridge, 100, 172 

Sltrujlli of materiil.i. Ibcuty of, 204 

Stiengib and itrcii of nMleiitIa, new 

iJieary of, by Olivet ByiM, U3, 

231, 2;.; 

Stime'i patent for teniilating ninu, 

321 
Sludiea of iDdftit domeitic irrbl- 

teciare(r«t|r«i). 199 
SiurgMn'tmagoelicn perirarn la, 206 
Slylea and mctbod) of p•intl^g. 112 
Kulwidtnco of tbe Priitua tiadsct, 

135 
Snlwiilule for railwij t}tfptn, 213 
Su(i4ylag, Ingonotnetrical, pro* 

btemt in. 272 
Sutprminn aqueduct over the AUeg* 

brnj-, 47 
Sniptaiiun briilge acroM the AoU 
(laMtge, FulljkiDCi'a icmiiki on, 
19(1 

at tbe An«t pMHge, 
Gllea OB, 199 

at Ike falU of NU. 
gara, 73 

at Runcorn, 7 
Rnxir* patetit, 10 
Syaopab of buildugi in Eduiburgb, 8 



Tkbta of BritUb tnd An«ri(«n iletn 

leatel*, 268 
Tab'e of tbe railvajn «| work In tbe 

United Slalo. 31 
Table iliooiag me coctentii of rxca> 

laliona, denied from \tr. Itiddrt'i 

forunla. It Crctdv (rcrien), -.'fj 
Taiilci far tttting uat curict on rail* 

waj^*, by l)arby>hire (re*i<*),:l89 
Tablet to facilitate the ealralationn 

of eanhnork, by J. Ilughta (i«. 

*ie«). 73 
Tabira and nilu for facilltallBg ibe 

calnilution* of canbwoik, Ac., bf 

IIuiiliii|i;((io (levicvj, IA& 
Tait oa nilvtay eurrc), 3il 
Tait't initmwoat fit tradsg railnay 

caitea, 339 
Tinned eoavai, Millet t'l conmirakA* j 

tinnt UD. 310 
Tanning, Warrinstffin'a piltnt lor, i 

Taylor and Cutidet*i patent for priN 

pelling, 251 
TacWa paicut flrealanrm, 120 
Taylor oa the terapwatara of tbo 

carlfaaod aea, 110 
Telegrapbie connaaieMioa betVMB 

Kruee ud Bnglaod, 160 
ToEoperttun of th« eattb and aw, 

110 



•1 

Ttmlile, wu atcanwir, 127 

Ttrn't ptteal far lencaiog Cricttoa 

in doc^ 380 
Tbwry n* tin web, BUlf Md PhU- 

lipfc 151 
Tkaory of tl>« MfDaE'ti of tniudili. 

ThMty (iia«1. of itt< itrtRiiIi tnd 
Mrvu fif EuttoriaU, 0. B;rnc, 163) 
231. 2i; 
niuiD(n'jD'> lun" conoclor. 160 

nuoti, ua 

rr^di mm*. Rom'i p>l««i. 9D 
Tlt->n«k'"8' II'"""'''' ?•""*, 316 
TVt oiMhin*. Weikf'i pwenl. C3 
Tmnmg ii>;w», I^wber'* ip«tent, 181 
Tawtf't vutnt (ot ihe rediiciion ot 

Tr^Mwle >nd arcuate araiiitecture, 

3fil 
TractliM, atinoiiihtric. 99 
Tract* o« ¥Dk»ituB», 'I 
TrUl of Ih* ehtKD*! ««ain«n. 239 

mail ilcantn, 196 
ItfigOMmetricml innreiftpf , probknvi 

in. s:i 

TsbuUr bridge over the Uenai »lml, 
M. 100, 172. 2flfl 

rAUburn'* r«port oo, 

14S 

lIodgkiiHoa'a report 

W.14G 

Turf. «»»p«if»ii»« po«w rf. 2ft 
Tu/nt»^ tvl maniputatioa, Uolt- 
Eip(r«l on (rciiew), 372 



INDEX. 



V 



V 



tnmoMrttw, Krtifloial, $S 
UniiitliAiliicM ta arehiwctiirf, IflS 
United SUiei. tibl* of Uie nula«;i 
at work in, 31 



Value of tmoic, 148 

VtHrr't, Un., eogtaaef't manaali 

376 
VeoUklinn of the lIotuM of Pailia. 

in«a(. Mcond rrport on, 'Jit 
Vtolilaiing inlnM, Stnite'i palcnt 

fur. 32 1 

ttovc*. MonltoD'a p^ 

leal. IM 
JetwYian'% pilcat fit remaiiog Buid, 

Mid, Ur*. Ac, 90 
Vctuviut, iMigkl of. 111 
Viaduct, fall of, ad lb* Boeon aftd 

lUira mlws;, ^4 
Viaduct at frcuon, uibtideDoe of. 

Viator on atcliitoclaral competilioa, 

131 
Vtliriiion of Inintia tunoeUr Ilind't 

TOpot oo, 247 
Vioo of ■ rerioworj bS 
Vignollu'i •Tl4*ooa an tb« fj^gt 

quMtioD. 114 
Vioilet'* loiter ou eompaiilioa d*- 

■ipi*. 290 

problenu ta plaM 

aurtefiof , 300 
VolcHvca, &C.J tracta «0| 71^ 



Waite'i palMit brieli-Riafciar »r«M, 

193 
Walker on ocmii warn, 109 
WalJer'i pai«nt tlniM oo«k*. 219 
Wartl'* paicDt atiiii>i]ih«rlc nilwa]', 

91 
Warlirh's patml fori, 384 
Warinnff haulage on onaLi, Sfifl 
WfttTcn > patent lifdraullc p«iui, 181 
Watriogton'B paccal Tor tanning, 'J85 
Walrf'^alM, Roliinitoo'* patemt, 91 
W»t*r- wh»*U (_rantM], Kobinton'a 

pateui, yo 

Smith'i patent. 90 
Wation'* paicot dilmntj draught, 

WoTot of tbe ocean, Walker on. 109 
W«al«'* (iatTttt\j rkpen oa cagU 

OMring. 39, 2V2 
W«lr» acroM lirtn, f*portt oo, 84 
n'eller'i patent [ilea, 63 
Wenuitigion* paienl [lUteand (beei 

iron cuttBr, 284 
WctiiQinttTT biidfc, report on tho 

|ir«>eiii *taie of, 27 H 
Weiiminsier liriilge, 3S7 
n'bile oo volconuei, &c., 71 
Wliilc'i, JobD, pttenl £ro oitaine, 

321 
Wbiie gravel. 152 
Wbeeter** patrat Umotpheric ralU 

wiy. 252 
VIghivIck on the cleruloriei Id mo- 

dera cburclica, 14<J 
Hfilkioian'i, David, paleut noUtro 

power, li2 



aitefw, ^1 



^l^klnoo'i, Joafili, patent 

Williua of Wrktbuh arcliitcotunl 

notioM of. 318 
VUlUnH on Ui« evauoratcic power «t 

lurf. !4> 
Wilme** band-book of nappliig, kg, 

(rowiew). 204 
Winilmtll*. lioriioDtal, UeoiLet'* p*- 

tent, 90 
VTiodoifi aad feae*tration, 270, 293. 

329 
Winiinw-nouldlDn, colniDni ami 

pedinenti entpTofod for, 163 
Wire falirin for blind*, liill'i paiont, 

1 6 
Wood, preterfiiig of, RtniDine'i pa- 
tent, ts 
Woodcroft r. Sotiih, patent law caar, 

117 
Wiiiking etock of esiiUng rail wan, 

34i 
Work* by Uloht«l Aneelo, diHorcnr 

of. :i08, 

Wjatt'i Vrelliogtan, rcmarka on, 3M 



Tork, reatoratian of Saint Sarloor'B 

chorcb al, 209 
Touni'i palcnl olccthc coniliKlon, 

24 J 



Zieglor'a ptttat maiblo polUhing 

mac bine, 183 
Zinc paini, Murdooli'a paUat, 320 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Air-pnnip. IIH 

A>t SaioU chureb, Torkilnre, 100 
A^u«<liacl onr Ihe Alleghen;, 4S 
Jkreliiieeturil roeollactioiu ol Italf, 

6euU. I6S, 230, 297 
Auii paitage bridge. 122 
Deau*. *««tioo* of. 5, 318 
BlMling uadcf water. 2 coU, 370 
Byinograpb, 4 cut*, 2SS 
CiiMgC of laolion, 4 cota, 10 
ChiioiM; draught, 251 
CbrS»t** ehuteh, Pljrnoath, 68 
Canbtnlng iron and tleel. 3cuta, 186 
Cuitinga and nnihaokaieiiU. ( cuU, 

136,175 
DainiinnM ia buiMings, 217 
Dibliiing app4rBiut, 2 oula, 3&5 
DiflTs'SDiiai liyiliavlic prc*t.3t9 
Earl't GoDtoointricao. 2 cdU, 3S9 
BUetde light, * rata. 220 
Bogine* of tho C1»di»tor, 2 cuti, 193 
Butatlt of iba Partbeoou, 3 cut*. 98 



Bahaoation of idr frara label, 01 
PttUrer. 3 cuU, 222 
Fire atarum. 3 cnta, 110 
Fire engioet, 2 euli. 221 
Gaabaraera, 2 cut*, 221 
Horltontal water*nbecla, 2 cuU, 201 
Hot-air cnKinc, 92 
Ilungcrfora bridge. 358, 3€4 
iDitraiDcnl for Iraeiiigradwajreofvaa, 

332 
Joaciion of the hroud and oartDW 

gauge*. 3 Riti, IH7 
Leven cliurcli. 2 cut*, 100 
lrf>Cotnalive engine, 152 
LocornDtiTc eni;inp«, 2 cut*. 230 
Itfachiae for circular motioa, 31 
Uaudala}''! pittpelling latcliiaerjr, 2 

cull. 2J2 
Mtoai and Coowa}' tubular bridgaa, 

3 CUU, 30! 
MeUllin piiion*. 3S!t 
Uudel ol tba ParUwDon, 7 cuta, 4S, 

4S, as 



MotiT* pow«r, 2 rati, Itl 

Mortable )ili cranei. 367 

Kew ntiDingaurvnylnginitrnmsnU, 3 

cola, 39« 
V»pf,f iialnliig. 3 cult. 3!>G 
Flan of windnwi at the Hume Office, 

S out*, 262 
Prepwiog Abroua aateriaU, 9 cult, 

34S 
Problomi in iarT«fifl;, 6 cuti, 273 
PrDJociioiiorcirTlei, Uonieirtull7,41 
rropellinig power, 2 cuti. I ti 
Tratcl*, Zcutt. 186 
Punching anJ iliectiug metal platea, 

2 CUU, 384 
rurifyini gai, 383 
Kail 0*7 bnik, 1H6 

carnage*. 186 
ohatrt, V3 
raili. Ili5 
Kiiiing the ipire of a rhuivh. 4 1 
UocktattUeUowaliill tuui)el.4 cuU, 

233 



Boiling iron ban, 3 cuta, 184 

Saint Eriinunili Bnrf gate to««r, 

■2i9 
Stioi Saviour'a churcb. 209 
Shi|).bui1ding. X cuta, 18> 
Sliiii-pri'ptlling, 2 cull. 221 
Slide valits, 2 cuta. U2 
SliiicD-cocia, 2 cuta, 220 
Suiitli Hackney cborch, I9S 
StaiiiM gUat itjiidawi at Saiato 

ChajiHl*. Card, 14 cuti. 1.11 
Strcring t|>f)Bra.ln*, 2 cot*. 185 
5trengib and ttreu of lualerial^ IS 

CUU. 163.205.232 
Tfaeofjr of the arch, l&l 
Tulmlir bridge, 15 cuta, 101, 14C, 

172,298 
Turning and manipalatiTn. 373 
Warping haulaftfi, 2 cuO, 3fitt 
Whceler'a atmaiphohe lultrij, S 

cuia, at 



DI&ECTIONS TO RINDEB. 



Flat* 1.— Oreat Britain atosn abtp appoaiU page 

.. X.— fUilwa} *a«pen*toa brUga 
,, t. — Ualbwajr'a railwar pmpdkr,— Ha> 
worth'aatmueaglM.— Hurdock'a 
ga* app«ruiut, — Walker buiI 
Mill*'* railway bufTcr,— Wdler'a 
brick mncbiar ,, 

4, — Parade of the llriliih MuMum ,. 

(. — Rb«i froDi of ibe fartbeniM, — Auai 

sntptaaloa bridge .. 

8.— Pltewilllam MuMun 
1_B._Ohurrb of Saorow 
9— IQ.— Engioeaof iheGlaiiatorsleamer 
II,— -St. Saiioor'* chorcli, — Poole'a c»- 
caoiicg michiop, — Hill'< Atmiii- 
pb«rK) pivpubioo,— H iir* prinliag 
fitm ' 



lit- — P»on and Co'* a' cam co^ioes,— > 
Sleoaeu'a gor*rui>r,— Yuung and 
MeNair'a electric entidiiclnr, — 
Taylor nnd t^uudnr'ii railway, — 
tiarfurlh') mnchioo 

IS.— Home (Hficc, jcc, 

14. — Soawanl'i coKiari aad propellera,— 
Plato iron cutter, — Cokeoven,^ 
Uailway bar* 

13.— Board of Trade 

10.— Screw propeller* and paddle wheel*, 
—Brick inucliine.— Tilaniachioo 

17.- Part of Itubliu 

18.— FiUwitliaiu Muaeum 

III,— Botiir* furuBcei,- Howard '■ coa- 
deoter,- Pope a railway lifter, — 
Ouo *t«uBef»,-^ib enuea 



nppoallo page 




^. 



% 



THE 



CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S 

JOURNAL, 



INTRODUCTORY NOTE. 

Id commeDciog (he lOOlh Part, ud a dcw Tolume of tbis work, the con. 
ductora of it venture upon m few introduclgry remftrka; the object pro- 
poted IB not, bowever, merel; to offer ihe courtesiea of BalutaiioD, (hoasb, 
were it no more, we might well be escased — at a Mason of nnifersal 
greeliDg and goodwill— for expresuog to tboae wbo hare accompanied 
US, and tboM who bate uaiated ai in the pnueeutioD of our task, wilt 
how moch gratification we arrive at thii epoch of it, and commence n new 
portion of our laboura. 

In a periodical devoted, not to the general pnrpoBcg of Uteratore, but to 
the pabtication of ioformation on epeciflc lubjecta, and these of a very 
extended and frequently complicated natare, the reader has a right to 
expect that Iho mode of Hlectiog and com muaicaUng information ahoa Id 
be gnided bj certuin fixed principles ; for it is certain that, were no other 
ralea adopted in conducting stich a work as Ibis, than that of setting down 
wfaalever appears to possess a passing Interest, and that of recording the 
informalion jost as it is supplied to ns, the reader would no longer find 
what be would most aoxiousi; setk for in these pages, professional In- 
formalion selected for its intrinsic importance, and referred to certain 
fixed principles as test* of it* value and accuracy. 

In Ekcinferino, the first branch of onr labors, It Is b; no mean* difficult 
to explain the rales here adopted. The theory of the operations of the 
engiueer belongs, fortaoately, to a philosophy the most accurate aod 
complete, of all which the range of hnmao thought encompa*se*--ibe 
philosophy of motion and equilibrium; and the application of this pbi- 
losophy to. practical mechanic* is founded on a aystem of experimental 
knowledge, far exceeding in extent and the uniformity of its reaults 
all that bos been obtained in other practical an*. For while, on the 
Mie hand, none of the operations of nature bate been ao (occesifully theo- 
rised as the mechanical, and on the oiber, none have been made so gene- 
nlly the subjects of practical iodvXry, 

In eiaminining, then, the labour* of the engineer and mechanist, we 
have lint to see how far their uolions accord with the pure theory ; se- 
coBdly, how far the details oT their works stand the test of experience. 
There once prevailed, unfortonately, an idea that the theory ud practice 
of mechanics were inconaisteBt with each other ; but the new and conslantl j 
iacreuing reqniremeoU of modern engineering are now fast dissipating 
the error ; for, white the theoretical student finds it impossible to render 
Ua knowledge available wilhont actual experience, the practical ope. 

Jfo. 100.— Ydi. UL—Jamvamj, IB4C. 



rator f>«qnently flnds, from the rapid advances of modem engineering, that 
he is placed in circumstances altogether new to him— discovers that hi* 
notions of the lavs of mechenics picked up here aud there, without any 
system, and generally mixed up with a vast amount of eilraoeous matter 
will not always suffice, and that he must frequently submit bis judgment, 
in a measure at least, to that af the theorist. 

It is quite true that the actual operations of engineering generally de- 
peud on natural laws so complicated as to render direct mathematicil 
investigations, either impossible, or rendered possible only by hypothe- 
tical si mpUG cations of the cases examined. It is oot, tfaeiefore, to the 
immediate results of mathematics, thai we are to look for the most general 
benrfit derivable from pure theory, though even here how much has been 
done for the assistance of the engineer, laboara such as those of tjoulomb, 
Poncelte, De Pambour, HodgkJowm, Moseley, aud Professor Willis 
amply testify. But there is another far mote common benefit which the 
engineer will derive from mathematical knowledge, which, if duly con- 
sidered, ought to remove from the raind of tbc practical student all cutdnea* 
and suspicion respecting the results of iheoreUcal mechanics. 

It is not to be expected that an engineer, however high his malhena- 
dcal attainments, could determine, numerically, the velocity of every 
engine he constructs, the pressure on every tunnel, or revetement wall 
which be builda ; but this is certain, that his mathematical education will 
have BO tt/Mttmaturd and fintplffitd hi* mechanical conceptions, that he 
ivill examine his works far mora critically than he possibly would, were 
bis pbyucal notions derived merely from his own experience or popular 
ireatises. It may be unhesitatingly affirmed that the perspicuous genernl 
aisight iulo the laws of mechanics, afforded by the study of mathematics, 
is not to be obUined by discursive reading and casual experience bow< 
ever extensive or varied in iis nature. It were easy enough to give in- 
atuces of men eminent for ibeir practical labours, who, from lack of syste- 
matic knowledge, frequently ulter notions the most confused on mechanical 
subjects ; or— to refer to more immediate instances — we might, from onr 
own pages, point out repeated cases of invenlora obtaining patents for the 
supposed attaiument of physical impoasibilitiea. 

That chief value of the mathematical theory of mechaoica to the prac- 
tical engineer would seem then to be, not so much the prediction of the 
exact result of his laboura, as the general guidance afforded to him io 
conducting them— the knowledge by which, without the toil of eiperi- 
isent, be diatingnishes between what ia physically possible and what im- 
vossible, and is directed in choosing the mecbanical appliances beat suit, 
able to effect bis objects. Who can estimate how vast an amount of iotel. 
ieclnal and esperimeatal labour might bare been saved, had thoM who 

1 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[jAKVAftV, 



to Umg long itra*« la (liMiaTwr ** ptrpatntl lOAtiAo," Mil (he nean* ot 
making it«lir mlM itielf, kwiwii that tbcy <rcrr, in f«ot, ilriring log>** 
to Bailer laws Blloettber dlrersr froni tbcMc aulEoed to ll in tho rtonom; 
tt BatKraT And yet tbe aajDe ^ITarii (ipp3i*d to dllTertat nbjtcte) are 
nude in our own da;, li ma;, Ui«r«f«r», b« lafelir aaiamei) Uvat W4 caa- 
Dut ETvattr m in recardtag lh« procrfw or cacinrf fiax. if w« coaclanll; 
rer«r to pure IhtMT aa a leal of the accuracy of our jaiJcineni — if we 
apply tcaalanttj tke priod^lts of niallMnialical (ihilcxopb; dirtitnl uf iu 
laacaaKf.—The laaiiuaga of aymboU ti rtqai*iu only in detcrmiainx 
exact •tatlatical rvtolt*. bat (ha Kcoeral principle! of pur« mcchanifit ar« 
or aolrerial application, and are oqMble of bt'mj: eiprcMtd in urtliaar; 
taaguga wilh a ficiliiy aotl accuracy ftr bcjond nbnt nkjclit bo aaliiratl; 
MUlclpatod, had ire not vaineat prooft that tbe atlempl may be aade 
with 



Id AantrrECTTRt the dnlonninatian of Bird mlea of criticiam la not lo 
#a*r a Batter. Taale tetotts to be fMttred by the elricl lawi of natural 
pfii)o*ophy, Bod the caoooi of the Goc arte art ttldan dan^totUaMf-. 
6U11 we hare ereo bert tame Ased princlpio nhScb rcat oa 111? aafc 
fouedftlloa of aoircraal coaeroli and are tusceptiblc of trrj eilrnded ap- 
plitatian. The geseral law (bal arcliiteciaral beauty U depMd^t ou 
mbllty waa nnlvemlty rvoogotaeil by iboee from nhom ve borrow the 
aoly klodt orarchittttora adopted by at — tbe (TloMic and the Chrittian — 
and It ii a law which al a time like Qje preicBt, dittinsviabed by a grow- 
inciotarcil in the pbiluuphy of tbe artt, few will be buld eutniitb lo con- 
troTert— the timple and iadiiputalile rule that architrrluntl uieiubcn ap* 
plied without um, or to wrong um, are d«formitiej ptr At, will of Itaelf 
fiv«|iieot)j be sufSclcnf la drlcrainioK oar judsmcnti 

It It not hnwrrcr to ht cuuiluilrd llint lliii priscipl« ie tlie only one 
which the Clafilc and Medlatral arclilte<ta held in cammon ; end it may 
her* b« renifirbod how liille prognM* hat been midi> in diteiiveringi the 
mbtlrvtt ftin tipU» hj nh\a\t lli«*e muAlcrs were guided. Of lh« actual 
ftrm* adopted bj tbom there baa beeo no lick of atudy, Thn tinea and 
duDCoaloDB aihibiled by standard epeclni«DS of archllccKire hare hrra 
noted down and catulof^ed With wonderful and praUfworlliy min.ulencw. 
But may it not be doubled whether Ibe aFglecl of priocii>lca for (be anka 
of fornu, M'oiir nnt toniewhat too ttrongly of t«i*11e c<iji>iDgt An in* 
lallignl atnrfeBt-artJil will, it may be fairly supposed, (odi-avour talher lo 
be«anie iosbned with the npiiil and j^Dius of hLi master, than loreiiroduce 
ctcry mioute math and characlrnMIc of his works. 

Here teemi Iu be (he real cauM why locae who in our own time hare 
laboured waloualy to re«lor« one kind of arehilectur^ toitsongioal purity, 
have (aiM of lli« full [««oapeDi« «f their taleots, industry, and ual. Ad 
luUB0ilmioaleBdhrreDce.(aprcoedeiilha4P'^*<ccdi)t»ncTcrfiuti»|[frDita — 
bigOitry and intoIeraDce. Had the tame labour which has been spent in 
tecoiding pTuporllotts and oopyiog outlinet, been <loto(e>l (o tbe eiaini- 
natiou of the btauliful philosophy of which thusp dimeovions and pro- 
portiooi were Itie retults, we sbuulJ bear uf few eforia tou^klt one ijsieni 
of pure arcbitecturv at (be eipt'ose uf auuUier. uud we should prubably 
ban far adranced in raducina our knowli'dge of ancient architecture to a 
systeni by which alone wv can hope Lo riTaJ (ha mastvrpiacrs of that art of 
which we profiB* to be disoiplH. 

Diit ibcrc may be some who woold say further thai wo ought, not only 
(oaroid scrtila adhemncc (o preccdfct rrspeclrog archilretoral forms, but 
•Mnlndiaownallobligatiuntobebouudby Uic abitrnctprinciplesof Iheold 
■rckiteola. To (hi* it teemi solBvibut aoswnr thai ia (hat cose we most 
DB loader ptoftaslo adopt th«<ildn«d«t of architecture i weuuHldiscuTcr 
tat Mnalica sobm alugadier new ayttem. And though we bare no 
wwrut for denying « prM, Iht pnsaibiflty of socb a discovery, slill until 
it ba n*dr— until we disown all sinitlarily of our works to Uiooa of (he 
dnris ud n>fdieG>aI archilcets, we arc clearly mere mintlc*, wbaa we 
bofmr from Ihrm wime of Lhe fonnt which thcj adopted, and apply them 
without any rccani for their oriKiitol parpoees. Tiiis at least Is certain 
that if we endearoor to coctaund tA^elbcr principle*, which are not merely 
diflemi, but directly aatagoaiatic, the raeult muat be diacordaot and 
inhwionloM. 

I( surely wer«nodtlSca1t task to sbow that tbe Kcaios of Oiaok and 
Oolfak trcbitoclore are diametrically oppoaeil lo eadi other. Where we 
ite the two brought iota direct ountrast (a* for butaaoe la lhe latnimrof a 

• VeBtyfaAv.lo proof, loAiry'i neory or Ornlullaot ■ vwk wtUcbwhlbluU i 
■K«l«ilninillBarT ntnair Ike fracdcabllUj «f "f^'*il^t, la erdlaar UBaaacti ttw 
.jiMiaof elaintau miibtmailcal reseudita. 



calbtdnd whiehlbeadnirablo taale of the teal age baa decorated wjllt 
CnftnUiiancoIunDi,)lbndiseordai>et it ao offcoaite lo the eye ni to be 
immediately oondcroncd. But why shauld wo aoi carry the prioctpla of 
the cuiidifniualioD a tillla furibcr, and condemn buildings <rhea tho dattfb 
brioog to the oae syalem, sud ibe ooilkae lo anolher iyalam of ardiUMttm 
— buildin;R. for intilance, In which it is enduamurMl Id gi*e a lofty fertical 
effort by archiloelural mcnibrre, nhiob wen originally propueedlo prodsM 
a liurirunlal effi-^Ct f 

It Is Diit to be denied (hat ereo where them eonilderaliona (lo'llspntabto 
natbey Beera,)ha*e bcpn ov^lwled, (hete hare been prodoend bulldiags, 
which, by Ibe richaesa of tbeir d«coratii>n4, hil oot of a certaiD claim oa 
our admimtion. But ibis li certain, that though Ibe dToct la such caiaa 
be gurgeuua, it can not, in (be tery nature of IbiDus, be pure. Tocnpy 
•orb work is, at leaat. but to copy »ecuud>batid : and survly, if we bo lurt 
going altogether wrong in oor endeaeourt lo purify our lasle far Ctiriatiu 
artbiteelnre, it ia but a leftltinale eilcoiioo of our efforts to free claaalB 
architecture of the foreign ideas which hare been impiirled tola It. 
tnBybe,iode«d. require a crriain amount of adaplalion, in the applicaiion 
modern porpowa; but the requiren)«iil> of those who Inn^oied. end Grel 
used classic are hi lecture, too aenrly resembled our own to pvrotit tbe sop* 
poLition that lbs adaptation would involve a total aubrcraiau of their etigU 
oal principles. 



These consid (rations will explain, with sufficient ac«Br*cy, lh« floo 
we would nideavour to adopt with respect to ttie two leading dirUoni 
our task. We make nu pcofesaion, however, of be^ng alwaya able ID 
attalu tbo true philosophy of arcliileclure and engioeeriog. It is aafc, 
•emetimea, l4i simply revord facts, and lo wait uolil dtcoct eiperiMws 
•hews tbe value of (heis. I a tucb cawa, our Labour is litUo more ttiu 
that of compilation ; and etcu where wc undertake [he cuotc haiardoiM 
labnorsof direct criticism, we hate frequoally loconildr In the counidtfatiun 
that uur readers are, fur ibe most pari, tbode w bu are praclicsUy awar« «f 
tbe diveraily ncd cnmplRxil; of our liuk, aod w^lt ntsbe full bIIowiqcv br 
the dinicuUke* of it. AC the same limr, we are well persuaded of Ibtt 
importance of rendering all knowledge syslcratlic ; uud rr« bavo thm 
trust in the principles here set forth, |b«t if they do not ulnaja lead to 
rapid ditcurcriea of great truths, Dicy will at leait prevent the atfnilssioo of 
(Ereat errors— that evro if wo sutnclitnns loiter ou our road, they 
keep us from wandering allogelher out of it. 



i 




ABCHITECTURAl. DEt'RPTIONS. 

To rtolcre to arcbitcclurc the cicrllcuce which it attainrd ia the l 
ofitsgrealest purity tiaou^ the (Wrecks and Modinival Cbrlstiaiu, it i 
Bbiolutcty ncccsfsrj ibnt it should repiiij thai buld on Ibo popnlar miod" 
which il postMsed during (hose epochs. With the Ailivuiane ibe treclion 
of a temple, with ourChrlsiian forcfstbon. the building of a ('a:Udr»l wm 
a work of no isolated or meraly local iiupurt, bol one which cueaged Um 
Interests and laskod lh« eaergioof a nhnli oatiuu. Whiol pnatiBg waa 
nut yclditoovered.iLrchitctClore, acconliog totbebeantifuUhRory of agrrat 
writerofour liues.was tbe only moihod by which the uimd of a propb 
could eipresa itself— aad (his at loast is certaio, nod iudrpi^ndeoi of oU 
theory, that public archikclure eagaKcd far mure of public attrnlioo bcr»> 
toforo ihoa oiivt. The sUghcK rcliectiuo will aliow that the national lm> 
purtance thus given to lbccoii»(ruriive arts must have contril>utrd mnch to 
their perfection aud purity, auiaUo, thai on tbe other hsixl ib* very ex;^^ 
celleoce ofthosa ans, by re tuUon, greatly advaueed the public cslioiatia^H 
of (liem. ^^V 

Nothing seems mora fntalto Iheprogreuuf nrchilnclureininademtiiBeif 
Dulhiug a greater ubatacU lo tb« resumplluu of its furmer rank than tb 
custom which has unliappily crept into modAtu praciicc of usiu([ iaillati** 
aod thereforv doeepiivc matcnaJs. The feeling of honesty and candoni 
which chunderiKd the oldta arch itceta teems fairly out uf date: and ia 
its place we have aloiusl uoivenially a spirit of osienlation, an uSectackin 
of abow, (be dishonesty of preleDSiuo, Iho lulgarliy of makiug thiogs u^ 
pear sontethiag diSerant from, aometlUiig bettor ihau, what (hey 



Where we canoot sflord lo bniM cxpcnalvely, it would Mem the 
tasle to use what humbler maletialsare at comiriand boneaUy.and wUliout 
wj attempt t( disguiio ; and lo compeotalc as far u may be, for (he vra 



^ikSb 



teall«« 

hebe^' 
bout 

J 



P«li6, 



THE CIVJL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



ml* ooiffat alClowt t« b« •bHrrtd U public bvUdisci. for dtfDKsbc vcbi* 
(wWra, ik« ikoHjr tiaus 0f builduK i« m ntuij nDirccHl tku it m«im 
lopelcia aod tiMiteM tu altar oov word «f prntsct agiioM it at preMot. la 
Uili Ull^r esM tberv mmu do b«tl(r cwucm tbki tg wtii paliMtlf till 
■MlWr rae« af badd«T« Bar ariM loo fr«« rraoi lulcaritj In «cDulat« tb* 
JidLtUn i«hHftMatD)>|jM oTtbs Sncrj or tbc pc«cock. Bal wilb ntpcct 
to pabllc edldcn the cue it dUlcruil. ftod tt[«ia»t the bnlldiflK Ibem ofde- 
cctittf* (and for ibK «■«( part pcrUhabU) naUrials, « public pcoteit oagbt 
to b* d«cl*iveJy proooonetd. 

irit be dmrtd lu detcrniiiie oa wlul principka |i>o(I tulc naircrMllr 
dwiilM acalDHl afcblicdural imliaiioBs, tii« tuiBWcr apprar^lo be twafold, 
fa thr irvt ptace dccwpilTc maienaJs are aluoH aiwaji kat durabls Iban 
UoMtubrtaBCMwhtdiibvy ImitaiB ; wlwrau one of tli« chi«fa«urce«ofthe 
flMiareornewftig bnniifnl arehiie<tarc li tbe eootidfratioa <if ii« p«r- 
■aM»o*- la adtsiriag to ancient edtll<v, we ab^II God od aoaljMOC uur 
own niada, Ibat a gntt part a( our gratillcttiao arix* fran ihe redrcliM 
fat thta wry bulMiflic. <be object of our admlratkiD, baa baea lb« waadn 
tttoAUj b)-go«e gcoiruiau ; and if, anaio, (re are detigklnd b; a noble 
work of aattdani MwbttMtoroi mr delight ta iu a grrai put ukde up fmni 
AeeOMidentkit that w« kaie b«q«tallicd (opoatnil; ^ wurlhjr ouuiiinanl 
rfduoaktli and inlelliEdice ofnur ohd timvu. 

B«l a Mcond argumrui acainil archiiecluisl ileceptlcu* may b« alleged 
■kich caanot bi> like the prfcediotc on* uisw#rad by llie all«c*lJoa ibat 
tedoMptton iBajbeinade at rndurabl* b> the rratiiy. An iaporUut 
>mK« «r ik> pU«iur« aflvrdcil bj pure ■Tcbttcttutc ia tbc rfcognilioo of 
AsikiU and raergj of tlie arcbilect. The onrioudjt fretted roof tad tlic 
tlabmic TrindDW Iracirr; delixhi, oat oolr btcanaa of ihtit inlrinnc bnantr, 
but becanM of tbe labour and paittato etbibiled on tha port «f tb« work* 
saa. If It Kor* powlbU w eoti<*itt tbal ibeae bcautiral fomi wvn nrad; 
nade to tb« bujldn'* baodi b; *a>i« (nrluituui prtKV»a, the fcclioK of ad- 
arirvtkia would be ireatlj moderated. In aJl nuiirr piecta of aKbitectaro 
(aad not <-f arthluviurr only, but of all olber anbl* uU) a dUilof aabiny 
itumcl#ri*iic it tlial Ibeir fall braoiies an aaeertaioed oaly hj reJeni'.ed 
aaviaaii^utf. E*«r; cIoMr iuapectloa t&nt* tmljta rcTnl frrtb iiutance* 
afti* akitJ aiwl perarvirnutce o( tlic buildtir— but if i1i«m clooor ud aorv 
(•wtnluii; eiaoiiualiou* Auu\A ditdow Iracra of dMeptioa onlr, and 
vul ol caadour. If itc Hod ihal there baa not bf«n all thai akiti aod por^ 
mttnaai barfonod whivb were pronilMd at Brtt vkw, iho feeling ofdu- 
Bfipotnunent ta proportionalo to tha tarmtr foeliDg of admiratiuti, the uiiud 
ntaliat** b)' eoniompt of Ibe juggle— fclaliatn ia Iba miuo degree aa It 
baa been miilml. 

We bu*e bero led to make tb«ae «b«erralio>s« by Db*cniii|[ one of iba 
Boal Da«tanl liiitaiicrmr tbe Tulf;ahly of •• make believe" buildtDg which 
we miMinber to ba*e over ia«it with. Th« fault U afigravalcd by apptar- 
iat ia Ch»»<h.af«hil.*tur«, wb.re, if ODj wbero, efcry Ibtnx abouM bt real, 
■■TVe cbvrtb at PlaU." laja tbe BaiUrr, " ii heiax erected (hiin Ibe de- 
alpia of Mr. Stiarp, who wu Ihe arrbiiMl ofa church ail^iei-bridjce, 
•nr Bahoa.le-Uoura, pmriuuiljr avticed, aUo biiilt of Urra-ectta. Tha 
flaa euaiiMa of aate and aitUs diaoMt, a *a«r'*tr aoDlh of the cbaacel 
•ftd a tower at tbp •uaik-wcii of di« oa'a. The »<yl« ii deeoraled. Tbo 
araUtoct h<ii pmbably bad naanj rcaltictioDi lo cootrnd wilb, to which «a 
BUj altnbair tbc aliKbiaesa of the iniemal picra, tod incieaie of diaiaaca 
helTocD the buUrraftp*. The lower la united lu tbo aiale by a loftj arrti, 
«kidi h worlhj of pralw. Tbe church bai more than Ike ueual omoupt of 
daroralion, asd ornament li iolroditced wilb goud efleol in capiial* aod 
bgttr««ee*> Tb« niodvw* Jiavo two li|tbta with foliated head*, and are, lu 
tbeaiatra, uf two larietlci, Tbe dskiKO ia erldculljr Uw productiua of a 
deter man, but wd are compelled to cipreat an aafaruurabte eptnluo t>f ii* 
Cuculion.— Eacb arparale piece of the lerrB-eoita U can to tlx roquired 
fbf1k,aMl ia maeb about Die unir hm a' a correrpondiiig bluck of eluue. 
Ererr pi«ce i» boUow, beinc a* ii appeared, afteriiard* llllcd or backin) 
Bp with cuDcnte. IVf art tit ttatldug more (iaa pofi, aod fran the trial 
■remade, acca lo liaia Icaa cobeaire power thao brlok. NettrUieleaf, 
(hay ara naada la eoppori paat wdghla. Tbe piera of lb* obnreb, wblch, 
*l wa ha«« aoM, appear reiuarkabljr (leader, are eaUrely tiitapcwcd of 
I pot*. Tbo plan i* Ibe cluelrc of fear abafla. Thrro are the uaual 
I hictdaMal la Iho biirpiaK ; porta of tbe mullioof are ont of ibe p«r' 
liar, and tbe liaecoflbe window-iill undulate in a verr unaatiihe- 
tOPf amaart. ladced, tbe wholo bullJiog, though good in d<«igo. and cot 
taioiaal U oraam^nt, will not bear a ar*r approach, Tbe face of each 
piece b «carc<) with Iiiiet to imitate Iba looUas ; and ihc nuitar joiata ara 
Urft, ud ubUvdias." 



A church » boOl of Urra-«otta" ! Pier* *• MMpoa*4 of pota" 1 Umi 
•corad " Id imitate the teollag' I Tbe faulii nf eiecutioa are nol tha only 
faalce of »uch a bnildtag — ara Ur outwftghcd the eirur* of prioclple 
which produced tkcoi. The ootlca nblch haa Jnl bera copied ia fo|. 
lonni bj aomo Judiciona general rciaarki — eo Judioiau* ibai we cannot 
but regret tbalr bfe*lly. " Ualrw (Ar ik*l/ul hmtd" il t« i«matk«J, 
" be appanau tbe mull ii dlMppoimaieai r^iber thM d«l>ghl, and ngrct 
that ihe Bliid of tha arliat »ko4iid ha>t cuocci*ed it rain." Here tmtj 
there waa do appearance of tbe MffliJ hanj, Let ui rrjoice that it wu 
aa-akiiriil — aUicrwUe perctiance ouikilful obaeners mtgbt haieappUaded 
KB eaaay which Ihe Judicious wodM cewara ia praponioa ta it* i«cc«««- 
fulaeaa. 



ARCRITECTL'KE IN MANCHRSTER, LIVEHPOOL. AND 
BIRKENHEAD. 

Sia.— I rcMBM my noUcee of the Bujldiag Aria in Blaocbealer, aad, 
haTiaglalcly bad opportuoily oflookini ttreraomeof lb« principal work* 
goiog oa io LiTtrpool and Birkenhead, proftoia oddiog a few rvmark* 
upon the pmKmi Ibere, wbtch may be aecepuble to jonr rcadera. 

In my fomer Ictler 1 alluded to the propo*«d •ilcniion of the ptvaaat 
MAMcuarcK Kxaa^xoK, a* detigaed to be cartied into citrct by Mr. A. 
W. Siais; aiucc tbal tuDc Iwo Rreat fchefoea hare, with Mr. MiUs'a 
denj(o, divided lb« aileaiiua of ibe public. The Irst waa Ciir aa ervctkon 
In Markei>aiifet and ll>)[b.atr«et, and adaaigo of eauldanUe laerit wa* 
ptrpared by Hr. (;n>gaB. Tbe second Kheme waa l« etact tb« E»haa(« 
ooa tita in MoaUj ■•ireet, 00 part of which Ihe Theatn Royal furmertj 
stood. Tbe laller aeema now to baia been dedded upon, ■* oo Tbnrsday, 
Not. IStb, Ibe proprtelota of the prtMOl eicbaBfa a(r«ed lo ditpoia of 
their buiidinga lo lb« Uutley-ettMl committee, on tba coadiHoa that aa 
Act of Parliament be obtainad, ia the next laaaioa, for lb» ereciioa of ibc 
Kiehanga asd olhvr public bsildiagi uu (be *iie in Moalcy^lrert. 

It it to be bi>pitd that DU ibi) occaitoo an opportuuily for pobtic camp*- 
titinn will b« arfurdcd to Archilccta, aad doubtina the conmilio* will 
baieniaujr Gnt*tala deeienG leaiin, frucu wbicb they nay *el*«tuM: which 
thall be aa orpament to the town. 

Tbe h*ad iiflicea fur the .ViatllMtrr o«(l £c(dj Railmvf, at HuaUbank 

arc ailtancing rapidly to cusi pic lion, being raited to Ibe Itval of Iba 

terond that. Mgch delay waa eipentoced at Srii. owing I0 tbe uailabla 

cbaratier of liio ground on which Ihe baildiog it ploeM, and the archi- 

tedt, Meagre. Holdea, have taken all proper precautioa t« bate the 

fon adati oat Arm and ee«u re, going down la eoDepart* loadcp1bor49fe«t 

below tbe gnuBd leiel, It ia pleasing in notice Inalaacea of rare and 

atteoiiuu in roundtiloaa, aa ao many llae baildiap ara tadly detci«iii ia 

tbla reapect; ej foe example ika Town Hall and tke Alheavum in Man- 

ehaeter, both of wbick lUuw cracks ia •toaaworii, aritiog fnm a siBking in 

tbe faondaliou. Tbe erection fur the head oAeee ia bnlll of Yoiksbiia 

aUiM,aadlhedeBiga[alK llic lialiafi Palatialaiylaof ardilieciara usual in 

ihelOtbcentary. TheBilaiseDirregular piereof groaad, the principal front 

b«iRg Ifi feel long, from which the btiildiag etiandt back aboul M fed. 

The htlghl from grouud line (o cornice U aboul 4S feel, diyiocd into two 

loAy eloraya. Tbe whole uf the rvuns iu tlio baoeaiest la fireproof, and of 

fery slnaj: CBDBlrnctioa. iteloir ihe IotcI of the gruuud fioor wiodotrs ia 

a broad liMled siring ctmrte, under which is ruaiic worked maaoar/, fa 

Ihe centre of Ihe priuclpal front is a baoilsoma Italian doorway, wjth tbo 

tnaoaary eiould«dJNmbB,dealellodn>rBi<«,lraae(*, &c. Tbe gronnd fluor 

windows, two on «a«b aide of doorway, hare noniaall; bold brawl 

muulded arohrlrafes; and Ihe upper aiarty haa Italian cnmiead wiadowa ; 

level with tbe bulloui of Ibe laller miia a moulded strtag cautae. A bold 

deaielled ooAica will anrmoDiit tha wbnla. Tha back parts oftkecnctfoa 

are ia rockfaced Yorkshire stoee. These offices, with Ihe arching over of 

Ihc BiTcr Irk, vill nben compk-ted tnaierLally impmie ibe approaeb to 

ODcof tbe baBdaoncat railway siatioBs IB th kingdom. Tbe aiaiioa for 

tbe MaBtkesler aad l^edt, aod Maoehesler and Litc-rfxiol radwaya, 

which I allude lo, ranks high as an enginering work, Kavjog two iron 

bcidgta of great «paa, end snibanhmcnts of coaiiiicrable height. The 

cre«lio« for rcfrcibmcot aJid waiiiog luonis, officeA, tic, are desigued wiib 

a aubttantial simpliciCj aod £tnes*, wbicb wo look for la vaiu Inttracturcj 

of greater prelmstuB. 

IfarshMisM. 
A Marahoaaaoriiai'i'] cbaracier i« near completion ia Faulkncr-atroet 
ttt |lr. paallth Iba dryaaltar. It baa aa e^bofatcly worked tiMO fhui la' 

I« 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND AftCHITECrTS JOURNAL. 



[Jan VAST, 



the GreciBD Doric style, uid is the design of Mr. Thomaa Fisb Tijlor, 
Architect. The width uf frontage to the street is aboQt 40 feet, and below 
the level of footpath are two cellar itoreys, and atraie II fonr storeya. 

The basement, ap to the groand Boor window lilts, is of large blocks of 
Aberdeen granite, which from its hardneiB will resist an; of those casa- 
alties which so freqarntly disBgore basemenis of oor usnal soft stone. 
The reToaining height of the grsand floor is bnilt of faced Halifax stone, 
having Gegment beaded windows and doorways. Abote this floor are two 
pilasters and fourlhree-quarler columns, fluted two-thirds down, and two 
stories in height, with suitable capitals. The windows an in the recessea 
fonned b; the columns and pilasters. The architraTe, frieze, and cornice 
break round with Ihecolnmos, aod the frieee is enriched with a Grecian 
fret, deeply cut, and presenting a varied play of light and shade. Upon 
Ibii coroiceand over each column stand bold double pilasters of natural 
faced walUione, with tooled bases and cape ; on these, and on cantilivers 
between them, is the horizonlal part of the pediment, Ths pediment spans 
the eatire widlU, and noulil have had a much better eflect, if more boldoeis 
of prqjeclioD could have been obtained laterally ; this, I suppose, is pre- 
vented from a (ear of encruachiog oo a neighboor's territory. It is said 
that the origiaiil designs were for a fire-proof boildiug, and it seems a pit; 
that a tMildiag intended for the stowage of such combustible materials, 
aud ia the design and erection of which such pains and eipense have been 
gone to (though I uoderttaad the whole will not exceed 2,4001.) should not 
have been built on the fire-proof priociple. II seems doubtful policy to 
run the risk of total destruction, if a Gre should occur, for the sake of 
saving SOOJ. or so, in origioa! outlay ; — as the warehoose is now built (with 
wooden tnissed beams. Joists and (Mards}, if a fire took place Ibe whole 
would, ten chances to one, bv destroyed ; if boilt flre-proof, the chances 
are that one storey only would be burnt. 

A large wareboDse, of fonr storeys besides the cellar, has been bnilt for 
Mr. Carver, in Port land-street, from desigas by Mr. Donnison. It is of 
brick, nitb stone basemeot, doorways, window sills, and cornice, and is of 
plaia and sobstantial coastruclion. The same Architect has another large 
wareboDse in progress for Mr. Bebrens, of five storeys and cellar. TTie 
first storey is externally of tooled stonework, and has coupled pilasters 
between the windows, and a deutelled cornice runs below the second floor 
windows. A stone cornice resting on corbels surmonnts the whole. 

Messrs. R. H. Greg and Co. are baring a warehouse built in Tib-street, 
from designs by Mr. Whittalier, and Messrs. Taylor and Williams are Ibe 
builders. The basement is externally of vermicniated stonework. The 
first storey is of good tuoled ashlar, with a dentelled cornice. The upper 
part of the warehouse will be of best brick with handsome stone quoins, 
and all the windows will have moulded stone architraves. It is intended 
to place an elaborate stone cornice at the (op. The whole is fireproof and 
of good sireoglh, and I understand that the cost cannot be less than S.OOOJ. 

Mr. Lane, the Architect, is at the present time employed in entirely re- 
modelling the old " Queen's Theatre," in Spring Gardens,aad from what I 
can learn of the alterations it seems likely that a most convenient and 
beautiful interior will be the result. The walls of the hoilding have been 
underset, the stage and pit lowered five or six feet below the original level, 
the pit extended under the boxes, sod tha stage enlai^ed. It ts intended 
to erect a new proscenium, and to alter the whole decorative character of 
the huuie, Mr. Bellhouse's workmen are now busily proceeding with the 
alterations, and it is intended that all shall be ready for an opening in 

March nexL 

iScAoofs. 
The Manchester Commebcial Schools are uow nearly fioished, and 
are to be opened in January next. They have been bnilt onder the 
auspices of the Church Education Society, from the designs of Messrs. 
Holdeo, Architects, on a plot of gronnd in the Stretford New Road. The 
building is three storeys high, and in the Tudor style of architecture. The 
front is of stone, and the first story has two entrance doorways, with three 
windows between them, the centre one a triplet, and the others doable 
windows, with fiat or four-centred arches ; the second story has an oriel 
window with enriched paaneLng above and below,«nd two smaller windows 
with hood mouldings on each side of it ; the upper storey has a large 
window in the centre, with a depressed four-centred arch, aod rich tracery 
ia the head, aod two smaller windows with hood mouldings on each side. 
The ground floor cootains the assistant-master's offices, porter's residence, 
&c., and also a covered play-ground, about A3 feet by 30 feet, commnni- 
aaitng'wiiha spacious play-yard. Hie second floor is let apart as four 



claes-rooms, a large ball, and a book aod model room. The whole of tka 
npper floor will be occupied as the geoeral school room, S6 feet by 43 feat, 
and as the roof is open to the rafters the room is an air; one. In tfaeae 
schools a good chnrch and commercial education will be affonled to Ibt 
youth of the middle classes upon reasonable terms. 

The Roby Day and Sunday Schools, for children of the iDdependent 
denomination, situate io Ajtoun -street, were built a short time ago from 
designs by Mr. A. W. Mills, Architect. The building is in the Elieabetbao 
style, and of best brick and stone. Considerable skill Is displayed in Uie 
arrangement for supporting the bnllding so as not to interfere with the 
burial ground over which it is erected ; tha front wall goes down to good 
brick foundations, but the bsck part is carried on iron pillars and beams. 
There are three gales into the ysrd through the lower part of the front wall, 
and also other smaller arches which are filled in with ornamental iron- 
work. Above are three projecting oriel windows of two storeys; the front 
is surmounted by ornamenial gables. The internal arrangements are 
spacious and well ventilated. 

RomiM Catholu Church, Satford. 

The largest ecclesiastical building in the oeighbourbood of Manchester 
at this time in progress, is the edifice being built b; the Romanists in 
Chapel-street, Salfurd, from designs by Messrs. Hadfield and Weightmap, 
ofSheflietd. The general plan is cmclform, with a central tower and 
loft; spire. The cardinal points have not been regarded in the placing of 
the building, as the chancel is towards the north. On the south side of the 
lower projects the nave, which is divided into four bays, and has a loft; 
clerestory. The principal entrance doorway is at the end of the aave. 
On the north side are the choir and chancel, which are now intended to 
be carried out about the same length as the nave. The original design 
showed it projecting only one bay beyond the tower, but a school-bouse baa 
been taken down to allow of the extension. The transeptal chapel u ou 
the western side of the tower, and will be lighted by a large wheel window ; 
there will be an eotraoce to the chapel from the outside, and the vestr; 
adjoins it. The transept on the east of the tower has a central entrance 
doorway. The roof of the choir will be groined iu wood, and that of the 
nave framed in square paneb, aod painted in light colours by Bulmer, 
Sticklers for orthodoxy and correct imitation will discover little to cavil 
at io the details of the work, such as tracer; of windows, arch mouldings. 
See. ; they are generally copied from Howden church, Ycffkshira, or from 
contemporaneous structures ; indeed the princiiile of imitation seems to 
have been carried too exactly throughoni, fur the laost^tabordts mouldings 
of that exquisitely delicate period of architecture tiie early decorated, ara 
given in places where a simplification of them would have produced aa 
adequate eflfect; if this be an error, however, it is on the right side. 
Newark furaishes a model for the spire, Howdeo for the nave, and Selby 
for the chancel; indeed the last will be acuuutarpartofits prototype, even 
to the canopied niches over the columns. 

The Irish Presbyterians are now erecting a place of worship, sessioo- 
boose, schools, &c., io New Bridge-slreel, Strangeways, from designs 
which are highly creditable to|the architects, Messrs. Travis uud Maognall. 
The style eelecteil is tlie Gothic, which prevailed in England during the 
reign of Henr; VI. There will be a tower 80 feet in height, next to the 
street, which will be flanked by bold diagonal boltresges ; these will 
diminish in size towards the top, and will finish at the batilements with 
crocketled pinnacles above. The central enlranca doorway will hav* 
bold moulded jambs, aod a label finishing opon carved heads; above 
this doorway will be a large window with perpendicular tracery aod 
moulded jambs aod labels; similar windows will be situated at each 
side of the tower on the front face of the building, andin the back will bea 
fonr-lighl perpendicular window. There will be two side eutrancea near 
the tower end, having square-headed doorways with labels, Bcc. The 
sides of the building will be divided by massive buttresses into five baya 
each, and the wiodows belweeo them will be enriched with tracery and 
labels terminating on grotesque beads and shields, and will have a transom 
in the middle on account of their height. The roof will be open-timber«d, 
aod io ooe spao of 4T feet. At the back of the chapel are buildioga to 
be ased as session -hoose, schools, and residence for the mioister, the whole 
of which are bnilt in the style of the domestic baildiogs of the period. 

Mantioiu. 

A mansion in the Italian style for Mr, Perciral, situated near Kersal 

Moor, from designs b; Messrs. Dickson and Brakespeare, is in a forward 

stale. There are two good specimens of gentlemen's residences nearly 

ready for occapatioo In Victoria Park ; one for Mr. Critchley, designed by 



IS4«0 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECrS JOURNAL. 




^ 



Hr. IVdtFTs, iaikv lUliu (tjl*. lb« walliag bioj^'or -ron^ f>>err«|Wliil> 
nUb loolH iliiiie dmstD^ : Bad iti« olb«r (iir Mr. JomesBellboaw, iaihr 
Tvthw ttjte. liAvlag tba frouU of loakd dooc, aiiil lb« back of routti 

Mf. DuHuto U lh« arehittclftri bwue Ultlj eMin«iMd En tke Bun« 
pvk lo€ Mr. L>DE«>^li;> 

A Kaldeace b «bo la oourac of ertctioa fat Mr. Vtlitott Cfcwdfoo, at 
Haa»«Mli: ii i* brJae built Tiuw dniKU* b]r MrMrt. Molilcni and is ei> 
tsnikUj Goc^ncud or itouH ; Un »t)l» ol utdiiloclure it Ui« DukuUc 

Tbe rwlilewc* we hate meatiotwd are in (ccftd li»l*, bot there are 
stanj home* in ibe lubutbt which are In llit Kjlo vibicb mUbek^ooTob; 

I UU* of " (»ing»rtirtinl Colhic."' wtiich »Ij1c appran i» b*«B fxtirtuon 
) aver; torallty. I ani glail lo ctoteria, llial in arid nboul MinchMlir, Ihe 

I wf il*D« i* b«*wmii>g Bo»e gn^nl J Ibe " Yorttthiw jiiirrspotnl" rougb 
I u« lli« r*ce, Hinl inoi)orf«*QrST«ciriit iocbr*, ilthv Llltd RinttRi 

naed bI ifaM liuK, nhicL, aJtbaagb mon c\ptaiiia tbjn bricknoil, is 
Ml SI) much M, bvlUiBlUieclIectdblalaeil fully ciMnptoMti^s fvradilillouiil 
««ilajr. Tb« ji'IIuw &r«liri>k I* acuuioBall) used tin dncllisg bouao, mad 
Iki B^r«t U ■»; s»>m1. 

LIVF.ni'OOL. 
St. Gtorxt-t IMl. 
IaU»crTool,lbaln»agnl6cool p.I« of biiildioKi.St. GMrgc'i Hall, (a 
lasuBiDg rui iaiimUiif! appraraaM, and atrraily Jntlilvs th< tilfch eiprc- 
tattnu wblcli ttsrn beni ceierUtttpi] with rr*pFCl to II, ami all who view 
Iba (tructuM Maul t^rtt ibal the Afdiitvct, M r. II . Lmisdilr Eltura. bus 
pniilnMd 4 wiblt <li>u^,anri IhiU ti>« eacieriuriir of th« wurkmsuslilp in 
tack ilDjortiatnt |iigrM tbU b* has bc(« slilj Mcuutl^i by lh« ennlfaclort. 
Mr. TixnkinPKiD soit Mewrs. S. and J. Uvlintt, 

I bad iirepnwj a ilRicripiiiKi at the plan and diOemt elcnlioDS al the 
bafhliv;, but oarerrrrtnc t«Tol. «i.p. S2« of jraurJoiirBal, I Dad cxoellcnt 
drswisg* aftfl a wril Mritlea Seconal eftbe whal»; I thcrefuie ptoMed to 
iM>tk4 gnlj fli» pfpwot lUtf i>f tbf wofk. 

Tbe cit(-rkir of (he l>uiUine Ir now III t Tcrf forward (tatc, Ihc parts 
■ioflb«li|»d bBinsibe niir of doIudd* Ofl thacmsi fmu, and tb« raierlDg 
iaarUi«Urf«hsU. 

Tb» Rijrtb nd »( Ike biiildinc (that baiing a ansidrcDUr pK)>MtiaD) la 
nmplctrtl ; and wboo 1 Ti»it«l ilic pUea the wotkiiieo -ttn t-iiga^rd in 
t>jiA(U> (upatoM*i>flb« •ciuili porlira. Th« fnm.1 hall la 109 («ct tesR, 
mJ TS FmI wiilo. ami U inieuded to b« MiTrr^ bj a. •rmioircniar nrch. 
tfntifint! frvtni th« *i'U wall*. Tho brifhl (ttmt the Hour tu the li>p of tha 
BMb will b« XT fr4-l. Aroiiml lh« Urp) hsQ In t^ lolxrinr will raa an 
vian««Ul mmiMc'l pllnlb, wflh 31 pfojnl>»5 |i«l«i«l«, •imllar io 
Atntrttr, ami 71 mlumni apoo tlirm: tli« plinth, prdcnlnl*, and onluianv 
Iff af bishlf |io(iih(d Sculcb prBnIln. Siiine of ihc columnR are ia (heir 
fluet, an'l ar« a« bFaollful speoiiiipai of worlitn«aiblp and nutcrtals ti il 
Uixfr Wna my lot lo eia«lne; ike; ar« ench SI (•«! long, and averaga 
IhtX In diameter. 

TbacoluainaMid lh«di«arihe iwdMiala are of rrd sraa^tc, &ninP«itr- 
kaal atat Ab»nlwn, and di« plinib and inipcat of the pednuls vt t.ny 
fruHe, Imm Ih* umo naiKhbaarlmod. The whnl* oftbv parU ha** befo 
wtrked and polUhtd al Aberdern, and fhm put MsHher ia lh«i( (dsiM*. 
Ibtjalntl nrr p^ffrclly Irue and ROod. Th« wpohsnicsl ■rr«n,t*<»'nlB for 
lb> r'nnial and workiai; of thr large blocks «f lOmu r'liuirpd in iKfs 
;ai« ailniiralilp, wp»eiully lt»e powrrfcil and h.fi* drrrkks wliS 
sf^n« >9>l boiler Minp'ftp, working nliaii Die linn urridwa; jatd 
to tlie miid walls of buil'l.rg; bhI also (he vafiotu imllways Mllb 
btiDtlins ctaataotu (be ttaot yvdi. 

Doekt. 

Th* AtbrM Oork aod narebousn now heini bnlll by the l.i*»rponl 

tttuB, under Ihe all« (np'rietPOditnce uf Mr. Jetw Itirtley, the 

>»(k s»eiii'r«r, am aurly fini>1>«il ; (bo dock, witli all thR catrfttic* eaioSr 

;., is n<ta|<lrtc, attd aercral of lk« inimcoto pil«» «f warebouteis arc in a 



Ltxin torTC»i»B goods. Tlicse erccliun tn •»- 
■aadisglf «ii«of , and tmllt thraasbuat on Ihc drcprrmf 
fnstipls. Tbe irou beam are somtwiisl diiTrrant ia 
farn of secHva to tbota g*<i«nlly u>ed, iDsnmuoh as 
iWybave inifrted V (Cuores n-ooion nlvnc Ih* aa- 
tesU* of tbe besm, so •» tn diriJc iba wcti BMT Ibe 

En tnio IMO pans, and foratiHC > CknI abalnienl 
tbe britic ardirs lo he bollt apniasi Ibiis :— 
, tnrr irv also sligMly caned lonBitudinalljr. 



mr 



a 



J 



T1i« colunni ami 



bMioa art ftf uBMive proporiiona ; Indeed llM whole of Ibe work it atrsoc 
and «f (o«d deaiga. 

Tbe wdl>b«ka for the pnrpMC of boietiiiK tba e^ods mp an Inrft, aail 
avrrouBded witb straoK iron parbi, and euclused hjr wraagbl iron doorf. 
All Iba window fraioes are of cast iroa, and Itte eolraoce door* of wrg«i|kl 
iron plates slronglj pat tagelber. Tk« rsufs are franed ia irsa, 
with a ooreriog in soom «u«s of *h<«t iresi, aod ia otbcra of aioc. Sons 
ofthcSooraarecoTercd willitites, otticn wiUt pUunl flacs. olbtrs with 
aspbalie, &c ; ladnd there seems to hate been a dtsposiilon lo giie each 
kind ufrooisg and tooriu^a fair aad impanisl trUI. This is asitsbonld 
be, as (heia eip««inKnU esa boil be msde by a public body ; it iatu be 
hoped that tU rNwIU vt a due trial of tbe dilTcreat kinds of nstrnal. aa 
rcxania c«bI aod dnralioo, may be publUbcd (or Ibe benefit of tliuse cagngad 
io buildinc siniUr work*, id iho Jouraal. 

Tbe approacbt>* rniw tlie (own to St. Gmtri^Q't Ilill, aad tha railway 
atalion^haTC recently been «ansiderably improved bytbe widcaiagof Llae- 
•Ircet, Cbarlutt«.slrctl, and Kaoetaek sIreeL Qows ofabopaan beloc 
buitti and a lUgitiet Oflkci It aearly completed ia LiiD«.«ireet, (ran 
deaignaby Mr. Clayton, Archilucl. Ths bulldiag Is Wonted wltb Iwled 
stonaweek, and eaoBisb of three lufl; storeys, riiefint door bas tlrcular- 
bsftded windaw*, aplsycd rrga tbe cutsidr, wltb plain mould* rttuod tliera. 
TIm upper wiadoai* are square beaded with utouliled Jantbt and cat*. A 
ptain eoraiee ram aloae aboso the flrsl floor w liiduvis, uod at the top of (ha 
froot •leTUloa 1* a sMuia onmlce with acrvll corbels. Tbu safe u sptctoai 
aikdofpMdcoBSlniclton; the door, tide nails, aad arebcd top, araaf Sre- 
brick, and the arches are buitl upon »lr«itx Iran beans, aad tkewbacki 
oonnccbd by lie nxlt. A sctof duuUc iron doors, witb Chabb'a lockt,tra 
sirooely dtcd in the safe doorway. 

BinRF.snF.AD. 

Al Birkcahoad, on the oppoait* side of ib* Mersey to Lirerponl, waha*» 
Ibe strance spectacle of a noble cRy sprioginij, as If bj »aglc, into 
eilatsnoe; aanserwnt tpaeioiia ttreeLi aad «)uarrs have been laycd out, 
sewered, paved, and ligblcJ Milk gas, aod row* irf spTcodid shops and 
c«mfartable kabilatkins aie beius rrfclcd ntlh acnsmplrd rapidity; 
whilst Ibe sarrouadisi nelebbourbood it beoonlng ditersilied by pklnresiiue 
mMuaiomt aad •illat, wktch an iatendcd f<ir ilie iea«dcoce of the wcallhy. 

The new Docks at Itirksnbead are speedily progmslnE, and a victor 
cannot bun admlie ibe ■eanrr In wbicb the n«iiir«l advootacea of tbe 
locality hnvebpt-n made availabU. Tbe site of th« tlonkt wa» fomorly 
Wsllajey Pool, a large area wbieb was ratirely tand bank al low water, 
but coTcred by the tiilc si high water. The It'oudiidc I'irr has been eoa- 
>Id«mbly wnlencd and iisprored, ami will form one side of a ti.lsl bsija of 
ISaerca in ar*a. lUtwsen Uiii basin and 5e*co>mhe will be Iwu spaces of 
qua) 60 !«(«• «Mh, between wbicb will be a larice law waier buiu of 37 
acres, rumlag the naia eatraooe lu the ttrcat Fkialinit Dock, which when 
eomplele will have an areaaf ItU Bcret,aad be IV feel tn depth. There 
will alto be a small dock near lh«i tntrance. The land ectJo'"'nG il" bnslo* 
and dofks, Bisd ttie rcetaiatrd land, will be tned fur quays, yards, &c.,«ikd 
will be bail! vpoo with Karrbontrs, dopots, oRlon, aud ath«r aecsMary 
errclioa*. .Mr.TowkiaMu kas undertaken the cmlracl forth* whole nf ibe 
dock walls, &(.'.! and tbe oncrxy wtib which ike work ia being etrcDted is 
highly crnliinhie. Srveral straia eucioes have bean pitt down nliich arn 
wotkisji morur m<IU,a«d kolsling (be nulrrUts from ih# botloin of es«i- 
Tailt^ni III ihr top of ihr qasys; l«n lioiHiilas are ia full nprratlon; and a 
'SDEe of wn.-k<h<ip« ami tMithie* are occupieJ by ariiisa* busy prrpsrln; 
the iriiont.riL r*^|i»Bil( fur llie r)ulwa}*,craiif*,&c ,nboiil Ihcworkt, the 
coal of Ibe dock wull* and gates is expected to be about 4(NI,IKIM. 
BirirrBkrMf Park. 

Ilie ConielMhinen of BIrlteahend hate set apart a tpaee of IDO acm 
iti a park ; fit acfet lo be appropriatad lad^lachctl Tiltasend tniundt,aid 
IIOacresdeTiitcd fv Ihc ntoof the imblic for ctfr. .Mr. Psttnn hntnade 
tlie uiDet ofa tery Bat and nnlikely piece tif (Toiiod, and laid out the whde 
in an admirable manaer, tod ibc tree* aod thrulu app«ar In a himlihycMi. 
dilion. Two Inkea with rustic bridge and bunt hmite am well *itu>tti-d, and 
add lo lbs lnt«re«t of the mmd. Th«rv will he s>k doe todstt «r eale- 
hiKises, llireo of ■hidi are now camp It led i M«i>rs, Wolkcrs, buitdcra, 
bate i-onlracird to complete two tau><i nKranee lodKvt of slon*, for tba 
sum of 9.B12/. Il is said that the total oust of Lhe eiMdeaurr*, lodges, obd 
laying out of Ibe pn/k, wiJI aoiiMiat t» 20,00111. 
Nete AlitrkH. 

The New Market is Bow epeti for ibe use of the public. bmI it a ^at 
a(trscl>oe,asiLcasBbine«ervr; aindeni Improvcmeol, The bakldioj UlSD 



°^^ 



THB CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[Jahdabt. 



feotUntt. md 1 1I (««t hnU, and i* dirU^ iBta ikrcemvetiaM ty two nn 
oTiron colanni. which lapporl « UgM Iroo nwf m Il>r«e •pMi. A hsttd. 
aant fDuatois li •Itaalrd ia Ibe nemtre of ifce buiUiof, and b r»" i>f deguil 
gM pilUra r«a alnng rwli of lh« Umw area««i. 

Lifkt U idBiitled fr«Bi two w* of i*niicimilir window* Bt tho stdc«, 
«■ well u frt» »kjliBliU w tlie roof. The whol* Ift MlUwd bdow, and 
ft* floor itucbedoa iroo boun* wpiwrlMl bj cwIumM. M«Mr<. Foi, 

HwilanM* ud Co., of ftinnitshan. wtn the conlncton, 

Po«r»tweh«rrii*« web*lnj pw»id«d hy tb« Bumificwie* of ^rirUc 

indiildnt]!. I h«ilBOlop|iortu»ilTofle»rni»iipBrti<ul*r*»boi«th«ii,b«t 

ftoB wh»l I nw Ui«T apiMttr lo proiniie well. 

IiKwntlodiDgthiolrtthofwhiliidologiii arthitecttw Mi balHIiiB 

In tfce liK*lilie» I h«»« hul epport«»itiM r4 Tuiliog, it b.»j be w»ll lo 

«tl» that. Benefmllj ipe»hing. the works in ptogrrti i>rc deckW improre- 

n«Bta, iw N^rila Lule I* Brthit««tnr«. ikill in c-Mulrnclioo. md quftltt; 

at naUrikU u>ed, open pr«*iaiM worki of k similar character in thot* 

IobUHIm. 

Tkera appMrt l«ii diipositioo to auballlalc the than tor tfaa real, and 
It MCDt* M UiiMisli penpla wtre at \tnph becatnii))! mure geDcratlj 
Mquainled wlOi tko (act, that it u ia rcklilf l>ltU mon npeuii*e U> ertct 
balldiBa«wbi«b«ball be ornaoMoted uil doi oScnd comI t**te, than it i* to 
provide tho«e wlikb bate aa fntMoiUm to detiEO- 

Dt*<mttr lUlt, lUS. A. D. 



THR COLOSSKUW IH THE REGENT'S PARK. 

Tlwre laaColout^uin Dl Rami-. ■■»<! Niiottier ^t Loodoni bat ibclt 
likenen entenil* no further than Ibtir tiumei, for lunllr can anr two 
tfainga limiUtljr ileiioininalr<I ]e*s resemltle c»cb (ilbcii Ibefiiit betBK 
onaof Ibe moriituppnilwi* muaumenuof antiquitT,— a liuljr <x)tou4L 
fabric, wlileti, Ihouoiniei-ply scrrred by nnir, or ratlier bj ibe band 
of isin. illll bfun tWiook of bcirg clcrtwl : wtiilr^ lb< otUei ia roereij 
« tliii<e to da^— n toy m compatiMn willi tbe idtter — an archttrcliir.il 
bmteim^ as cnniruted wilb an aroli[i«clnral MegMierimM. The 
FUtIih Ampliitbrnire oi Roman Colitt»—iM Hieh is lh« Italian orlha- 
mpliy of the Binie — ia a work to b« cIiumkI odIv wiih the pfmnidi 
Bod Moe of Ibe gi(raDtio templea of Egypt ; such an cnonnoia bus* 
Ibat It would ieem to hire required not mcrclj- n few jrearj fast a 
ernturT lo quarry tlie iloae nod pot the nulrrnali tof^lher. It ii to 
Bueien't Ronn' wW S*. Peter** in lo tl»e modem city, the "Mvran" 
Bik> .imoiig eunnllevf oilier*, the Ictlatliin »lr«cliire ibat engngei 
Utention, whaiever eiv bf p"»ed anlieeded : the ohjecl of univrrNt 
•dmiratior, be the admiratton Reoaloe, or, at no dwibt it fn^unitly i«. 
ner«ly atT-eted itid .icted for UihioD'i aake. Tlte. Romun Culosaeum 
bM been a llivnne for ni>elry,both in * erae and proto: auUrine in liaelf. 
It li alao arrnyed in tne balo of aniiquitr, mimI an inipaiiiig one it ti, 
fbr il iiapt tu pluy trioks with and dduile the iudgiiiation. Wbereaa 
ovr modern CoktMeoR] is tlie vi*ry auDlbesis to atltbii: to tbt- anli- 
qMfijnitiN am<?re nullity: If h« look4 il il, it i) onty to turn up lii* 
Doaeatit wilb a conlemfiliiouiHieer-, with him iUTerjniimei-raiiliea 
it into insi(p<i6«ne<',by esllingupmori- forcibly llie jmsigi* of the other 
to hi* mi od. Still, there is ■omi-thing— nay, very uiucli— to recuuGJle 
VS tolhediiparftv belwe^o Ibe two buildlug*— to the disparity of 
their purpgie*, if' nothing etie. Tli« :irena of the au^ieiit onr hu 
dreticned with humio (jore. " There man nai shiighteicd hy hii fri- 
low-man," to grntify thepasaion of a htot-Hiert population, for spec 
bdea ofcaiange and btoodihcd. Hummity will mtber exult ih.in 
■igh over (be proud rutna of the ColoKseiim, ihoueb it mutt at the 
saiB< time bluah with iadignutiun for the race wlio could cooUy 
look upon tlie eold-blooded aud wholesale marder of wretchet, 
■■ bulcbcicd to muke a Ronin holiday," and mil it adumiMirt/ 

Uo>t bappy is it for ■>■ tbkt the »liitiitionM at uur modern Coloi* 
$eum are of a fat dtfTcrfiot elur;ictrr from the savage pomps and 
proudly atrocious apeetoeles of the uncieot uud right imperial one. 
Tbie eonideralion may more than eootole us (or the infeiiority of 
out own edifice io eam]>aiiM)n with the 0114 after which it is BHined— 
or rather miinomtJ, becnuse, leaving the vut differ'-oce a* to site, 
betneeo the two, out of (he tjuestton, thejr be;tr u littti* of archl- 
teclural resemblance and anntof^ ti^eicb oiliec ailheirdoef sioail.irity 
of purpose; wheiessthe modern stmetiire docs really bear a alroiig 
likeness to anutber socieot Roman edifiL'e that i* of no leas ««l«brl^ 
tiian Ibe Colosseum iUelf. But thn title of ■■ PJDtbeoa" had been 
.pceocropied fay the buiMiog in Oxford-street, which, even aow ttiat It 
w coopletely altered ften ila original absp «, aliU reuini a nanse that 



Iboogb in eome points appticaUt wbeo drst bestowed, h^i now becoiae 
a complete mitoooier. Tberefofe, as ancient Rone possessed 00 
more, one fAnlbeou was oeiuldered quite eoougb for modern Loodoi^ 
rail as It Isi aoeordloffly (he building in (lie Regent't Park was 
dublwd tbe Coloaieam, lor even ibe. vrrientOckiipys would lu«e beeo 
seandaliied at tile absurdity, l»d it been named after tbe great 
pyramid. Of 11m nterinr of tbe mila bal)dtnf[ we may be allowed 
to says word, N'causc It ia of oonalderable ment as a piece of arefai* 
leMure,— Wiener wortli titan many that have oblainrd on infinltdjr 
greater share of uoticefron Of ilisa, sod whicl^ notwittutaKlin^ thai 
they are now qalte edipwd bf later prodoetkiOB of tbe art, still rstda 
the rank first saainod tiom, owlag (o Ibe oharaeter given of tbeni 
being aempnloauy traiismitled from one book to anoiber. Th« 
portico of (ne Colosssun ia by very far tbe noblest specimen of on* la 
tbn Gf cciao Uoeic style Ibat we poMets In London, one upon a nobler 
scale ihao any other,' before th« magnifioeot porUeo of tile new Royal 
Eiebiti^ w^tetecUd, the column! fiillaa tofiy,(40feetjBiidofeonrM 
of mud) greater diameter, those of the Kseliitnge being Corinlbiai^ 
consequently of slenderer ptoportiom. The siluallan, ladAcd, takes 
off somewhat from Ibe effisel of sit>.*, for did the building stand in a 
street cr other eon&ofd spoee, we should be more impr^ated by its 
magnitude of. It poasesses, however, one very d<^cid<*d jdv.mtago 
over almost erery other of our aiiempis at pure dassicallty of 
style, ivsmucb as pothing is mixed up with lne> portico tt«cl( to 
distorbtbe sotiaue pbysiogoooiy aimed at by that feature; there aro 
no modern wisiaaws pivping out Utweeo Die colmum, or abowiog 
tbemselrea tUewh^re; — aooe of that iulermisture of eo'iissnsafMiii 
ssd fimUratton wbicb is so contrary to correct Grecian aichitcnUinl 
i<Ii«m. 

Eaceptthatit hu been reooraled, tbe exterior of tlii.- boiMlng 
remains in $laiu quo, but tbe iolerivi ha* been, if out absvlulclr rv* 
modelled iu plan, metuuorpboscd into somelkiag altogetlwr dM^at 
ia character, — (ruosformcd lota one of the oioel captiraling aai 
(iteeinating piefo-a of intcraal architectural scenery that can well be 
imagiocd. Tho ciiquUitetjr tuslefijl rotunda or circul.tr colonnaded 
salotm, into which it is now coorrrtcd, standi itlmost iu)p<*ralleled br 
buth beauiy cif design, and felicitous vriginallty of idt-a. If thcio b* 
anywhotfl ut^ttl couiiarshle to or membliiig il, our actiuaiobnco with 
maUeraafilM kind does not extend tu it Aiitiuugh rooma for more 
sumptuous may be found, enriched with IreHiaures of art, and set of 
(o all possible advantage fay tlie coallieM fiirmiuTe, we hoow not 0I 
one I ltd is so charcnirtg for intrinsic beauty of design. Neither any of 
our royal p^larrs, nor of cur most palatial club roams, the Reform and 
CoaierraliTe not tsccplrd, can >bow an apanmeat that it at once so 
novel and su iniprenive, so fraught with luvcliness sad witcheiy, as 
ill this saloon or gallery of tbe Co'foaaeum. LuTcllneat is the epithet 
ihut bt-st d'-scrlbes ii, since strikleg aa the coop d*m41 on first t-nleriag 
it msy be, wheihei in the dsy time, or when lit up of an crcniDg, lb* 
effect is not so much that of showy splendonr, and daailiog 
briUiancy, as of raild and serene cl'gAnc*-, and of that tuteful stm* 
pliclty which mlinfies tlin eyi*, esery part being ciimpletc and in 
perfect keeping, nothing superfluous and nothing delicieiit. In order 
to convey to our readers sumeiliing tike a jiusitit-i: ide^ of this 
truly ch.irming interior, we may lu-gin by descrihiug it as a cireulsr 
ball, complelrty surrounded by a peristyle of twenty Grecian Ionic 
columns, which divide the entire circumference into the same uumber 
of Inur.colunins or oimpnrlmenta ; within, and corresponding wiU) 
wbleh, are a* many ri>i-eMiii, tfin two com part men la rseepied, one 01 
the west and the other on ihe east aide, which aerve a* rDtraanast 
The columiH lire of scagllols, or to be more exact, of Keene'a esmnf, 
io imitation of pohshed white marble t and the mouldii^ of (boir 
bsses and capitals being gilt, produrit a pi'cuiiar delicacy of enrieb- 
meul. In which tbe monotuiiy of iirnfurm wliite, and the apottlnsai 
ooeasloned by toattered masse* of gilding, are ri)iia]|y avoided. Tbe 
emaUature corresponds with the culurnii*, with this diiTi-renee, bow- 
evert that the f'teie being enriclied with b-isrelief, {copied froa ttw 
Bgio maiblea,) the Gguresare raised upon a ground of a hlua grqp 
tint. Tbe nllic over tbe entabulaMre is ornameDted with tweUy 
oblong panels, eantuinin|ral)egori<Kl subject! painted in fresco 1 an4 
the ceiling ortoof isdli^ded into (he sans number of compsrlomto 
by as msay rlbt, between which the light Is kidmilt'-d, the compwt" 
menta being entirely glared, yet not after the manner uf a sk^.tght. 
but sonsto pradnee the appearanee of a traniparcnl roof, since it 
consists of fesstrta of cat-glass set in reticulated frjiningi coiweqaently 
tli« lighl la somewhtl refracted, and the raw look of a room almost 
uoeovered and open to the sky, [a avoided. , 

Thoi f.<r, deicription bu been cosy to ourselves, aud, we trust, mI^ 
ficiemly intelligible to onr reader*, but without aome drawing of I^ 
it becomes dimenit to explain thai peculiarity which readera tlus 
totiHkla so wsique io plan^ asd so widely dAnnt in clikracter i~ 



I 



IW6l) 



THE CrVlL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAU 



tmy Dtli«r Interior of the um« cUv. ImleKl of tbe whole apace 

AU toaurrautKlnl b^ tbe eoUwrade Itr-lng retitoly nprs, to :» to be 

My espoaed to vitw from evcfy pirt, uml be cniDplrinly en«<>ri>(l by 

idoow, lliv ceoireofttie rotunda U occupied by a mua orevtindricnl 

ttm, wliote dlun)et«r may b« abool a third of tliit of tno liaget 

drdb Thus the lotuoda aasnowa qiute a diff«reii( charaein from 

■tal ia usually mdentood by tliat Um, U Iwfng mnrertMl into a 

muioat •nitg^Wny' radoging and ransiag round BDothn- poniod of 

BcaUucliirr. N'u>, tln-ie iaucbk geDCtal prejudiei* infavocrof 

baring ai much opeu asd asiatnTupled space as ponlUe, diiit moat 

pecMma nay be apt to eooaidtrril a pity that tbe Mnictiire wu not 

nlaan^d u a limplo rototida or sligl« circalar hall. Tbow nho af- 

facCeoDooiM'unliip may even go fnrtber asd any that we har? bere 

mlf |tlw tiubl« idn of tbe PaadMon apollrd by the cxcrac»nc« in 

tbe middle uf ii, otenKliwa perfect view of tbe colonnade in iu 

otirc ezpome and elreoalereace. Hippilr, bawfrer, or elie un- 

liuplly fur oursPlrei, we do not bold wicb «u<h nirrow and oaa- 

Med eiiticisn vihich, iontead ot cftimnting ihlogi according to witat 

ttry are, ileprrciatd them very aummanly for not b«hig what ibey 

Ml aot drsigoed (o be. Tbe kame flower cftnoot b* both a lily aod a 

nae, dot can tbe (iime fruit give ua tbe fluvoor of both tbo p»ch and 

Ibe pine-apple. Bat for a clrniiMtaiice vlilch we «Im11 p(i>*eaiy 

nplslii, WB migbt bare bad a copy of tbe Interior of the Paotbeoo— 

■ly, one that aaigbt In uaie re«pe«ta hairr be<'a rrn-iered an improve- 

■TDt ui>0D Ibe original ) yet, ihougb tb*l would ha«« b««n poulively 

lad eacfdingly nod ia itael^ we abeald not theri-br have ac>qeir*d 

■emetbing altoeetBer new in eharaeier, and whicli, if thiry arc able or 

■re to profit by it, opea* i^aite a frcih train of idcM to arcUitrcU 

far hitherto untried and unadopted combinMivna «f plan. H*"! 

Ae elriklng pcctiliahty of pbia jn this Uraolote bcirn clioaeo aoWy 

br ila own Mk'^ and that of tb'^ effect •llewJing il, we »l»o«Id eren 

Am Uaae b*eo dt.pose J to wclcomo so Kraesfal a caprice: inatead of 

■bleb, it w;d a matter, ool of cboicr, but actual McenJtv— a BOtt 

fmin4te necetiity— compelling the architect to dcsulc (ruin all p«- 

oeden(«,wtietliet he would orno, it beinf; ioditpcnaabtr to obt^io a 

Halicaae id tbe teotre of the building, Iratlit^ up to the platCorni 

|«S«nr. fioiD wbidi Die panorana is viewed. Tbit Bliiimae ia 

MOtoiBgly concealed nitUm tbe uprigbt cylindriul mass, or lowCT- 

|k« abwit, that forma what way be c-led the eorr of the entire rttw- 

tefiaikllbUitaircMecDclotrt wiihio iwclf. and winds romd ano- 

(bvr abaft, which ia alw hallow, and which is turned most adnirably 

lo account. Witbio it ia a antoll octagoa ruoni or cabinet, capable 

of conuioiaK aerea or elgirt peraona, m fitted up in a funciful yet 

iMtctnl niitnneri bavinp amoiig otlKr decoriliooai a triinnparrat ceil- 

Ug of coioared gUst, tliroajtb which ii ia lit up liy Beam of a gaa- 

buvcf ixed over it. You enter tbu lery fulrr-lookingclonetfseat 

ninaelf ot) one of the vcUct-cuahioned bcncbei, and before you buve 

faiibed eiamining tti rmbclliahnenta, tbe door opciWi and yao find 

iwnself ut the top «f ihr building— tbat U, on tkeplatfurn of (lie 

puonma^ without huviiig beeii aenaiUeofany inoiion during your 

menu. Here ibcc^ ws have not only a quite novel ide^ mid inoal 

iogealooB conlrlrance, but one Ibit may oecaaUntlly prore esaen- 

littly lervicesble. Moat assuredly Catherine II. woulil oevv liberally 

lemnlrd the iuTeator of tucb an encliunted flying catiiRet; fur wlirn 

ikc Wgin to grow infitin, and found it too f.iligiiing to go up aad 

tan a auircaae, her nrcliiteot waa ordered to comtroct one that 

ibMld be Utt todMaM! of atcent, but be could hl( upon no better ex- 

ptdient ttian tlut of aubaiitullng aserira of inclined jiU&et,or t lopes, 

m atepa, which, bealdea belitg uol very satiifaclory iu Ktelf, vt^ 

Ulwlnl with tlie iDCOnvenieflCc of rend'iii^ ibr diMancc Iu tie 

•atted over very much greater) wbcteai an uaemdiiig cliauiUr, like 

Iba one at the CJuIoMeuB, would hare (pured Her Imperial Mnjeatv 

the ItMble ot walking, or erea ataiidlng. There are alto others be- 

ridfli eiDprrMra who wmdd be glad to tie spared the trouble of going 

(p ■ met Dumber of italrs. To aaeend, for insCuKW, lo Itie lou of 

A* lieenmntf, tailing up a frightfully narrow, dark, and wiimlng 

ailfnaiTj Is DCit only a Uburioiu tiufc, bat a sdmewbut formldaUe ex* 

yoit I an 'iseeBdiDg dotel, or erea mere plailoro, wilbin (be shift of 

So «olumn, iuteud of ataire, would Bave obridted all difliculty 

and daager— Ibeogta, we ought to obserre, It would bare required a 

differtDt mode of eoosiruciioo for tbe shaft ittvlf, aa (lient would 

tere been neither txwel nor stepf within it, whirl] now servi- to Ituld 

htesethcr. Uut there are far more prebaMv and (re[]ueiit oeeasions 

'■bera Ibe a«»e meebanism mighl be employed : a lingle vi«>[ to ibe 

•Of of tbe UooumenI, or other Mrueture uf ibat kiu<l. u Kiifliciunt tor 

Ike Gurioaity of Dioat peraoiMt but. If il is to ansnrr its purpote, a 

iafly pionpect lower, or Mttden, whether in the grounds of a inuH- 

rfot or attached to the maatloa itself, otight lo be m eair of araeu 

■apoMible, or it will very rarely br made u>e of; whereas It would be 

I pUawal and ««iT«meilt t9 be uUe to step at any time ioU> I 



[ 



bandsomc little elosel adjoining your >itting*rooiD, and aminnteor 
two lift erwatds ttep out »gnln into another room ia Ibe apperstorf 
of a lofty belvedere tower, wberp, secare from intmsloii, you nlgti^ 
like the lower-toring Berkford, enjoy both llin wide expanse of aor- 
roonding landaeape and literary Hudy, merely gUoeing your eye from 
tbe book in yoar band, or tbe well-stored portfolio on the table before 
yon, to the proipeet stretched nut below and around. But halt) of 
onr readers will filter that we oumrUes bare ascended into on altl* 
tude, and taken a flight r^ry Tar away from our proper aabjeet i ao wc 
will deaoend aa es[>ediiiouily ne we can, without so nrueb as atop- 

fitng to apeak of the "Panorama of LondoB^" Khieh port of the Co- 
oMeum renuin* iaifoAi mo— thalii,ifttbe day-time, tor In llw cv(«> 
ing it prodaeea qoile a diJerent efeot. It being then tranarormed igto 
a veritable bright moonlight nighU However il be Aaaaeed— and of 
course there mu*t be a good deal of artiSce besides llie painttag 
ils->1f— thU view il tbe triumph and perfeelfoo of tceaie skill, furtba 
full mooo actmlly abioes out from the pl<tnri>, slieddiiig its radiant 
light upoD the plalform and the spectators theinsnlvcai id beaiaa 
Sicker upon llie eurface of tlie Thsmev, t*bile tbe mighty labyrinth of 
stfccl* prraent* a ftaming network of gas-lights gradually dying away 
into llie far dislant hoiilftli. Happy magi«! tbsi can create for ns 
brilliant moonlight on any or every night in the ynr, ia Ibe despite 
of tite almanac Uiddiog adieu to Ibe upper region of the Colo^ 
aeum and its onoonabioci we again enter ttic Rotoadj, dikI 5»d It 
quite 08 charming aa at first ; nor must wc hurry Ibrougli it, for thongtl 
we bare already reoonnoilered it, there i* more to be aaid concemii^ 
tl, — very much more, in foci, than can even be tovclied upon 
in aa ariidc like the present. One thing which tie ba*e uolyei told 
our leaders is, that wtticfa ia now denominated ibc Gii/pi«iitca (or 
Repoaitory of Sculpture), in conseqitencc of its bciiig mado to aerro 
aa an exhibition room, for costs of statues anl groupa by manr of our 
principal ntodern English tculplors, tauluding one or two by Tliorwald- 
Kn, and other foreign artlsta i all at iliem dispmed in itit- must tastefoJ 
manner between tbe columns and withio lli« receaa, »o that the mere 
arraDgemcot of them Irrcomra in iurif a picture^ tbe ardiltecluieaDd 
Bculpiure motmllyacteS'eaabfttbcrtoadnatase, and both togetker, 
thus bamaonlonafy oembined, render Ibii Glyptotlitxa the moat 
admirable nculpture gallery in tlie world. It would be absolute folly 
10 prrt'^nd to compar<- il with many olhcta either for Ita magnitude^ 
or for the value nud i-icu.'lcnce of ibc works of art whidi it cuntalna ; 
what «e mean ir, that t.'krn in its cosemlilB and aa aa areblteciural 
pictureiit has no rival, if only because th'-re b notbiqg at all aimilir 
to it. The scolnlnre galleriea at the Briliab Maamm arc very little 
inor« ttian very Urge yet blank-loukiiig room*, thai would be quit* 
empty were it not for theaculplure iUelfi aod uuny i>lber placea of 
the kind also, look rery liUlo belter tb^n so many siuiuartLV «arf 
houses, or itiow^iooma, « ben their works arc eabibiled fur sate. As tu 
tl»c sculpture room at the Royiil Arvdcmy, lltat isso ottt-rlyuo&tforitn 
purpose, ao wretchedly ooufliieil, and couicin]}lj bly mean, as to be littls 
if lit all better than • mere lumber-room, iutu wbicli ihinga aent to ha 
fjrili>6ifcif, are stowed away during tttc exhibitiou. Yet that dismal 
•'hldck bole," aa U has been called) belongs to an academical boiy 
rejoicing in the ear-tirkliag epithet "Royal," where the dclicloM 
Glyplotlwca,— and "delicious" is tl>e rpilhrt it inily deeerre^— (•> 
gether with all the rc«t of the Coloiaeum, is merely a private ipeeu- 
taiion, of course with a view to altimale probi, wtiich it rtclJy 
deserves, but eulered upon In a most liberal spirit, and carried llirDUgh 
willi adniirjble ubiliiy. It is rooreorer ix> less sinking uii icutauce of 
eound economy than oriiberality, tlie betl of alt ecosumy being to da 
well wlut is worth doing at all; although it is a specie* of it, which 
very few seem to uadefstand ; fur how frequently do we obserrs 
Kome lit[:e pallrineis auflWed lo peep oat amldit splfnilour, som« 
mirk of penny-saving niggitdtlneaa to betray Itsell amidst extra«a> 
giiDce, some jarring deformity 10 obtrude itself amidst beaut/. 



Rnneoaii.— Sieraxrxica Bbidub.— Vt have bwn EsTaumI with a vie* of 
ik*rluu«rUa(tnud iusMlga SiaMalso MMmwwtnm JMt^^mi^ ta >>ftas, aad 
stn wtia Omm (« Uu tHM(* la csaaabn anftwMi, w tnai m* rtm Ifftnj n lla». 
esnL aurmidMiaiaTtanBMmsrn*manliuaiwtMas«HstottalU>tr>ariFM kcBrn 
mvebwafM) «*!•(«. l<Kir«i ata^ Uek wiltf nara at ■prina Mfs, sad IN drv 
BHtHafJorrMtspMi. wiailKi Slaii. inMUiff s rnialTT 1 irTTTirfcnfsiilitsiiTai* 
Mill b«, mbra omi^iail, lln (mini avk •! tk« Had Is Kmgaf*. Ttib inal ■iifiliti 
uiral ili^> wUI tivs boia M Hit tnmlitt at CbrMir, LaacsMo, aad authnt, fliTtng ttta 
rt.(itfr*dlSdUtTW Oar^HWM snd M ttf IwtllBnlamarClNskM. W> ^nM Ibas 
ia< (Mai p«tl «r Bancvm Is <lHU«*d u> i*vam* a m*! f<s|iOf1iMi cT (Ooimwgt ■ aaal 
I^rd rilBdiKttrWa.MiaalcMtviommiat ronlneancniit. Is UusiiQancaaNfes 
(■((nMssMMsaiS* aha** of Lb* Untrri «>hI irfU •>» fult.m UcMslsatsIgn «( 
rutiiMai. tei a wu* islhrar i Uina aAjnllBe ita /on ttvtAj atntU In soois. Id ad- 
dlDuulo tb*bM(aaalils kis Meihlf^ ponnalon. Wear* cndlatr lofomad tbal It Is 
iiic iDHoUsa «r I'la rmnds Sprtaa tsei«(taoewi:iuiitiii.ainwc.u* p>nM*«dia«a^ 
nov ID OS* tar tksCusliKM, tiiliic luasd niM Inaiaimilciil totllii (miv1d| itidaaT lUs 
UirMnB part. W« tenfiaculai* ih* ail)i*n vbo an ImioTilUM'T cvucnur^, iciil lbs 
lra4« tmarallv.u^wuUiiaiilH Riilt>iilbituj maaHrt^ana arc much irltsHd la flail ibai 
Ui I«t*Up btwda tu ace vUh w avth ILIistalUT, 



THB CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[jAKUAri.T , 



ABCHITECTURAL SYNOPSIS OF SOME OF THE PRINCIPAL BUILDINGS IN EDINBUBGU. 



BolMlngt. 



' Ackdemy, Ken Edinborgh 
Ad*oca(ei' Libnuy 

Aaiembl; Rwiiiii 



Auembt; Hall 
Buik of ScotUod 

.. Boytl 

„ Commerdal 
Bridge, North 

Clupel, Catholic 
„ StGeoTO'i 
„ StJohn^ 
„ St. Puil'i 
„ Dr. Jamieion'i 

Cbmcb, St. Andrew'! 
„ St George't 

„ StGUet'* 
„ St. Stephen'! 

Coanty H>U 

Exchange 

Heriot'i Schooli 

Higb School 



Hotpital. Donaldson'! . . 
Holfrood Palace 
Hotpital, Heriot'a 

„ Merchant Maideni' 
„ Wation'i 
„ Gillespie's 
„ Lunatic Atylnra 
Uonnment, Melville 
„ National 

„ Nelion 
„ PUj£»ir 

„ Scott 
„ The Mirtyn 
Obierratory 

Padiament Home 



Pbyticuna' Hall, Old 

„ New 

Foit Office 
Begiiter Office 
Boytl loatitmion 
Regent'! Bridge 



Unifei^ty or College 

St Bernard'! Well, Lcith Waten . 
Debtor!' Priioa 



Dm*. 



1767 
1844 



1B4S 

1765-9 

ISIS 

1794 

1B16-I8 

1810-18 

1819-20 

1B1M4 



nhoat 182S 
1816.19 
1754-61 

1845 

1825 



1842, &c. 

1628-50 

1816 

1801 

1810 

1821-2 

1822 



1840-5 
1844 
1818 



1775.7 
1845 



1774 

1825 

1815.19 



1789, &c. 

1790 
1845 



AnhlMct. 



W. Bum 

W. H. Play&ir 



J. GUle!^ Onbam 
R. Crichton 

Sir W. Chambart 

D. Rhind 
W. Mrlae 

GilleqiM 
R. Adun 
W. Bnm 
A. Elliot 
Gilleipie 

R.Betd 



W. H. PlaTfair 
A.BUiot 

AIex.B1u:k 
T. Hamilton 



W. H. Flaybir 
Sir W. Bmee 
Inigo JoDCt } 

W. Bom 
W. Bom 
W. Bum 
R. Reid 
W. Bum 
Cockerel! ? 



W. H. Playbir 

G. M. Kemp 
T. Hamilton 
W. H. Playfair 

R. Adam? 



J.Craig 
Thomu Hamilton 



R. Adam 

W, H. Ptajftir 

A. BUiot 



R.Adam 



T. Brown 



Basacta. 



Stld b; Biitton to be " iUnttrated \,j > beautifDl portico." 

New Room, 140 x 42 x 28, recetiea with Corinthiaa colonnade! along >idM, 

central compartment with low dome and akylight. 
Plain Roman Doric on baaement — tetraatjle portico (added 1618). Ball. 

room 92 X 42 X 40. 
Gothic, with ipire. 
Corinthian on raiticated btiement. The aonth front very mach in Adam'* 

»iyle — petty and pretty. 
Originally the maniion of Sir Lawrence Dnndai. Tetraatylo Corinthiaa 

pilatten, on batement, and crowned by a pedimcDt. 
On dte of Pbyiician't Hall. Portico Corinthian, beiaatyle in antei. 
Connecting High-atreet with Princea-itreet. Three archea 72 feet apu; 

entire length 310 feet. 
Gothic. Internally llOx 57. 
An octagon itractnre in Pieudo-Gothic ityk. 
Gothic of feeble character. 
Gothic, perpendicular ityle, iatenallj 105 x 63. 

Portico, Corinthian, tetraityle, monoproityle. Body of church an ellipii!. 
Ionic loggia; dome 60 feet diameter externally 140 high from gronnd to 

enmmit ; ityle poor. 
Nearly coniomed by fire, 1844. A hcBTy and patcbed-up Gothic man. 
Plain Doric, on a basement story ; sqQnre tower of two itorie! at one an^ 
East front, tetraityle Grec. Ionic portico. 
Irr^olar in ityle, partly Corinthian. 

The happiest and moit pictaretqueapplication of Grecian style in Edinburgh. 
Centre portico bexaiifle, lateral coloonide* of icTcn intercolomn*, and 
end paTiIioDS with four antK-pilaitera in front. 
Elizabethan style. Building 269 x 275 feet. Internal qoadnogle 176 x IM, 
The qnadrnngle and chief part of the actoal buildtoga 1^ Sir W. Bruce. 
Style later Elizabethan, but rather poor, yet the builtUng interesting aa an 

architectural monument. 
Grec. Ionic, tetraityle portico j in other respects of qnite ordinary design. 
Doric, hexastyle, monoproityle portico, ditto, ditto, 
A mixture of castellated, Tndor, and ' sash-window' styles. 
Not completed. 

A Anted Doric column, 136 feet higb, including pedettal (IS feet). 
Intended to have been externally a copy of the Parthenon, but was diaeon- 

tinued after a few of the columni had been erected. 
A lofty circular tower of five stories — style intended for castellated. 
This cenotaph a iqaare mat! formed by four Grec. Doric column* on each 

side, on a lofty solid itylobate. 
A Gothic Crtat, with pinnacles. 
Egyptian Obelisk. 
A low Grec Doric structoie, with dome and hexastyle portico on each of 

four fronts. 
The building towards Parliament- square, a rather handiome elevation in 
the beat Adam style, but disfigured by the second floor windows bavin; 
no dressings. 
Tetrastyle Corinthian portico. Now taken down. 
Tetraityle porch with statuei over the end columns, and a dutylt over the 

two centre columni. 
Plain Grec. Ionic, on a basement floor. 
Considered one of his best works. 

Grecian Doric, portico double octaityle, recessed colonnade! alone ildea. 
Carried over Carlton-itreet in continuation of Waterloo-place, on an arch or 
tunnel 40 feet wide, 55 high, and 80 in depth. The parapet adtxned on 
each side with a imall colonnade, anil an open arch and Corinthian colnnua 
in the centre. 
Tbe largest pile of building in the dty — about 400 x 250 feet. Handiome, 
but not sufficiently digniBed ; tbe origbil design, as then intended, pub- 
liihed in Adam's works. 
A handsome small open circular temple or monopteroi, of Doric order, on 

stylobate and basement ; but now in a vexy ruinous condition. 
Cirlton Hill. 



18-16.] 



THE CIVIL EXGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



9 



fiDF.AT BRITAIN STEAM SHIP. 

( inih an Enfrminf Plait I.) 

It b with imt MlbhctHM tbit we egmncnee tbc MnM of plate* 
iBuMraliuK Ui« talume wllli a ittb^ct ut m gcaeral and v*Inatile lolnrot 
ta tnglawn, asUui ragiom of Ihp " Grt^al Brilaio." I'lalo I. inn copper. 
pUtr M)tn*nigt»pK»BUa{lh*po«llii>a and KPtKrul arranc^ntcaU of Iho 
(-■ngiiK*. Tlia thccI la Mppoanl lo be cut awiilatiipii to ibat our hair 
Ite ■webinvr; ii ibown ; Iwo of tha firar cjUmJcr*. bilf ihc- dmn whicq 
«|flT<i tlte rivlIrM co^gfd chain, ttr. A full clntriptioa a( lU: Oroal 
Britain wa* p^*a ia ihc Init OcUbcr and NuttL-mlicr numWra of tbU 
loMraal. wlikli II » nal nccrii4ry lirrc Ui rrfiorl, aa Itie iti|[raiiaf; ii 
Mtl tntBeiainly eiplanaltirjr of iUelf. It hiu bnea eatrfullf reJitcnl frain 
theorlgifiol dr*<Hng( of Uia Urtu Bnloia. which w«r« oourlMusly placed 
■1 oar diapoaal of tli< ptirpvM : ibe Kale vt tbc pUtc u a qv&rter «f on 
bKb U> Ibc feat. 



EXI'EniMENTS OS STEAJU 

A. paprr b; M. Itvcsauk wa* read at tiM Pari* Kadttut uf Scienccet 
«a Dec. IS. ivlaUra to faU *xp«ri>iMU* od Meam. The Miiiicler of 
Pablk W«rba awUird M. Refvaalt with th« hma* «f nuklog lh«»e ex- 
pert aieati on an ciIcuiItc and pracllcal icale. The qotsiiont to bedo- 
termlaed bj M. Regnanll vera^l. Tbr law which onilrt the tciiipe- 
(Bturca aad cUiIk pawen «f aijUfooB vapour at aiturailoo. 3. Th* 
H— lltj of bL-ol absorbed by a kilogniiame «f water at dcsren, to be 
«aa««rt«d into iletm forMlurallon al differrat d^Er^eaof pre«*ure. S. 
Tba ^aanUlji of beat a1worb«d bf tli« Bam* qnaDtlt; of wat^r, in order 
to raUa (bo t«niperatara to Iba point In which )l bmuum tha Htnto nf 
nfraai anikr dilhrtnt prvMore*. 4. The ipociflc heat ft aqueoui *>- 
pout at different olaicc* of deaiiiy, and at different dcgrtco of tempera* 
latm. 5. Tbe co^^ncloati of itilatnliirn of aqiioou* vapour id ditfemil 
•lage* of dantit*. In bU prfwat pap^r M. Regnault gWM Ui« tat* af 
ttw clattle power* of ateaa up lu 2S dcgrr^s cenlijrade, which trmpe- 
niare cormpooda to 28 a(mo*pbcr«a aad a lialf. H« nasi fixe* ih^ 
total beat of (leam taken al dllVrrcnt profinrci, from I-Sth (a IS atoins' 
pbem; and floally, b« irtatt of tha catori&c capacity of water from to 
tW dagr««L Maaj ditllnguithed nuo have d«*oted ibeir aittnlioo to the 
cimttic powtn of >t««in. M'a nia)r meatioo Achard, Greu, Daltoo, 
CbrinlMii, \rab«Tger, Watt, Rubinton, BMaocutu(( Sibnifilt, Southern. 
Ure. fiaj'LvMac, Angutt, K«cmU, DuIodk, aa<l Arajio, tbo two taller 
vt whooi eontDBBcrd their «p«r)niPola in ISiJ, at tb« re<|iic«l of the Mi- 
oMtf of tlio Interior, and pubtiilxd no account of thcro in IBSO. Tbe; 
cuned their opcraliooi «p to KI alniotpheret. About lli« mow period 
K GOBBiIssiDa of tciiolidc Anicricana pt>rfurBied a leriri of etperiiBtDls 
Ml Hilt aali^ect, bal wrot un to only If) atmof^ihtrci. Th« reiull». how* 
«v»r, «f th«M differval oxperimtntii wen aat alilL**, coa^r|tien(ly M. 
Bafiuall had to take eolirelf ii«i* gruiinJ, (r««tly aided, Imwever, by tbe 
HOgrcM which aeieaoe hi» made aloci the period alluded to. la hia re- 
ndl) ba ajcrtra aiott wiUi MM. Dnloofc and Arnxoi particularly a> re- 
gard* high ralB* of pre*Mire. Watl had ouppuHGd that the total qiiao. 
ttljF ul bait n«>wHaT) for ihe tranifonnation uf a LUojTamtnB of water 
Into tlio •tat' of Fteaai wat enrtaia under a GonatoBt pr9uar«. The antt- 
b«r nlnwlted vat OSO, Thli Uw, allbough not cscnpIiGcd by any pre- 
cia* csperioMot, bad been, oslil Tcry Utrly, rej^ded aa piuiLiie. and so 
advpied In tbtory and pnctfc*. M. ![?£■»■>'■' lionrettir, bat aicertaiaed 
tka< (bh number iacrvoin* coontantly fnim Kit under Hie preuiire of oae- 
Aflh of an alBoijihere up to 670 under li almotpbcrra. At Ihe oidi> 
■H7 prcMurc the areraga uf 16 ex peri me ut* (iTcans-IT. As to Iba 
calorifie capacity of water, it is I,IKI0 brtwrc-n Oaud Wdtgrem, I^OA 
bttweM SOaod 110, 1^13 between 130 and 190. 



Tna CATtntBaAL o* St. Dsxia. — Tb« monttiDnil erected to tba nemory 
of .LMk XVIII. to (he (oulu *i ibt CUhMlr^ or Sl DidH U tb^tx Maa csapleMd, 
•n4i. akcD tutmhn*. Oat or Oaatm X^ hia ivcm«Mr, vlU Iw vntM^fd wUb. Wh«a 
OililadankaUihcPnachKiafiaad PrioowonloiaiOIIIKihuenwaaaaNdeWiw 
bvata«», a ■aaa*ai, m ■ •uiuo. 




CWRIBT ClllTRCll, PLYMOITH. 

Vahnre rfcHred «orae infomution Tv«peclia£ (lie arcbilecturr of (hi« 
cburcb, which h&ameuil; bceu completed, from the detiziMof&tr. H't^bl' 
witk. The diiuenJnni are about 70 Icct by 00 fret. 1'he ttyle, Prrpen- 
dicator. Tbe ueitrni fniiii proiimu thrw enlrane«a and ibKc gable roofi, 
of which lli«Mnlral or higheil ptble reacbet the height of SO feet, Bo* 
twrca i( Biid ewch of the wing Kabl«a rim aa ovUioaal turret, and at tlio 
outer flJts of ibc wiog Kiiblet ore pluoaclot, 

It will be coatluded fran Ihi* dMuiplion of tbn weeUra froot. that tbo 
niteriur of the churcli t» divided into (brcc compartnMolo— of theae the 
central one, or nare, U divided frooi the lateral aitJe by pirr>. Tb«re ara 
fine archr* no either ildc of ihc oarr, and oicr theia clcrettor; irin- 
duwi, ohicb gite llic prineipul light; for «wId{ to the rwaiiguity of 
ntlghboariag biilldingi, Ibrre are do wiodowi wfcal«*«r in tlw tide aiilea, 
aod coavequvntly ihere ■» do nioiins of tlghtiac lh« charcb eiccpl by ihtoo 
clertatorir* and Die windowa at the rail and wcbI ends. 

Our InfonnaDl aay« it was abwiaiely Decenary lo introduoo ^lleriei. 
1Io(te*or, ii appfare that Ihe Rallerivo are »et to far bank, •* out lo abut 
OB the picn, and a« ibey do not crua* the alila winduwa (there bcinx oodo 
to be croned,) tbi* " ahaulule Dooeaait)" ia aol to mocb to be r*grctted i 
it olherwiae would bare t>M0. 

The aidiltcct baa aboira great JuJgiueat in Ihe ideclini] of aoine of hJ 
dctaiU, from aacieot example*. The ncalcro eotrantc* an curled fnMnl 
thme uf TalU-nall tlhurcfa. Ihe crucknta uad Uniala of th« octafttinal turrets 
frora thote whieh loaoy of oar reader* may remenber al tlagdoleoe Col- 
lege, U&ford. 

Tlip nature of onr inforaiatlon doe* not warrant a very decid«] rritteiun 
an Uie uef it* of tlie new church —the general character of Ihe irchtlcclural 
dcUiU i> preliabty unexceptionable. I'oleM, bowercr, w« be greatly mi*- 
taken, the building bo* one great fault — a tketc/rvHl ; tbe eletoiiun lo> 
ward* llie Kreet cihibitiog cunaiderable prciemiun*, while Ihe other aide 
ofths church are merely plain maiaory. If RiUiufoTned on thi* point, ' 
•hall he glad to be *ei right. If, kewerer. Hie fact be •» here aMumcd, it ' 
ccrUiaty will iDalcriaily diminiah the arcbileclural laW of the baildiog. 
One of the luuii ndiiiimlilu cbaniclcrislice of the old Cliriilinn archltecUj 
wa* Itieir tulal rreedoin frum preteuce. Tbey never ndarned one aida of I 
rhureh and left the oUirr Ibroo (tdei plain— taking c«r« lo turn Ihe drtMtf 
■id? where it would be uimI ooeB, Thera is no aaeieat cathedral, minoter* 
abbey, church, or chapel in CiiriatrDdnm with a ahuw aide. The old 
arehitecia never alicnipud lo ctieoi behulien into a belief ibal their works 
were elaborate, wlieo In Iruili tbey did not dr«erre Ibe charactee. Of 
conrae th«M remarka muat not ha eonudnred to Imply a ceaaare on the 
artbitcclurt «f lite I'lymoutb Church. The architect caonol of course 1 
blamed far the defect alludud lu, if hr hud no power uf remedying It, Still 
it is greatly lo be regretted liiai he ahould have bad lo eien hia talents 
umtifrcircumttancei which would of aeccstiily produce an unaaiisracturj 
reault. At Ihe eaal ead of llioChureh, in the plaoa where the chancel tl 
uaually buitliUa "cvmoiDoiaii receu," ten feet deep, 

.Since Ihe above was in type, we have received a deteriplion of th*J 
church, tileu froiB the I'lymastb JaureoJ. Athowevrr ibif deacrlpUoa 
is very similar tu thai giieo aJ>oie, vre uvail ourauliesof tlicf-^UuMing pa 
only uf Iheealraclarnl to u>, "The lalrriorpnaon t* on effect ufligkuaet*' 
and eli^nce which ii admitted by all who have oveu it, and futly JuatiOei 
tha architect in his idea, that the deUilt of Oolhic arcbiieclurp nay b« 
enployed in ihe fulleal coaaisleucy with that expreaeion of epcwMvat which 
should characterise a l*r«te«l«aC cburab. In fact ihe public ot ibcBc towns 
have now as opportunily of nnking a fair caropariaon Leiwcca the pecu- 
liar eh aroderiatic of tbo Caaidmiieitruclure, and tbose of the Itefuruied 
Church. St. Miaba«l*s, at Sloke, and Chrtil Church, at Plymouth, ors 
now before (hem. Ia Ihe former, we have Ibe pictnresqoe— in the laltor, 
lhec4cKMnt. The first shows a hasdaoisc, tbougfa unfiaiabcd exterior; lbs 
latter its single front of far more omale character, ihc naenDa of the arcfai. 
leet belag cancntniled on one point, and that beiag brought lo perfect 
OompWUon. Sl Miohoers is of Ihe most simple plaianes* within, and 
aihols no Biere tbau a gnoral expreosieti of akadowcd gloom. Christ 
Cborrli exhibits, wilhla, ihe deuoralive amount promiaed wilboul, and 
uoiiea solea^aily with grac«. Tbuugh ' cheerful as ihe ds;,' it la out leas, 
iS Cowper would say, lbs honse uf ' Inie piety.' H'hal iba uiat of .St. 
Hicbaera may be, we have yet toleorui but we know, thai Christ Churcb 
km htm eaapUtod, indisding HI. for extras, for uoly 61. i*. fid. above the 
anUtHA aiUaati— (he touJ oosl of the building being l,t7tl. The ac- 



10 



THE CIVIL ENGlNEblR AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Jahttajit* 



jation Is for 1130 tUtcn, «f itbma SS nuj^i hcrcuftcrt hun to osak* 
^my for BB on[»>- f^ c'nu' Intnul diniMifioM of tbe otiiirch mn, trom 
«ast to wpi% 8T r«(rl, Knd frost tuirtli ti> MWlb 6B feet." 



ON THE CHANGE OP OSCILLATOBY INTO BOTATORV 
MOTIOS. 

Bt p. BjisnfoiTn, B.A., FeUow of Si. Jrfin'i Os>1te{e, CunhrWit. 

Notwiibstabdiog »U tli« diapgiM tMpeeUiic lli« «ruk, it appears UuU 
no beU«r lubsUtuh: Iiu been ur iitob^Uj caa b* loiod, !■ fMl, lh« b«ai- 
Ur«l a^liptaiiuD <tt llic vdociiy uf llie amI eflho OMMctins r«<i to Ike !«• 
^raiMBU ci Iba jiUloD U inch u cunol be Mtrparaed. Still tbere hp- 
poara to be a great objcciioa Id tbe prcaeat tnelliod of finployias il in 
loeMMllvee aad MMio «f Die atMncM, m Um Gr^at Hritiua. Tbe pUloa 
Md aad lh« cosDcoliuc rod v* laoliaeil at a cowiJrfabk) angle cldrit>2 lh« 
moat InporluA put of the ilroke, anil Ibb gift* riw lo terj voDtidcratiU 
tAeOaa. 

In lh« brum rnginf , atid wbara ftan ia raon fer ila appllcstios, tbe 
panUlel Batiau of U'nU ba> bc«* toaai to auwet oonptetelj avery par- 
pMe,but in locoaotiTe*, &c. tlicn In not ibe nccceawj apace. For diis 
purpoK il U proputcd Iv make uie of tbe nrll-koow proprrtjr, that If a 
circle of radius r roll in tlie iDlnrior at a rin;I« 2 r, anj podnt la tht cLr- 
«ainf*reoc» of th« foraxr will eoMtanll; deiwribe lh« tame dlaiBFler of 
tbe latttr. Thli gtamotrical pr'mciplc haa beea alraadif 'PP"^ in loe- 
chaoics, bal aeTcr, It it bcIkrH, in ibe Dianoer about to be caplaincd. 

In figi. 1 aod X, H K lepreteaia an arc of a circle, liaflng f qaal cjlia- 




ioa 041 a plane perptotlicuUr la Ike aair, tibidi ir (orn^ hy tbq cnrnk; 
The diamclcr of K 11 bimI not be Icii th«a tbe leDgth of tbe atrokc of tbe 
piRlon. The Ggore* rcpcearni ibe acccsMurj w'mtt uf Iho MTenI parti lo 
viMure a ilroke C B, tbe wkole uf tb« gnardiiig nacliiaerf being on i 
»i4* ottik* fiitam rod. 
Piga. a aiid 4 nprtMOl tW9 dlfenwt itatea of lk« *«naa raHtrtnuace i 








drioal ituda Cud at vqval djalapeea io the pitch cinfe of radial S r, c 
ni iia cealre. Tbeae are lixad tnaXj to the frame. Tba bar c £» i«- 
[ ywiwtcd b? Uie dolled Ua», ia capable tH m«*ia|; abeut Ibe ftud eentre c, 
■adUEoMflaaaaaulaaaflfaaaiSmnit tO afradiur] •£ srCD 
laAapMniad^nd «mIi| JtoMBflMkMCP ia canpeUed to nDm 
HK,aMlC«i014«KTna«parfMllyilni|HllBa. Tbe pM £bad battar 
WtiifiOj CQMwM with *• «a r r. Ito •gawtPi fm M ft ff^^ 



R|. S Fig, 4. 

c«minunica<inf; motion dlrccllj to llie cmak, wltliout the cmiiroyTnenl of 
onjr conaeclini! rod, and lo thai the axis to be luroed maj lie ptnced at 
little mote tbaaJialf the iKOgtti of ilie tiroke from Ibe end of lliepdaloD. 
The loiters refer tn tbe same parts a* before, tba piteb cirdcs alooa 1 
rcprcMoted. 

Id (bit nrranfHnenl tbe craaks nnil bo at the eoil cf tbe axla 
turned. Tliii, bowerer, viuuld not be of ureal iiu[)urtauce is ill appH- 
catiuo la tbe acrew propeller, or lo locamoilvcB, nbeie Ibe conoeotlng rod 
sets ouliido Ibe wbeols. It i> «i»d«ol, from an inapeetion of the figure, 
Ibnt tkc tclotit; of C U gtealvil vih«D passinK c, aad Uial It is gndnally 
bmagbt lu reiil at cack cud of the Mnikc, altbougli c E maj be reiratviDC 
all tbe line. 

la order, ho weT*r, to render liit*e iiiggeatioaiof anj practical nlUlty,! 
oil! be DPC«s*ai7 lu puiut out Uie luitliuJ of rcndcriDK tbe motion exUe 
>cai IF and durable. Tbe uudi aliuiilJ Im: inaUe suflicienllf »uoag to irillt*] 
■land the forces to be applied, and corcrcd by ihoM triblet-drsnn brasa 
lubes, and lift at libnrtjr to rcTolve. Tbene could cuiljr bo chaaged in a 
ihorl Umc, if they ahauLd brconie brniied or wora, sad would aava Aoai 
ityurj Ibo cuuslaut part) of tlic jiiacbiuiirj. 

Ills ncEl knoTrn, that bj the gcooicUic chuck almoat perfect epicf . 
cloid* and bjpucidiiids can be traced wltli cane imd tapiditr. Now, 

bete are tbe curtei required wbi^reier pin wbeeJi are used. Snppoic 
t bat wa have a large cbuck, and ihni we r«plac« the tntcing paint b; a 
circular drill or CQtlcr kept coottaal'y rcrol'iig with iU ceotro in Ika 
place of tbe point, a* tkc chuck, aa nhicti ()ic n-hrrl tii \>v cut ia muuiitcdf 
in caused lo aiove alow]]r,the exact furin of the uiellt wilt be given. Tke 
teeth oBKht to b« cast tnffloientlj large lo bear shaping bj th« retolflng 
lool. On account of the crrlaiDly wiib vrhich atnoBt perfect fonni caa bn 
et«eo lo tlie teclh of nusb nbcela b; ordioiirj woikmon, it appcaT* that 
lliio method of obaagiog angular iclocitr nnuli be uacfal nbcre atreagtia 
and fcetdon of notion are required, wbclher for turiel clock*, or for In* 
creaiiog tb« angular velocity of (he Hrew prfrpeller. 

Tbe iiieiht»l# of fonaiuc the teelb of apur «rbe«la ia eomnioti OM appea 
to be vri J defective. There are *o amoj cbancc» of error in tlie letliag 
oul and cotting of pattern?, and aflcrvrnrds in tbe alleraliun caused by 
unequal conatructiOB of neUb, ibut it upiiears Ueairntile iLat aomf Im- 
rovenent ihould b« made ; and I am in bopet of being able lo point out a 
metbod by which teeth of any pilok may be formed witbual uo; Ebange 
of cutter, and appreximatiog very nearly In tba fomia rcoonnncnded 
ProfeiiorWUlii. 



THE RAILWAY 8U6PENSrON BRIDGE. 

pATESTEn BY aU. H, H. BlIUCLU 

(IFiiA Mil EHgroriae, Piatt II.) 
The aceonpaajing illuatraliiina (Plata 11.) exhibit the eooatracljoa i 
reeenlly paleotod tanpenaioo bridge, ivliicb tbe inveaturt prupoie to apply 
t« ibe psrpQSM of lailway Itaffic Wa ha«o bceo favound by H r- 
Lapidge, tbe comMy surveyor (or Surrey, at wboae t xp ta m Ibe patent 
mu aMured,* viltk a descrtpliein of ddi foveaHn, wrMw wMkt«*> 




• A noM of Uie brlilie. upgn a l«rf« *til«, nuf be 
De>t>I.«tr««i, WMtalnMci, 



at lb. tapldg«*aa31cei. 



A 






i 

to 

g 

p-1 
g 

F— 1 

H 



rr^-i^ 



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s 
a- 



V 



I 

8 



ii 

u 

3 
a. 



t^^ 



3 

cr 
a; 

o 

3 



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p 


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IS4S.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AJTD ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



Ik 



dcnfloB bO die man pnls»«roH1i; twcanw ft fonu ■ BMri; nntqvama- 
towl to tlie txir%i»gut cneotDinttt oKidi ixmaHtm Binally b«ili>w on 
AaU vKU prodacttoac A*i bowcrvr, en c«iui<lerati«D, wa tliisk wp c«a 
4taani adrantaCM in ^e prtwnt itTCoUoa vkicb are Dot quil* •ppwaot 
al trit wsht, [aad which mre,i)ot com men I erf no in ibc ()e«criptii>ti wbtob 
«■ b&vc ivcaind, we lut« Tmliirpd to gitn uur nnn «eniuii. Tbe inrenlor 
iriU k«i9 o« uuM to CMnplois of ih« dFtenniB&tioB. 

It U ool, k«ircT«r, ta b« uodcratood tlial o« iL|MbJ«ct w uwiplkaM •• 
ibt Aeonr of iiu»peiiaMiB bcnljca, ut judgBest, IwwcTer CMfallr <oa- 
iidarad, can liat«|Ui« Eame Ttlue as one pronoaoccd' is timplct cai«». 
The gcntial probI«ia of the eijuilibriain of iiiipcodMl ebkioi ii lu iliflicutt 
ftbeo appliad (a pradiee, Uial it it iapoMible td prpdkct with cerUintj 
tha cuct practical <d«vt of aay untrir<l krruD);ctDnit. Ifvworcr, a* t» 
tbi pretcDf inatancr, tb(^ iovcslora do not apply ibcaiacltn lo ihc ccropli- 
died qaatiiMu mpeclinji lb« nrlaliua uf the vorioiiti tcoiioa* ta the 
alnB|;lli ofj^Mlcna], bul cooGoe tbcir ntlrnlioD to the inea.Di at finvtMlnf 
lariflatioM and MaJ*tIufi««i or Iha pUtform, th« tabjcct can Im Mliafac- 
lorilj uamiBed witboal ibe uk of tnalbcmatics. 

Hm iBftdUg IdM «f tba ittvenlioo'ij >o umplc, Uiat a v«rj few words 
wSl anSe* (0 aaplaln it. Each cbaia a( the itrdinnrf lutpeDtlon brid^^s 
it raybued fcj two HgMer chalni erMttrng Mth atlitr. Each irf ibcM erosk- 
iai cbaiaa la aaeptodad hj ta kjf Km! aad l»icr«< poinit, aad the two Biay 
■Ijo ba bitaKd',al their poinls of istencctloa. The satpendint rodi ara 
to aadi ckaio alieni>iBl>, ]aad ibe adga of llie plaltsno wUI ba 
•upparted. ihtoaglMHit Ua leaph bj a atrtat of altMMteljr 1mi| 
Md abort rada. 

Em7 pntlical 'cDKiaMT ikaova'ttic iwportanoe mt atraagtbaauK « 
MnHture bjr aapporti or ties arranged ema-wiK. Jht nafa af railitaj 
Maliou ma; b« rcferreJ to ai ramiliar.inttaucri of ibe valaa of crmailaa. 
Woodaa fatWlgM. ID vthich tba tttBn ara arnuiged dtafooatljr, and call 
iapa ciadan, mlb] nron rib*, •(« mmr'" of tba him pf tadpk. la fadt 
k «^r ^ l*iil ^1** "> ■ KvoMvl pcfaulptt tbat all atraolarta wbcce tb« 
ffoiots of aitppart am at conaidcnbk disUacaa fran aacb otbar^ diiri«t 
MaUlty and ri|iditr frotu a syslvai of oblique rods or beana. 

IM ■• BOW sea bow Ibis pria«iple applbi to.Uia caw br(ar« ns. Tba 
dUubanoaa (■ wUdb a snapeaalaD .brl^S" ^* iMbic, froai eiteml forcot, 
aaoriwaklada— int, naUaitoai. or aiming of Ibe ebaio fron aUe to 
iWa ajeoadly, ndalalkn, or tba witioal r1aio« awl fclHaf gf llw aa*«rsl 
yaatsof th« pUlfurm. Nan, witb.rciprct lo Ihif firtl bind of ilUlorbtBcai 
kia obriaoa tbat a cbaia sutpeodcd frvio th* top* of twO' ptert raual be 
I ptadaJaw Ihsa one tasieoed by iU hlghcat and lowest paiaL. Tbat a 
•iispc*dsd br iU two hittbest painu is readily irt to boUoo, aad 
OM ba MaiotaiBed. in motioa by a digbt fflrca, nay bt NMliijr seew from 
ka hmtHar iaalanoe of a cbild** vwiafp But it nay also b« atea from 
4ba HlBB inaUncc, tliat If Ibc lowest pdal of tbe curvo b« /oKmnf, Ibe 
kaUllty to oscillalioD I* almoil cDtlrely ramovcd. In the iuTcoiiun befora 
m*, tkid aiethod of pre* entiag oacilUtioa ii adopts, and Ibe ad«anU|a is 
Awlber ioaraaaod by tba wuub of Ibc two crat* cbaiua al tbeir foials of 
Manaeiioa. 

The aac«qid ktodof dlamrbam^aofaoaixasioabrMpa- - ihetindulatocy— 
it by far lb« no*t inpotlaol. Tb« baifbl «f Ibe uadulalianti of the Henai 
Mlffr in a storm ba* brcn bnoirn to be Mune n or 10 foel, wliile lh« Iraas- 
atna oaelUaliOBs wera seardcly i^errabln. Uy far ili« muil intportaai 
part, Ibenftire, of the inmtian of inicritctln^ tutpaiuion ebains It tbe 
neant lb*y affoni uf prrtfntjag llae ritinfi and fulliog of tlic plalfurip< 
nia cITect i*, bawrver, do! inmcdiatcly obrlousi'Bad wc shall perbspt 
bita aonialittir diflinutcy in rcodcrinc tba caiiUnatton of it iuiflliKihlc. 

Vbal wa wiib lo sbow it Ihii— tb«( ibe efeet of two cli»ina, Luth wailed 
lo A« platfottn, tt amih Ibat, what* lh« dettecUan af the on* chain would 
tad Id raiaallM flatfarai, Ihe (ithCT chain would lend tedeprets it— ^n 
Iballbn two cbaiot woDld, durius llie paaaintfofa load, couDteract tbo 
kwkoey of ca<b lueletaie ordepririie the tevccal parlaofihe roadway. 

r* nska Uka poinl claar w« uill rafer to Iba flfuro of tba tingie-spsn 
fcridite in tba Bcconp n ayinf plata. We wdl aiippote tbata beaiycarriafc 
i bat got some dMaaoc aerota the brldfcr, bat ikaa not yet tiMbad Ihc ooalre 
I of it. Now let ot see what it the Hfecl of thit load oa «ncb obatn ttft- 
ratcJy^flnt, for bttanca. oa Iba obuin which si this plac» Is Iba bIghMt. 
Tkt loxl raaU w Ibe pU<fi>rB>> aad tcodt t4 siftk it, sjid Uiia lendeaoy is 
wauBaaioaticd by one of lite 1<mii ruda lo tbc unwr chain. If, boiratcr, 
the acihHiof Um tod piill dttwn the ebaia al ihn poiul, we know by Ibe 
aaluiv of aut])c(id«d chataa, Ihai ih« whotn af llw aiirta will be acted npon, 
filfag at BO<Ba'pniati> nnd slDLin^ at olbi^M. Now \H »a t** what Ac 

KSbd of tba pattinc load b on^Uist chain nbicb at the place In qaciUon It 



lowatL Here tba eiTeft of Ibe load la tmunUlted by oaa oftfceShsrlnd^ 
whirl) leads to dapreat tfalg cbaia alw ; and hvrv a{;»i<i,J if the chain b« 
actoally dcprcMcdt tbc whok carve will b« acted upva, Rising at auuta 
poinU aad siokiag at'oUtcra. Rni if the matter be atlcntKciy conalduc^ 
11 will ba found tbat lA« portt qf tA« va« fhan miieli Irad to rite v9 
dlTMlfy abaaw Ooar pmU rfOe othtr_tiatt wkUk Umi U Mk, to Ibat Ikea*- 1 
teadaa c lea ara oppaalla fo aaeb olbar, aad am ootwileractMl by A* 
attwkncnl of bolb ctslai to the platfona. 

Or, lo eipreaa ibo aana ikioi; aaolber way, a pasaini lead tends to alter 
tba whflU corvnloxe of bolb cbiuu— lo draw tba two cbaine, in aoaia 
piaoat, ctoser to«etker, and, in olbaet, widar apart. Hum tbey an in tkcir 
po*ltioikiofe<tuiJibriiuB. la the ordioary sin^-cbala auepcusioa beldfe* 
ibcrv is ootbisg bat the waiEfai of tlie obaio and pbilfcrai to nelsl Alt' 
leadeaoy toallertbafcnnaof tbe curTot; bul in Ibis doaUa-chain bridgB 
tba oJterstiDa ii reiitlad by th< taadons or Uirasts of tba conoecUag ro^ 

If wc have (aeeeeded|^io making tbta point gIobt, Ibo nadcrlwtll 
thai ibcae ooaalcraction* occor, not al one or two points of Ibo bridee, bat I 
at every point of It. GTerywlier« Iberefure there nitl be ntcudeocyita 
bring th« two cbakna cIohi logetber, or^mtwa llien wider apart, aad tboM < 
«b<tiaraeTarywbarapret«nUdbyi]iec>aoButiOBof lb«*afti<al roda,ea<^l 
of Ibe rods exerliog eitbar n tcutioa or Ibrntt lo raaiil tk« eflact of thk'] 
patslng load. Tbo two caraes oauaut either recede from orappr 
CBCb otbat on accoant of Iba rods, ta that tba caae is altogctber dil 
Aon tbat] oftiba grdtawry easpaosMM fcildge ; tor ibaro n jiaaatiig 
nets only on Ibe anapeoding rod* imn>«<)iatr1r ndjaernl lo it — bat I 
CTcry rtrtioal rodoflb* whole bridge is acted upon by tbe load, and 
■UleBdaocy lo dtprata ilia plathra. 

Thaadaol Ibcrafofc aeons to be lo conaen tba whale atracUire Into a 
aytlam alotoat perfectly rigid, to kits it, wiiboal any addlttoaal weight of 
iron, neuly tbe eHfiMas aad stability of a girdar. Thi* i* by Car tba i 
important part of thvinTaolkia, aad deicrre* the oarefal coBwdanliea of 
tba liDgiDeeri 

ilia a point worth notiag, that tba sartical rods wonid not always balBaj 
atalo af mtion as in otbar suspensloo bridses, bul ocoasioaally woold Itaap j 
to resul comprvaMOD atto, (wbaro Iba load tcftil«d to brioi; paitta of Ibe < 
cnrrts clueer Icgdber), and tbcrefbre these roda would ha*e to be 
with mofe than Ike nioal rigidity. 

Of cfloTMoa Ml Doeaptloted a autject as that of auapnn^on bridges, na 
opiaioa «B pnatlGfelpololt U pctfacUy Iraitwortbj till verlfled by cipenenee. 
Wo caneut delartaiiio auelly to what oitoot rigidity miiJit be ntlained ii 
a aaap«nalaD bridge oo tbit new principle, *idl we think cAougfa ban 
tald to »how that tba rigMily would crrtaialy be far srralcr than what i 
be obtauMd in Mu ounnuiu luipeusiou bridges, wUiuiutuiiJilionalttiC 
Ijttrocg ditgoMdlwfu Thtaa greatly iDortaia tbe w«'ight of ib«t(ruet«M^~ 
and ire iteaeraUyiaapplicablalroai tba dlffi«utly«f finding ou«T«iuanlpoialB 
fcratlnchiog Ibeu. 



XlEVIilVirS. 

Caat^oaim fo tht Alamtu, ar Veer Bovk ^ /n/WrMtiVn fv the year ^fk 
oar lard 1M4G. London : Cbarlet Knight. Uactpp. ZdO. 
Tbit it tbo uioeteroUi of* *«rw« of aaWMl *«luna* pnbltalied under Hiw 
BBparfMaadsaM «f ibe Society for the fwroBian of Utrful Kaowledi 
Tba UbnuliM laOiit lotome iaeeUeeiad MBderlwo bf d a ■6rsl. "mall 
malita, nalaral blatory aad fUloaophy, ebraiMlogy, gaogiaphy, stali^l 
Iks," he. — lecoBdly, "the IcgiiliAloa, alatltllea, publle InproTcmentap 
uad ebroDlcIc of IMS." The Siat cbapter is on Um " aarllatt printed al- 
manacLa." and Ireaia «ery fully gf the biaUry aad suoc«tai«c improTC- 
mtnu of the calondar. Thit ]i*pcr it written by I'rof. Do Morgan; it 
C40lains, howsTor, ao diiplny of bla aiatlienutiaal genius, but exhibits 
a rati saieuul afaolMiiMriBa MwdiUoii. tr« jihio ch«»«n ooo or two tliort 
extruclt, 03 well for the curioua Dalort of ibeinfaratalioa tbey affbrd, BB 
to gi*e a K^«"d idea nf tlu- >tylc of the paper. S{>railng of Ibe dtdloill- 
lie* which lint Chardi aip«i«o<«d in dctemialiig the lima of Katler, i 
nriawing the Tsriou* j«ta«Uat pruput«d fur tbaao diOoalliea, itiai 
arrwd— 

" Rfgioniontanuiiitheneitanetnacan who declared that the unueeefMto 
wu not la BBMedaBeB wtib ibe it«r»lm f/alwum i be doea net alUmpl tba 
luutl hUMriett Ailtebeod of flatng llie ejtlidng method upon BoKblan and 
the other Nicene bisbopt, bnt rcfen it (and truly, at we abowcd in ow last 



19 



THE Civil BNGINEE:R and architects JOIFRNAL. 



[jANtTAB 



BBmb«t) (o tlifl Abbot DIonpAu, " whow j»ttal Mlendcr," njt 1m, *' wo 
are utiiig to Ihit itj" lie mraliQiii Ibt dilftuioii «( the S<cripturc« ■nong 
the pMple in Ibtrir lutir* t«ngnn m ^*ing rit> lo aiMy doabU knd i|ii**- 
tiona npoft lbs inhjecl i and ftliadM lo ihit diiTuilon ■■ biiing Ukt* plan 
is Ilalr, Hid ipecilleillj u bBving aueil ■ nttnuft tn Cudioal Bnntion 
vhtn he wu kgate it Vtnkv. H* furlbpr up Ihit tlia }twt nrjr rm]usiit])> 
nlied objeolioiM to tbe exitting Ctriiilin niO'de of determininB ■ feiU trhlcb 
-wru utcrKd lo be connecKd witb ilic I^aawvcr : and >a f«r liml ilic itititiii* 
ftctiiin f:Diir, tittt nne piiMti of Brctnen* {tactrdetn premmsri) had un- 
dtrltkcn lo correct tbt error tbcmtelvn, and h*d knpt Goicr a aioutn before 
all lilt mt «( tbe Clilircb — fordoisg wUcb (be aijjavtitc premtntu bad b«- 
coniT ■ itwidiog joke egaintt tbeoi witb a daublo nmninit. 

Bclween dock* and wtiebM, Kahled rotdi, and piMie aatitinn««ineiiU, oe 
an ii»w (0 mil provided (rith b&mttion. thit an elnanae h not a nattcf 
cf the flnt Beoeiittr lo <oMt pertom. It wai othpnriM In the nflaenlh oen- 
lut7 : aiid if **e oonilder bow much comfort muit liaoe (le|)«i)doJ tipiiti bpiog 
abletoamnge liminni tiiib teCtnacr. lo Ihc numr.nmt haliiUifi and the 
■naoalitht. wc (hall tee thai itac reen liit ot lalnti' dep and moon* moit 
lUTO btaoa matter of conK^utincc." 

Th« bipie of aitrology b nalarallj louvlicd upon ts pertiacot ta the 
subject ia hiiad. 

"Tlitrt are oianr mftnoxript elmiiuct of tbelifirrnlh oentoiTTVl remein* 
\ag. Thvj mar be ilirideit Into nhot we no» call nf/ro&ytnf (■ wnrd whkh 
VM ibtn frfqaeatljr tited in Iti onginal leoit), and ibosa wblcb were ilmplr 
tat rODom leal. Tb« mtJwUy of tba ailronouien in Iha middle efa bdkred 
in the prognotUceting pontc of (be ttan i ertn fiogor Uecon incUnet to the 
cnppuitioo that tli«f btve a pb;i>i<«l iollticuce on the bod*, and tbroogb It 
«■ Ibe ael(«f tb« minil. TheCbiireh of Romo alweri, eolledimljr, *ai it- 
■ctf agtinil tbii abianllly. Ket thtt ita po;iei and eardinali were b; an^ 
Bteaiii ui>i«erull5 free from belief in it : bul thoM nho believed caI1Iiden^d 
it aa magic, »bilc tlioie aba diibcIiirTpd thnught it of caiin« an orgtnixed 
fraud. So (hat, upon the srliolc, diriaitioii hj the tlari met wlili litlto 

Sobllc ennunKemeQi, and iLi profnaori were obli^d to nrit« about il uii. 
er madifled pbraiea. Wc bare never fonnd, in ancirnt adrnlngeri, such 
impodeot prelcnaiona aa tboie *bicb hare beeo publLibtd in Londoa in our 
C«n day. If the toenibrra of the Stationor*' Compati;, irlio aiill contiaue to 
pnbliab an aitrologiral almanae, eonld leo Ihia traih, aad eould know (hat 
tbsra are ihopa in London which letl nothing eli«. and that thrre ire per- 
■ont vho make a trade of impnain^ on thr ignorant, and vho doubtleu 
quota their aiithorrly. ve (nppme i\ey would not allov any «onaidpniti»Q of 

E Mil to Induce Ibem to lend Iheir naoiea to the coniinuanrr of ao tite an. 
poaitioii. We abould recommeaid them nnier agnin to do what thtj have 
doae in. ifotn-c'a ^/monac for the preuat year, naiDcIy, inainuatc thai un- 
belief ie attiology a inilJelity, and denial of lb< pruiideni.'e of Ood. Tlua ii 
•B otcrtighl, ariting ftoto an nciikd/d atlenipt at innilstion of the old 
ainanart ; tt tnoat abow the Stitjonm' Caiupamy thai if thtv nill f\kf with 
cdgetoola, andJcalHl »po>t, ibcy ougbtlo|b(: verf carefa] how they oaatheBB." 

Tbe note rrfi^rred to iu Ibe aburc eitnict in aa followa :— 
*' We qaale our grooiul Tor Ibia chargq from Uoore'a Atnanack for 
I&IS. The i'alica, whan miard wiih Romno, tn our oifo." 

■ Astreloyieal PredteiiODt. JwHeitm Mtrttofievm, prt mmn lillS. Ktur 
CWDrwH. KoT Dti! The t'ciet tif tkt Htatrtu it Hit Foin t^ God. IU 
jpeatefA in aft the Ckangn nf Iht Snuont and if/ Ik* TUnw.— Courtcoui 
Seeder.— In tbii mv annua] production, 1 hare a long lime lounded ttie 
fllorr imi>9rtant Iruth Id your eara, and I (ruil »•( m offfn. It ii. however, 
to be Ucuniled that llicte i> a great deal of mfidtllty upon tbe face of the 
«arth, and ei«n no imail portion (hereof dcavci to tbe tkirta of Drilanala. 
....Hiat WOndcT-varkiii^ Hand, which placed r*cb oiigblyorb. . ..Ia clearly 

manlfeit in onr earib hy tbe ebangei of *«a«nnt Lei tlioie labo are dis- 

BOltd lo af#ny Ihf tjUlenct qf IHtint Pfovidtnea rtrteet on ttinte wordi nf 

Doly ttril. Nut a iparruv fallrlh ' — Such la Innuendo would bive )>eeii 

loo bad for the dxteenth century." 

1%e following extract ia Ukeo from a foot note. p. IT. 

"Tboae itboobaerrc ihat Boj-!ehaa let Melanctliun off for hit utrelogi 
with two worili and n rrfcrmcc, would hardly imagine tlic lamentable Ci tent 
(owhich Ihia wcakueu waa hU maalcr. On bia dc«tb-bcd, be half predicted 
that he ahooltl die «■ the day on wbich a cofijuactivn of Mara and Saturn 
weotd Uke p!ae«; and ou one occision, being leen bathed In Icitn, and 
■howinjc every lign of tbn gr«aletl jrtff, it wai fmind on inqnitv tlial on 
looking at Ihn iiars in liit evtning'a walk, bt anw thai ■ dreadful war waa 
■odng o liiint iipan Goriuany. The llrU tlury U from hii muit accredited 
Hogrnpher, Xlelcb. Adam; ilie areond frotn a leia reajiectalile anarcc. the 
" Jocorum aique Scriorum Ontiiilx" of Otho Melander, whoie grin tl father, 
Dion. Mttandfir, waa llic person who oakcil Melaocihon wliat wet llic tnatlcr 
Willi liiiD. Thia aana Olho relaica a tevcre rebuke which Mclonclbnn re- 
ceived from Lather, for aajing that penona Lorn when Libra wn* In the 
ai^endarit malt be miaerable through life: end a ri']ieu]'>ut al(rni'[it lo eaat 
the nniiviiy of an infant child of hia (Olbo's) granilfalber, whoiu he tup- 
povd lo be of (he male eex, and lo whom ha pTomiitd lettningr. honour*, 
■nd ictigioua oontetta. Being told that the child wai a girt, be wu out of 

■ Atlnat flrainni It nlloil Pivnilinncl Pifm^a In mntmporvy taimsffiari)) ca ; bul 
It BBT ba >bM (he** piltau wire of Tarma, and that r&iiiitui«e me altmo Into I're- 
aMiiaaa (tar ibejota'a take. 




m 









cwatcunfc foT a time, and at laat i^d—tbea ilie will rule her 
Bul on aecoftil thoughla be caii a new achonr, in which he condemned 
to death ai aeveo yean uM, sad ataktd the vatMily of hi* art upuri iba 
diellon. Tht girt lived, hawcrer, till the age of fourteen. Olbo waa of 'ih^ 
reformed cbur&, and wat thfreforn free from one biai igainit Melaaetbon, 
n ItMt." 

The paper of Prof, da Morgan It followed by a very neefnl anlcle on 
foreign cichaoge*, and aooie elaborate tablea of the fliictualtoBi of 
fnoda. Wo abould hn** likod lo bare biiuIa aoni* rxtracU from Ilia labl 
of the " tteliitict of crime," aa tbo subjrn i» intimately roimcctcd vrift' 
one fur wbicli we har« fre<juriilty endeavoured to euiiai tbe ailenliDo nT 
ourreadei-a — llieaaDalorj eondillonsof large lawo). We muat, however, 
for lack of >paec, pau* on to a (ubjiee more Inmediatel; conoeeled trilli 
the objecla of lliia work, " lljo railwaya of Ureal BriUta." tnder Ihia 
brod titere ia a brief nbetrecl of nil the railway acta pauetl duriag laat 
teaaaon— forming a aynnpila aomewhai aiitillar to that which appeara la 
our prcaeol number, excepting thai no nntieo i* taken of ibe amalgatta- 
tioBi and olker private arraagenient* of companU*. The followlog ex- 
Iracl ia likely lo be read with iulercst, us giving a good oompcndinm eC 
parliameniarr ^irocerdinga reepecling rallwaya duriog ibe patt jenr. 

"On Ibe 31 It ofDcrrmbcr the lUitway DepaitiDcnt oftbeOnard of Ti 
itiunl ihc! liiii uf a aeriea of lepofla ti[tou the acbeoiei Ihtu eiantinrd by 
them, in wlu^^h leporti, after eoumeriting all the proJKWd Itnea lu a cerloin 
diatiici. they caprcaacJ their Inlcntion to report to pailiaiueiit In favour of 
Milaio aelicmea ami againil tome othera, while lb>y rvcomiDendcd tb« po)t- 
paoemeni lo a fotnm period of aaeh at they conaidered miifht be modified lo 
advancije, or might be rendered tinneeciaary by the introduction of better 
or more comprelientive acbemef. The more detailed reporta in which they 
explained the reaiona which bad lafljenced Iheir ulectiop, were not, in ■oil 
eaaei, pu'iliahed nuiil tome week* after Ibe announrement nf tbfir decUloi 
In irlRtli»i; from ■ man of rival, or partially rival, projek'tt, (he BO; 
uiuallj Kaic Ibeir iccomineniiatiQM In favour of tbe new hnet projected 
friendly connection wilh, rather than (bote in upt^iilioii to or competitioB 
with, already ciiiling Lnn ; and in caacf where ibo engineering featuraa of 
two or raorc rival lehcmct were caaentially diffiuecil, ttuy aatered, in tbeii 
drlallM lepnrta, at cnntidcrBbls length into aucb qoettiona B* Ibe compara^ 
live meritt of the locomotive and atnoapherie tyatema of propultion, of 
ilitTi-reiit tyiieini of gradient), of width of gauge, and other peeciliaritaei of 
cnnctrgiction. In conaequence of an Idea that lucb reporta would decide the 
fate of riilway btlli, louie projecti which bul been prepared for parliament 
were wiibdrann in deference to the recnninitnilaiiont of tbe Hoard of Trade; 
hut in many imlancici the proniotcra determined to proceed wiib their bdllt 
in liie face of adinae reporta, a courae which apiicaii to have been by no 
meau) dirajipruvcij bj' porlianiEnl, lince many luch achemci were aiicreofal 
in oMaiTiiiig tb^if acti, while lone of Ibotc moit w-arioly luppurled by (hs 
lloud of Tr^de were defeated in Comniittre upon their rn'rita, and eUicni 
in eoniiK|atnen of informaliiici (reio^iin^, In lorae cite*, frooi the Impoaai- 
bllliy of preparing the re(|uiMie parljBoieniary plana and aecliona 1^ Ilio 
appointed dav, or of lubmitliog tbeiu to the te&rching niamination niKlaiU) 
for tbe dctec'.ian and correction nf clerical cirori. when the demauil foe 
aarreyon. levellers, draft tnien, and engraven waa i.o urgent ai in the autumn 
of 1044), were thrown nut for nun -compliance with Standing Ordcra. It 
being very erident that, whether the Railway Offiecn of the Board of "ntdl 
bad or bud not {icccdcd the power) committed to tlieui, their imrmmtnih- 
tioni wem dialulefiil lo Iho ?iul«ct Coraiuillee uf the lluuie of CommaRt, 
upon wlio«# right «f deciiion thry appeared to Ireiich, the Railway Depart- 
ment hai bnen completely remodelled by a minnte of the I^rdi of tba CaoB* 
Riitteo of I'fivy Council for Trad", dated tbo lOth of .tuly, IMS, bf wklMh 
Ibo dtalinct Board couitiiuteil by the minute of the Gtb of Auguat, 1U4, 
was dia con tinned, and it wu determined Itiai in future all lailroad bnatneaa 
ahoulU be transacted by Ihc Lords of the Commiitcc nf Pflty Council foc 
Trade In the tame maiiiiier at the ordinary biiaincta of dial Cotnniitteo. 

In tbo lluuie of Ciimmont, llie ciiomioua amuuiil of railney husiaeci 
formed the moil rccnarkaMe feature of ttio ictilon. aod such of ihe Sleodinf 
Orders aa relate lo tbe compaiilian of the Ciiinmitlret on piivalo Inlla were 
autpended, lo far u railwav billa were enncerned. it being inipoaatble, onder, 
tuch eatraordinary ritcumiiancea. lo adiiere ttrivily to Ibe uiual praclicea 
llie liuuK. Railway hSlia were, at the eiimmonecaien.1 of ibe aeiu< 
divided by a ■■ Claasi flea lion Comreiilev" inio ffmifui, each of which 
rcfcrrttt to one Select CoQ)inilt''c, wha were allowed to alt during 
joutumeni of the Ilou»e, iu oidrr lo gel through (he immense 
buaintu before tboio. Nolwil branding r\ery eacrlion, tpany co: 
schcmci failed, from want of due, to obtain a heating) and aoi 
whitli wete lirtually patacd, w«re neeeltarily left over tn neit aeaaion, a 
apecial arrangcawnt having been made to allow the privilege of re-intro- 
dueing iri 1646, and carrjins on from the point where Ihe proceediugt Ittt 
ofTin I81S, luch billi as bail been ordered by the Hnuan nf Cnmmnna to h« 
lagioued. Before tbe tlote of ib« aeaaion eome alietaiioni were made in 
the Standing Ordera, by which the addilional inapt and italementa required 
by the minute of ihe Board of Trade above qiiuicd, arc Tr<)iiirrd to be dc- 
poailcd, and Ihe amonnl of depoait rcqoiicd before prrieniitig a petiiion for 
a railway bill U again increiied to fen, inateid of, as id the laat actiion, fit* 




J 



iwa.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEEDR AND ARCHITKCT'S JOURNAL. 



13 



■I 



ptr CMl. ot Uw kOKMBt nInciUMd. TIm jnereaMd 4epoti(, hoi«ev«r. ii boI 
nf uired ia tba caw of billi ahlch haTB been before putUment is IMi, ud 
■^ Iw ra-iatrodnenl in 1^16. or of noideriaklnp p'otuioDkllr Hf Itlered 
b tf w u it wu hraed, or ntch u batS Uirir MbtcripliM contract exMnted, or 
|Kllr aiwuied. an tbeSStliof Jul;, 184^ Aaunt Uu isporUM pailia* 
BMntv7 prooewGae* pf tli« Mtuvn ■'> lait rvTcr to lh« ftatiug of ibe Ball- 
«■; CladK*' C<>ni«lid«ti«n Act, fajr ohicb all future (*lli>tT act* will bo 
B<k1i Uia(>tit«d i and th« ipfrfiintroent. in coniequnoM of k motina in the 
llMie of CovmwiM bjr Mr. Cabdtn, nf i Royil ComniMion ** far iDi|niriDg 
wbdlcft la felan Prime Aeti of Pvlliiaent for Iha eeaHnutioii of rail- 
a^B, profialon oa|bt to lie nude for tccuring ■ ooifann (iB|tf. and irliilli*r 
ll wonld ba txpeiUt»t and practicable to take mtugia to hiiuf the tallwaj > 
rfiMilrconHiiK^rd. or fai progrcKof conUronlna. In Gr»t Udiain. into 
Baiforiuilj of gMp : and to ioqrire vrbnhrr my otbcr bkhIc of obniiinc or 
■iligatiog tko aetioiit inpedinieNt* to Ihc inlcmal Irofle of the coutitry, 
wUoh at« reprfaeatci) a* Itkdf to wiie froai tb« waul o( a vaiforiB gaugr, 
«Mld not bo adopteil." 

Wo TEgrel we cannot Gotl apnea fornMm Iban n brtvf vannirniilon of 
(ha greater part of Uie n-tauiaing aul^oeli of infumiiiuD. Iliere are toma 
tn7 laloablo Inbl'-* cunfarmg ratea nf Ufa inaaraac* i<t did«Te«l com- 
podiea, ab«tr«cl> of public acl*«r parllaaioit, awl parUuaoBlarj dncu- 
iB«al», a chnaicle of ibe •OMioo** and a aumcrical bccoudI of pcliiiona 
and prirate btlU. The inrurmation Ibrougliuut tbp*« cbupten ia arranged 
ia a *tTy euoful and (atiaraelary oaaair. 

The thirteealh chapter Irrata of " Pablic IropimenienU," and ia diTided 
loto ihrM H«liana headed rt*pecii**ly, *' O'eoaral ImprovraeaU," 
" Clwr«U«>,"Mid " MiKolUucou* Baildiugi^" Of Ibi* pari ofihe noric >re 
ngm la aay Uiai wo caiiaot apeak ia the aaoif (*nii* of comnwndallno ai 
of tta roat. n hetbar il bo thai tba cuodnetora ha*o bora towardi llie end 
ofUwToliinw b«va cunpcllcd t* p«l (lioir reaarka l«««tb«r to a more 
ktatj naaacr tbno in lli« prrccdiaK parU, we caiinnt Irll ; bnl Ibo diction 
iaewalaaaand very frniupatl; aagnLmnntica], and many MMtnen n- 
qsttc to be read acTeral tiin«» beforo the nieaoing of ibem can b« aKct- 
taioed. Of ibcar loulls howcrcr ne ibi>utd uot cumplain, (a* «re do not 
boro prWna to writn a litsnrr critleiani) wcro Uie Unsu*se > 'llicienily 
yriylcBQO* (o etplnia lh« viewa oF Iha antlior*. Tbii honevor i* by no 
f iM In I III lull] Ttin reir. and r>i i> win n irn innrnil ia ftodinEout wliat 
Mm on areblleclural aamoeU ara iateodtd, we ara leldinii recontpaaaed 
fcr the labour of diHoverT* 

The lint |ileca of crltklaai li on the arcbliectnrp of the new bnildinga 
kblad Ike Boyal Eseliaage. t'nroetautel; enough theae buildinfi are 
prabed for the qnaliicatlMi nhith thnr Ira'l of all pi»irw> SpMkiaf of 
Ihc BrraBgennt of the leindixr*, it in ubK-rred lliat It " Is luth ai not to 
<M «p Ibe nau iticlf ini>Iiitleacu,a« it too generally the taae onlngta 
tti arfaJaa-a iejac pst loo cJaiWy logethcr, which tneriinbty ocLastoat an 
lidlaiiili dwtlling-hwiiaa look lu pmail." Now niiliuut olTeiiug any 
Oylatftti (ff oar ntro oa the naorilxif tbe building; in qaeitioa we nay itaie, 
■■•ilaiple fact, that ibe ground floor ufthc buiMin); eihibiU oooooallaDal 
■riaa af ardied wiBdaw-ovaalaf^ierpirainlooly by picrt. In nany of 
the aonMrvalaeloa which ara atiachnl in Ursr eotinlry eeafi, aod are built 
lb aasimilal* ia ar«liileetofe ta tlie eonligaau* bnildirifti, th« affgrtfEite 
■erhce of the window ii ao( eo gieal oompnrtil wilb iW of the Ria^vnryt 
a M il in tiM Krouoil floor of tbo buLtdiufi behind the Itafai V-ic^Augr, 
The obaeitaiKio thai " (hit arcade il evcenllojEly well pmiiortlooHl aa la 
lh« qiianuiy of window opening aaourapored wilb the enlirt surface," wu 
arjtten, il may W eatpcclAl, Ir^/^art Ibe writer Mw the building.* 

Ilia neil nubjt^t ol camnieaUry i* Trafalgar Stgtidre. Of IhU il H 
Mid, "The two footitain* teeni to haoe allogvlber diiappoinied the 
poblic ; for aot on'y liaic lliey been ridieulcd by Iboto who aaLt Burn 
ridiculo pnsa (or criticii<u< but ba^e been epokcB of aerlonely by thmo 
■ bo profcM to deal in aober ctiticiun aa Ihioga of 'iaiensc nslmc»,' 
whirh 11 rxfJbrr Ito arrere, linee tlu tmig»IJIt»»et nf Uerr nfytaitmet 

«l Utttl an <f«ul i^til" Thi* pnitage, of roofM, coaUini a rtferoDM 

ihc crit.ciaui irf ibu Trafalgar -Stjiiar? ruuiilniua, which appealed fome 
ISme since iu ihe Cicif Enj^iarrr iinA A^Ait»«U Jtwiml : the object lou 
SOW fai^d io that criliciMn i« odd enou|h. First, laaifitiiGcanca of 
■ppvaraaea la apobeu uf ai loiuetbiag diatinet and Mparable from 
agUimu i aeeoadly, the f'>rm«t of Ibeae i|uaUlle«, Ihonxb It U taid to ba 
tt "dival defecl' with the laller, ia aaalfntd— not a* an ndditioBBJ 



r-l tlll«4 (hi *IlaMMl< 



■re of tba oetDal arKOie' 



• Hytbieattf IIMOM *• d* 
■eai o[ DiewlBdowii wMtb u e* . . 

abiillb*baiUI«t>i »t tiaivtiiBiiinTitaricu of (hi cae to A«r tlie ruirulaiia anJ 



o[ Die wladowii wMtb u M"c'('T •"■A'Jx^lu'MbWi *auUf>1*c Iti* ewpew aad 

mnta tiOM of (hi cae to Aeir tlie rtdlrulaiia anJ 

^M»ii> nlminllif cf tlw crUlriiiB. n-wn ■ r*ueli i>dn*u<ini»Hi( wMt'i wt havcBtdo. 



t 



iiuTU tmt^ti \tXi i!m eiuie ta» nIom orcupkv Dpaaria or ivo-tMnli of Ut 
fliinnga iiMili h>. In (m, ne Btiei ibio a ccnttButd Mrtn of flaiMl anadM \ 



reaton for ill coadtmaalian— but on aa allog«U>er new eyateat nf logic, 
oa a proof that our eriticiam waa " ralber loo aeicre"!--" which U; 
rather too aercre, siarctba iaarK>illlct»cy of Ibetr appearance batleauoa,] 
Of iwl ifftti" ! ^ I 

ADoih«r *• defect" fa diaeovrred la (b* arebilaeiura of TntfalgalpJ 
Square, wbieb eartaialy uB>er ■nEgealcd iUelf to ouraelret. The wrltcTi 
whooa iLDOwledge of ibc Kaititb lanpiaKc b aa prorouad as bii know* 
Icdfe of ardiiucture, laya that "a aingularly ili»acTMablo oSecl" la 
prodaced, becauaa " itio topa of Ihn wall are not laaile lo riao aiid fall like 
badgaa." U'e cnafeaa ibat tbia plan of makiag Trafalear^nara 
"agtaeable" never occurred lo ui. Ao cxcuto for ell lhcd«rccts nolicedt 
iOt howorcr, found In iho con tiitera lion tbal ibe aite wa* n very bod onr: 
" Barry certainly here undertook a tery unjralefol loak, il being hardly 
poaalbia to muke nujlhiui! tiitUfiu^Iiiry out of auuh an lll-armnged Epot* 
H't alwaya tmugioed thai Iha principal eaaae of the pablie ditappuiat- 
laent reepeetinii Trafalffar S<|"are, war, that "ooe of the uobl'St ailca la 
Btirope " naa sacrificed in an abonlve nKcmpi at arcfaitectnral display. 

Ia cOBiiBcniliTis the new bnildinga iu Liocaln's Ian, it Is olneried that 
Ibo cellingf, "tbougb only of deal mapainliil, hate the appraranco of 
beiai of a aaporiar kind of vitxti, gteal depth of hue and Inilre bei>« 
imparted la it by soom noid proo'ia or prvparalioe." The wonl " ua> 
painted " i* naorkcd to italics, to inlimiur, we preiome, ihal the InibaliaB 
Is excuKd front censure, bpcautx il ia not produced by paint— that iba 
weight of the ceaaure depeuds cat nn the naipln fact of daeeptioa, but the 
lOOtbod of (irecliDg it. Thii pKncijile is that of Iha Spirlao* wbn used lo 
paniab their children fur lorccniea— nben they tonaillcd tbcm cUoitily. 

Had Ibc Mrilcra on "publio iroprurcmrat* " be«a accaaloainl to ba 
present at iho ball-dlnnpra at Lincoln'* loo, they oil gM frequi-nily hara 
heard the merits of the ceilingn in queation di«miue<l aamewfcal uneeri* 
moniausly by Ihrapp<|UlioB — " DruianiageTn." The crilidsin, lo be inr?, li 
not Ibat of profnacd architecla, bat II la at knai that of gentienieo aod men 
of educated laaln. 

In noliciajt buildings deaerriag of admiralion, Ihere la a pBrticnlarljr 
anfortuoato tendency In ebooae for coaiaieiidation the very particulHra 
which a jndicioua friend night bar* paoaed oicr in sileace. Th« abore la 
BSlriking inalaace. fani thore ara maay other*. In IboCnloacun, Ibe fint 
aubjeet of comneailalinn ii llie eircoaislaBca, " that iha oolaBiBC, ttO., ara 
of while msrMe — or, al Irasl, have all Ihc appearaoce of being hi," briag 
fonncd of n coaipoaitioo " that imilaln (hat material nttt dterpthttif." 
Tlie new church at Leeds is said to rihiliil a '< must praisewonliy regard 
to fnmaant esccltrtice," Iha last qaalilj »« should aaalgo to a (iaIMe 
Church ivilb plaiaterceiliBKii. 

The Gnil cbaplcra of the worh ar« a " Elaoiraplcy Analytia." aail a 
" N'etmtosical Tabic of Literary Men and Artlila," The rnlume, ibuugh 
not abtolalely free- Tro.n itrvie faulls. may. on the whole, be pmonnnced a 
taluali* and cerlninly chenp repository of Ibc inromaiien nsnally conlained 
in a '• Year-book." 

^Bcienf mad .1f«frra /I rftiJecf arw ; e^mnUiag ^ Vitmt, Plana, ClreatMaji, 

SiUi'iu, end DtUU* </ (He meet RtmnrktUt E<li_f«t ia lie K'erfd. 

Edited by M. JcLts fi*iiKai>aDi». Series Ihc tccood. Pans », iZ. 

London : Flrniin Didot, ISIS, quarto. 

Tc hate alrcmly niiiocil lonw of ihe previoua oiuolxn of tbb (erioo of 
eacravlnga; Ihoae before aa eaibrace almosl every biod of arcbilcclure, 
aa maj be aaen from iho following list of Ihn principal subjecta :— Church 
of Si. Zacbary. at Venice! Thcolooo* Chorcb. al C'onilautinoplc j Si. 
r.tienne du Moot. Paris; Flaiian Anipbilhealrr, Dome; the bennlifst 
t»mp]e« of ^'es1B at Tivali ; i'«llie Maaunxrnt*. .Vf . Tbe engrarings ara 
eaecoted in a very talSafactorf oMnner, a due regard lo pictorial elTect 
being obacrecil, withoal a tacrlfice of the atcoraer of the arcfcltectoral 
detaila. Tbe Itttcr-ptvaa, howcior, occnpien by far too snail a portion of 
Ibc work, which, owing lo this defrcl, has loo much ihc character of a 
pictare-book fur a work on ancient and modeni arcbllKluie. Tlie 
ardistoUgical noticea aro, hnwevrr, cnrefally telocted, anJ nrn verified, for 
Ihe BKwl part, by formidable arniya of noltioiilie-*. Vic have selected the 
fatlowiDg eitraci, to give some idea of this pari of Ibe work. II ia a 
doflcrlptloa of tbe Charcb of the Tbcotoroa (mollirr of God) at ConstaBLl- 
DOfik, a very impottaol spncimen of a aiyle aol v«r; well koowa in tbb 
eounfry— tbe Bjianliiia :— 

" Tlio plan lie* aaal and vat, tbe >ntfi» of Ibe toil doping from the apii* 
to Ibe facade, aa a* to require a double fUglit of stepi lo reach ib* principal 
entrance ; two parches, with cotumna opening tawarda the weal, admit thn 
the light lo ■ qfadaus reatibaie, which U csttnded loand the eoiaer, alOJi( 



a 



14 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[jAirOAmTi 



Qm lilml taern of tbe cfa u r A m nmafttatttK prccW^ dnihr t« Ait 
MivpteA ill iSc thuiA of St. Ithtk ft Tcnim. la (be btcfiOT. Ibli <r««tiMe, 
«r nuttiex. in dKomted with a ndmWr of Htrtila Mlnmni, which, tnm Hm 
mual fonn «( ihoir tbifU, ud the M»tpliit« of thdr ctpital^ Mea to 
bftMb«««oMaiMdfroa«Mii«adaBtedtllec.....AMsaadMithsi, tu <ret- 
' Ufau)*. nnwindal on thmridw by Ilia oiwvcha** )uMt dnoribtJ, cooi- 
iDBfllettai ItiuiiniUldjp with ihe iIiIm of the cUurcIi, Trotu which it I* tr.pt- 
nted bf a ttildi «>alt. «<(b Ibree Urvr dourwtyi in it. Tbi» tteooA %'»iiba(« 
rmivrt tti liKht from the oster aiKOf tvo Knado. and coaimtmlcatn nilk 
it b; a U.T$r door on Um axb •! tbc adUea. Acowdbg Id (be gcDcrel mage 
uocMgihn Orach Cluiatiaa*, Uw Lbtee uJaa sf tbe tlHiKib aM traced ia a 
apace eaaolr aqoart. with ioar tliidi eolumaa ananged ayiMBetricaU; in iha 
vatici t» aupiiort the rcMtfi aikd Ihe principal daute ■ a £ipo«ition rctera- 

■ bUii( tl>a CMiathUn atrium of the aadeata. Tbe Dart, aa«b wide* than 

■ tlie tide titlM, bat two manive piUan at the tnd, which diflde It fram tb« 
aanctauy. tha flnt pwt of whitji ii iquBre. tnt it Itrnriniin towirdi '.be 
«aat in a aeinidfmlaT aim. wtih Uircc windimi wptiatod In loiall colomni 
■Htftttil in pata. On each tide of the aaacinarr U a daot Icadiac iato the 
saectalka, wfakb are ai tbe and •/ tbe tide aiile*.. . . . Tbe Ufm ef th« 
TlaWfna la TtTT irf niar; the floor of tbe nartbex ia raixd to the leicl ol 
Ike cbntdi by a baraini- Tbe priodpal entrance t> approadied hr two 
fldib of alepti under whicti there ii a cttetilar hriek arch. Th« arehed door- 
WKJ j^ojaelt a littlr. and aben ti there U tnoltier arch din^fd lata two 
fWit, and span, to gir* Kght l« the veaiihole. Tha aidei •[ the fai«da are 
each divided into ivo aooet ; tbe boUoa oooa an oeeeyiid bp thiee amdea, 
aepamtad by iboii marble ooluunt. wbaea cifitali tod baaai, of tbe aamc 
iMterial (tea Sf. 3, pL 3). haic all (he pecoUar chancteriiUca at tbe BjnaD- 
tiae Ujlt. Tbe arcbca are luraed with «t>mt and bridu altematclT. Tahleu 
of wbhenaiblc, ornamented tritb croem and croww, are plucd betwcvn 
the catnaini. and auppeit ni-Tn' jacDbi, that reacb aa bigh a* (be ca^lalt, 
■nd appear to ba*e mpportml luiiee caaeMeota, or perlup* giMfd windmn, 
Id pivt«ct lb* nattber. Towaerii tbe eomera of the facade, beyond tbe 

-ap«B partbea, there ia, oa each tide, a temidrcular mcbe of veij eion^ed 
propoftiou. The wall i* compntcil of connct of Ftone and brleki of equal 
thkkacia. Between Ilie af chM oiti Ihe eoluDint, the builder lie* inlrodoced 

-1oieage-ibape>! hrieki, le^rated bj hori»ntBl linM : near the two nidics 
wUebooenp!' lbfcxtrcniiti» of the facade, the hrirtii aJX tamed in aiehca 
«aD«nldc «nb ihoot of tbe nieba*... ,. AVno tbe whok liaei tbe cealral 
mpebi of tbe eborcb. TUa capela ataak ao a iqnan baienant. and cod- 

-aiate of Iwchc MnaU column*, aupporluis arebea nada wbicb are Ibe lane 
■uiabcr of window*, to Iigbi the dome- The ipberie*! poftion of tbe cnpela 
it covered wiib ehpft Icaif, and in tbe ceatrc ttinr it a very graeetiil fitUe 
WvaHeRl. Eait and wnt of the cupola we aee the raofi of (he chiirch, of 
Ibe Intarlor nartlin. an>I the canciuary. Thit laat n lighted froa nbore by a 
-window Id the laottcd roof... ..The apaii atancleon a poiyfoaal atylobaU of 
Ufa enuol tldci. In ilic upper part tben la tbe aamc nomber of arcadce, 
twoof wbicb arc clutcd, and tlirccoptBi tlieia laal, wluch five llgbl to the 
auctnarji and are prubablj Latcndsil, as in ttie cliurch of St. Sophia, tu be 
M cmbleoi of tbe Tiinilv, are lopportcd by columni imert-cd ia ^qtiare 
Bi*r», and are repented iniide in exactly tbe laine fom and tise. Tbeir 
eiuea, oompoeed of a (iltet aad a lona, eland open a ttona ibal fcraia i 
OMUBon pIbBth. and ia of a pjrramidat thape. Their capitali baee a kind 
e(«raaaiaiic eookpotcd of natoeroua bciiUed monldiogu in the; Byzantine 
style: a thin Jedgt, which projccti coniiderahly ontude, lupjiort* tbe ritw 
formed by the Sanction of (he pO'tygonal facci of tbe apiii. In the iqiiarc 
pillart against wliidi tbe colaiDD* are backed, Ibere are n number of holM. 
frenn wluch it i* nident that theu windewt bore been cloMd hy iron 
(tntlnp. Above thcM ucadu there it a row of ardiod nitb<», ■bicb have 
been exactly co|acd in tiae cathedral of St. Mark, at Venice. Tiic bacli of 
the taulled part li oinamenied with brick li^ugt. The roof of tbe apait li 
« demi-eupola, covered with lead, and hipped, to corretpond uilh the five 
lidea of tbe vertieal partian. Ob aaeh Hde of the apiia arc th? oonitmc- 
tlana thM teTB the eaetetti end of Iheaide aiKlaa and vealriet ; la the ceolre 
of eadi there it a poljgonalaiikis, oel projeciin;. Ijut siertly cut ia the 

' Ibk^neaa of tbe walli." 

It weold Ikave been better lo hare devoted a largnr portion of Ibe work 
lopnte^ud leac to bae tard, arc bi lecture. Vbat pouibte atthitcclurnl 
vidne, tot iiwtaaoc, can tlicre now be io the church of Si. Eiicnoc. at 
Paria, n lajoenUble inetanco ol Ibe lacriOce of a hoc roedinnal edilice 
to the paetido-clasaic nasiar It were hard lo find another Chriatinn 
citureh in which Ibr ueiKioal fentoret have br«n ao eainpW-Uly «ITsced by 
bidcona imilntwns of Itowno dciaika, Tbe borbaroua mnliiatiuua of tl>e 
idlurcfa of St. Etienne exEced even Iboac of tbn nnt frost of U'ettiolaaic'r 
Abbey. 

Aoilnqt -titana r , Oinectorp, VMf'Baak qf SUtittiet oa J Digf*! tf Roil- 
•r«y Xew/ariua. Londoai (Jeaeai4wUI|B»Bvo., pp. in, 

yVt are (oinewhnt late in our oulice of tbb work ; atlH. h altnanaca n» 
aeldent parrfauM till the bcginnin); of the year, oar MceeMnesdniloB will 
appear nboul tbe ri$bt titne. In addition la Ihe ordionrr InlemMtion, the 
Ca/v>dar canUina Ibc dalra wEicn tbe riiiling milways were opened, ibe 
petiodt itbrn ibc dirldcodi of cacU Cunpany are payable, &c. Tie 



tUilrw/ Ltw DigrH (wrWee by Mr. 8bnw, of FaniIrBl*a Ion) ia 1^ 
moat peraplcuonp explanatkia of a lery dilOiult lohjcct which we ben 
net wilb. Wc barn read it thronsfa carefully, and can proniMuicv It waQ 
worthy of tho labnorof pamaal. The 0(t«c(#rp conUinsthe nnntmofflw 
dimcton and oOiccn of all Ibe coaipleted and pro^rcled railttmya ; it gWa 
alao tbe liats »f Ihe mcoibrra of tbe Sloek.f'icliHocr of IiODdon, and Ibi 
chief commercinl town*. Tho work i« very well priulcd, and la (he «r> 
rmngeoHnl of it (icat cnre baa orideon]' bean taken In aooure faoiUty e( 
rebeeaoe. 



JoBe: B»ret fOadrwM AffBc^rr' .dla«noe fir 1S4G. 
MarabaU. 



Slaipkin tat 



Tbii ia a lUKe ibaet AlBanac In wldition Id Ibe caleudar, it toRtaiai 

Rood engraving* of tavoral tnechanical inrealiona, aoeb as tbe ntlwaf 
escaintor, tbe ttenm haoiBci, aod'ecrew propellcn, of wUeb alae bfiaf 
letler-pn:** deacripttotia are siTcn. There uni abo tablet of aeeM «( 
clivJee, of apeetlic gravrtiea, and the pilch of loolbed wheela, ice. Mr. 
Hare evidcaliy (nr cxceeda Lord CbTatcriiald in hu adninitioa vf ptw 
Tcrt* : the AlmanM ia garvlabcd by a doable belt of tbem. 



J-'irti Stepi U Awitamy. Uy J. L. Dtommand, M.D., Profetaorof AM- 
tony and I'hjHology In the Royal Brifaul Instilutton. fMidav: V 
Voar«l,leii5. Ilao. pp. 210. lH lilbograph platea. 
It would be (onewfaal Iraretliiigont of the reconi to sire a cntlea] m 
of tbi* boci, even if we laid daim to tbe editorial ocnnlacieoue 
alose woald warrant at is nadertaking Ike tuk. The work ia a digeni of 
lectureft to Ihe ■' Orsl.}ear alodcDli " in tho Royal DelCaat loalltnliaa, 
li wridea in a very plentiug and penplcniHiB etyte. 



AM- 




KEW WODKLS OF TnE rAninENON 
/a lAeBrUkh itfufeiMi. 

Tb< Iroateea of the Briliih Umeum bare raeently oiade a neat ealaiUt 
adiUtion to tbe eottection of antlqitltlea of two lirga modeli of tbe Partb^ 
Don, nude by iXt. I.ucar, Ibe (culptor. We are unareiilahly eonpcllnd tO 
poMpone till next moQth a critical deaorlplioa of thew admirablo werfca <uF 
act : tlie following notice of than, homrer, wblcb la extracted from tba 
Aibdixuiu, will be read with iaieraet. 

Mr, Lucaa,lbaaouIpUir— of wbom wp bdve livrctofore bod occttioatft 
nukfl honuurable menlioa,— tia» been for aorar- time ensaxed on a wofk. 
ffltich, wbileitii at once rcry Inlerotltig In itarlf and honourable lo 1U 
artist nko jdannod and performed H, eomca vttfutlj a* a acalptuft-leaaM 
in ttua tine of Bwalteucd atli-ntMn aad intpruviag proepecle fur lb« AiL 
Hi* object baa brvri tu aeUk'«v< two raodelt ii( llial moat prrfrcC of toinple^ 
ibe fartbeoon— one of wblcb aball reprcirat it a« it sppeared to its dila- 
pidated atate in tbe (evnleenUi oenlury. and tta other hpiag, in the acnl^ 
vr*>i word), '* an attempt to mtoee It to Ibe fntoett of lit origiaal beaalT 
and nplrniliMr." Tbe (•:licniD is one , repecialt; in lu latter purlioo, wUcs 
demnnilcil for ita aacotaaful eiecvtiuu a turo couibiuatiua of aubricty and 
cntbuaiaaai. Any merely conjectural re-coualrutliuii cuuld ba*c tatiafied 
n-uoe of tbe Mrioui tieniiiuda of tbe avbjecl ; whtli> II would hare been aa 
ucpnrrluDublc aiMinipiion. Iliat olTi-etrd to cinihe Ibe fnnry of the artW 
with Ihr Kunolinai of llip higlietl nnlliurily known lo art. Luekllj.Ae 
mnlrrial and odter documi-ols yet vii*l tn aulliL-ieal dialiuclDCSi and abut* 
duDcelo foralili ccrUio eiidcnoc, fur Ibe muicicJiiiuua Ktudoiji, na lo ibo 
general plan and iiiaay of tlie details uf this e'"al it^mplc, — aud, for tbe 
found uod accvirTplishcd nrli«t, rrftgonablt inference! nii lotliereal. Mr. 
I.ui'i.* hn.4 earrfiill; cuninllrd the kUTboHtiei on the aubJFct— both thoea 
of fnei and sperulatlan— FvauiitM and drawing* uf reaiaioK, with the 
npiiiiooa of aebelara ai to thr iaU-rprrutii)n iif ttieie where liieir liinguafa 
ia ubscure: and uliere, nil Ibfic f.iiluig hini, it lta» been iicri:iiary to ce»> 
licet tho kiioivB by iL': uiiknunn, li'' iin; InLrn the p^inci]dc^ »)ian whlcB 
PbiJiaa wruusbi fuc bif S'li'lp. 1" J triiiihi unty in wfcoi i» c»prr»rd ftr 
what is oieaol. In (bit upreiM uf q^ieMiooiuj; ke baa ahowa E^n'Jndr- 
mnt— Kcoer^y wianiaglhannaent of ifa« critic lo Ihe lealiniony wbi& 
he makea tba nunuinciicbearof itieif, A paacionote worabipprr at Utat 
tbiiM of Art uiiicb be baa cbosen. he ii, oererlbelew, careful that his 
warhipahallHiipraie iuelf aa a rcaMnable >cfvicr;1ii> undli>i:air>e>l en< 
tbunlaani for bis task ia ni^t inipurled into it fram witltoul,— but bom 
IcgiUaiattiy of the embodied prireiidi-t h-yfjn- biin, and apptslinc to 
Ibrif •^ditle* of litDei>« and bwMiy r»r tii jnttilimioa. Bnll»r diafll- 
pline, ivnnhmg mot« mre and auUtaie Ibaa Ihia, the tculptnr eontd aot 
propew lo binaelf; and, ntniiJ thnt >iiibl« want of aaeneat tbongbl— thai 
gCDcnldefevtaf ■piritaalily— wbidi nmy Imte aotiMi eicnae lo the looj 
lewdeacieBof pnUic pairooage MuonEat oi.bui by wblcb ibeecbool itbcld 
back frnai the bich destinies awaKinic it. ne acu wilb laora Uian urdinsrj 
ptcunre Ibis pallnit Bad xtahmi K«rth into tbe fauBtaana ef Ibe live 



1 



I94fl0 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AN& ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



1& 



Alt luid Um tnmonal in thonghi. In the progr»a of hit l«bMir, Mr, 
Locu has nailD iiirt aci)aalnun» nilb prlndplrw which arc liLrl; to 
tan ■D cleiatikc cDVfI oo mil his futare works ; ■nil, brtirr mil, nkat ht 
kas r«BBd, lie lua coiDDWiitonitc^ — Mnb^djlDic, for th« km; i>f vihrn, the 
faairvctiaii wliicli h* aaiiibt lur hUn*»lf. Ww ksT« bor*, bj ki* ■>••«*, 
llMtutor Die PardMiiMi rastorrd, utili Uwtr conJMtBral T«aJln(s(aiid 
UutM, on^inlf , for tl>e meet pari, trti« la ilwlr ckaraet«r) thou uifhi hata 
fcMn Iio|i«(l ; aud, ill ihii tiew uf tb« diiiIt, wa rvjolcc tliai llie llnliali 
Umeuin tia>jpun:liu«l ili« model of tht complclnl Inilbthig— (u jtttnd la 
Ike E]|iD GaAery, aa a kc; ta tlto naichlcM ntnanis itkieh ate m maaj 
flf Ike oriicinat ^rl«, and an toiportaqt rlvnmt iif ihb mtoralloo, 

Tb« (oilvd aod, to ihf uninalracted «ji), tonwhal rnl(lnkllMl obanic4«T 
tflknc KiMiin* nill be aote fultf oBdrnKood b; the pablle. aarf n»rc 
HMittj ky Iha artiri. Is tbit enj Klewne* lo lbe<r tonlett ; flM iMiiiiiig 
of tke r««Cored wboja mure readily MgKriu ili« uicantugi of iln MtPnJ 

ra. Tbo aaalcur aiay ken: catcb Ibe full espmaMa*, and Ike arlut 
tmecaaoB, of Grrck xwlpturr, la Ikis poial of licvr, tbe rvadint- 
— Ji laij iiribi I'onhciMD, nitk it« M:ulp<ure(. i> aa iovahiabla lescoo 
aR ap in otir icboob of Art«. While lb* nere MalinMRtt of tlift Art* 
■Bdibere ill fiill •atUfacliau in p«rfeel beauty uf fanat, tbe taieniceat 
Madnt patveifn bow IjtUa Iha leierat of Ibal aatbfactlen it dppoaileBi 
MM the foras Ui*flu>lf«. Tfc« prlnciplas of an arc all Mimmii up in 
WitraatWMl parfed tNoki yet ika waak, vrhife laTaitinc all tk« Ualka 
vUaii^re bbbb— 17 to parfecUoa, b ao* tke trnlk IwJf, bat anlr ana 
pBffcct anJ karnMaicMH forio of ili •apra>Mi>ii. TIm earrfal raad^'i oJtkta 
■Miifluinl aoen, vtiUt iho full «pie b*Canr kua— wbo ••«« hMt iU MdlaM 
iMtiaa ofdvlatl all t«Rd to ihs j>rodacUi>n of ona inat atity af IhoafU, 
^■■M aweriaok tka leadtBc i**tti whtth Uaa at tka tiaUan of aD aicd- 
iBCt In An,— and so lakn a ittatm wbicb baa kae* gnailr stadad ta ilta 
ModMO acbiiab. In sierj [laca of tlue wilehlwi baok la mbned Ibe 
graal awl alenal i>riaciple of Jitiun. So ainKla ford baa tke cbuci 
arrltlva oa tbi* imukurtal votuine whirh hat uol a iseaniog — bbJ lh<<»e 
iala(S are oite, and luch ai i.'ould b^ directly aaders(e«d aad fully 
d bjr tke nalioul heart to which ihaj are addrewed. Ua who take* 
I mere fo€au, and reeenttrueta tbetn Id tbe bear! of Loodon, it but iha 
Bist of Bcnlplnrc^aDrt tcarMly that; ih.R reaorrectionifl wlio pro* 
I Inm fla Cotnb Cba akeleton af Art — a wonhlea* tkaab aaar ika Uriajc 
•Kri to K«o« Mt of it. TIm Bacrtt of tkdr ■mmmi ia Creaoa ia Ikal if 
flMir a»-aMaaiBg hera ; and lb* acuiplor laama, fr«ia Mt«k warfu Ibeaw 
■Nw, fbal 1m can, for tka aaeat ]>art, aolf atiofit lb* prim^iplei oflbe 
finak bj n^aetlay kv oowblaatiBai. Tka lBa(uBao of Art, wbea riiblly 
harai, will tw fovail ta ba aalTefBa]— and, ihanfora, nnitwfaalljr iatalli- 
dlai km be who ka» wboll; dillBr«fll tkioKB l« Mprea aoat aaek wbaltf 
■fc i BWi aipi BBaiiia. Tka Ooda ot GfMCe, wko want all at boMe apoa 
AA**** AAaBia»billtBraibaaB«rs,«*an «iia. k Ika atiaata «r Lmuo* 
md Pari*. TIm tnM lewbiag «I Greek aevlptara farfatda ta Mfj it, 
Iha Uuer U Grt*k Art la a dead tbiog, aimd lh« cbaaf a« of iha worid i 
tet tla iplrit ii imawrial aaid tba ruiaa — tuitl ayeaki wd braatiiri frun 
anrj nDiilated page of tbii graal book. 

Tka nat^natD which Mr. Lurai haa bad (a asalat bin In hia work of 
raatarMlDB are tke draMin):i miili.- by Carrey, ia IfiTS. for Iba Marqnb da 
Nviatali, bafara the raribeaua (BlTtfrpd tta laal graat dllaptdklkiM U the 
kudaofUn Venetiaaa — ibo work of Smart and Ituvell aaAtfaeu.wko 
WW ibe ruia in lTSI,wbcnlbe lliaoua nod ibe Torio of Iba (TOSpafCa- 
CK^« and A|[r>ulnua nwialaiocd their pUcr in the Hcst«ra pMlmaat^^ke 
aiBi)MniiveIj perfect eondiiion of the eauera pednnMt iiaair, ■> diMm 
kf an ibuie ultfU; from irbieh Mr. LiKai bo* deduced *ery la^fotim 
0nicqm:t)c«sorbi«awa Torn rrtlontion of tbaeaileTB p^dimtnt. ia nppo. 
rinntt la Ikoae of QaatrwmTfo dc Qnincy aad Edoaard tierkard, aad dif- 
fttinc fraia tboae of l.otlrrl and Mr. rnckrretl— the acaaly kial* of Paa- 
f— tbe work* of Spon and M'bclrr, tljc ChrolierltraiKtsledaiKl Pro- 
^WeUk*r~lkc udtice ami aritjmeiita of Colaacl Loalce, Pfafeaatir 
■U, Mr. HawUoa, and Mr. Pitlabit, th« prrctnt cantor of the 
B— mtd tha noct la«aliiat)lf> docu»Ni of all, ik* ariual reaiain* 
PJela Koooi of (be Britiah Hniaun. Tka priacJpal qnuiioa wkkb 
tlaclf for Mtulion waa ibai af tbe eaawm fed rmw it— ef wbidi 
aalaa u*u«hr bbtb itat ll related to tke craalioo of Minerra; while 
tfaa iraatan bad rafcrcsoe l« the cMiesi of that RwMeai with NcptaiM fof 
At tarrttorjr of AMaa. Ia tlia latlee oaaa, howerar, tks drawiofa of Car> 
Kf, aMule froB tk* aavlplana tbamnhrea wbca iba padiMeat waa aeBrlj 
fmett, an better afMBiiee at tba latenUaBa of PUdiaa tbaa tba caaual 
MBarlc of PftniBiiiai,^aBd demoasinia that hia expraaloa will oiu iincllj 
fcacribc tbetr anltKol. It ■• Midenl thai tbe riciacj «f Mlacrra ia tbii 
flMa•^ raiber ibaa ibe actual coateat ilaeUV b axpraaaad la tbe podimcat 
fcfaailiaa ; aad Mi, LacaadeaiHdanMreljr aainiiUr lalilad* ia lb* cor- 
nt*ia «f Ika loaae bagua^ af PaeaaaiM, aa Iba baaia at hi» raaloratioa 
iflfaa iwittra pediawat. A llbefal aaailntaltaa aftke weed -yiFimt, k« 
MolaBit*, will randef it aaaacaatarf to upv**" f**' *^ '"^ '^ <*•''>* 
cnaliMii*!* intfaided to b« daacribrd aa the suVieci,— and will letinaaj 
■ilka IscldTfflU nUendaal apaa Ikal ireal mjUuAafucal tt«al, the adraat 
rfUiaorTa. UutiibH baabeonod, ibat it baol b Ike aire idle apiril 
tfaraoaUiita aanasdaaat thai tbb cwKctioa i* ftvfottd, but uad<r lh« 
■a^ alaioe of tba prtaclplaa ea which Phtdiaa wroajht, M wriiten iu 
•■ff alkar part «f tkb great work. " Krvpiag," aajri the icalptor. in 
wae prtated reiaarfct oo the PartbeooOf wherein be baa * erjr abl> alalcd 
Ua owa «bwa, " (ledhaUy io oor i&bidB tbe means bjr which Phntba baa 
pgdgced ao •abUnc a leaull la tba vaalsn pediment, we will eadearour 




ta approach tbe eaalem OM In Ibe saaa tgitiL Tbo naaBer aad melhod 
ia wh^h Uie nijth w&i repieacaied ia tke weateni pedlncst opni lo a* ik* 
DoderRlnadiuE of ibecuIerpeiliiiMtntalconipoaltian; and Ifwaapplji 
tttode of liawisE Uie aabjrct to ibb eaalcrn pcditnent (of which tre bar 
Doliord the entire dtitruclim of llii: cvnlral uortloD In Ihc rarly times),' 
ma} feel qaite ure llial Ibe mjlh an*t bavt liMn treated In n Dianac 
eqiMUy aatlafiiciarr. . . lUoc:* we knt« lltilo dooM thai the 1 
ralionoflbe eaatera pcdiiacnt, proposed hy Itrondrted aad expcaliM 
Qaalicn^ de Qiiincjr, wlier* Vulcan I* repreMOlMl a* haviof rtefl op 
the bead of Jnpiicr, and one of ihe two goddrtcn who pmlde over bitll 
ia dnninc oat a little figure of Mlnctra, while the otbcr la sopportlag Jii 
piter Ai tLoiifh be ncre ftinllBK under th* a^nlea of thi1d-b4nkf 1 
never L« ae adr'tiniie expreaiion of PbidlaH** own dc«ig9. It may be Mt 
ibal Huner'i dranriptinn it aaffieieat warrant for U, <le (tnincy'a reMe 
tiou : jet (LlitI iTDf**[ Ibal tba alTict tetiRr of ilm poet If Inappllealile tn^ 
diainiial corn poiK ion. Homer deacr lbM ihr clorloaa fona of Mfnena 1 _ 
rbiag fron tbo krala oC JvpNrr, and all Nalare •Irueh witk awe at ttaj 
Bpteadour of her fom and icoMni plamage ; but in ibo adaptBtioa af 1 
nioiaent In ieulplur«, Itir )|1<irleir« fsrwr of Wbdom aioka Into aa laaigaK 
Scuni pappfft. And bene* w» have ao reaaea to toppoae tbaltbeextat- 
ence of Kock a tabfKI oa a patera (itaelf taken fMa a ptcfarw) waa uaf . 
raotiT* with Pfaldiaa for the aeleclkm of that whieb. aa wcU fratn icanU* | 
aeat oTspaoeaafroinvBhiietaaf matenol, aMldaallM treated wHlti 
prletf. Kor did tke Inceagmty of tke Frevab toawrllBi of tha 1 
eceap* Hie eye of FlataMB ; who, ia bis le<4Mrea, ubiwent, tbat Ibe 1 
positlea waa ba donbt filled, ant by a r^meMaliM of tk* acrait bittb < 
MiaeFra, but rather, aa wonid be far Bore miiag ia a lesaple pecntiariy! 
dedtaated lo ber hoaooe, by tbe latrodnctioa of tke goddeaa la tka MifH^I 
aaaeaMaceef the godsuaOljiapBi— a tukiecl in the kicfaaat d««raa i«»1 
poalaRi and admilliag of a Kabtiaral Ifaataeal af ibe gteataot Mmta.I 
Aad tkb *i«w af tba aalgaat bataa taken by U«. GockoreU I «bo kaa .' 
aMmatraifid that iho ftagiDoal «a lb* loar of tha Elgia Boom waa tbe bu»' 
af Iha tiatiu of Mioerra in ike eattcrn pedtatcol — a jodgmenl in wbid^ 
M. U'ekkereatirrly eeiocMle* witli liim.'' 

Thta Tlew of th* nutlet Mr. Lueat bo* hinaelf adoptad; mhI out of tacb 
feapaaitB n> itunain. with what we know poaiti<ely from Carrey of Ibrlr 
plaJu^ — aupplyiof the blank* from infrrcacca and reaaoaiaga wboae 1 
tte aacndaeai are dMeraiag of gtaat eoMiratktioo be baa noamit 
Iba whole bio a «|>bMbl ooMpoaitioa j wkicA, if aat tbe Inie ooe, b Me^ 
lalaly ia a Gr«*k eptnl,— and wh«n ibc porta klled up oSer no diacofd ' 
with what n-naiot of Ike adcioal test. 

One Tallin bio ItHOD Mr. I.ucaa hat drawn from thn co aside rafioa 1 
tbeeepcdlmrott— which «re taaat not omlL Tfco iculptorr* ihai adorn* 
(bcni — or rathtr of nhiL-h the;' arc Mnipetrd — ao far fron being arbitrartly 
coi]6ocd witbb 4ba pcdLicciial liaoa, aa barricn wUok Ibegtniut ofl' 
tculptor mutt not veutuj^ lu laffinga— a )>ra<lieo that gitea to lie figur 
oa pedinMott in eeaeral tha ebanetar of aeee aAerAMghlafiBrtbeea* 
belliahmeaiof the building, are here, by btilnde ia the aba and projedloa- 
nf the Hjivrrs, not ualy made to sram ao original bih) erprotal^e part of 
Ihcerenl iDtcotiou, but tlir eitn of a bold and beautiful varHMj loifcaam 
ia thiia obtaiucd by the same tlmplc act of uaatery wbick gi««e dila addU 
tioB If Ike uoily of Ibe Ibougbl. " 1 ba«« Iba Jiiglwat aolhorily," tayt Mr. 
Laeai, " (te atalioe that not one aMdera podioeai hai baeo coaatmcttd is 
aacardaace with ihe ruira which Uiit pedimeot of Pbidiai preierlbea to nC; 
and at to the turhctency of chit eumplc at a rule, we hav* (be oniled tea^ 
Umoiiy of alt aulhoritiea on tbe labjeEi, ibal ihia pedsmnnial ooaotrac- 
tlou cuutaianl Ibe rewult of tcrrD kundrcd jrcan' cipericacei — aud that 
uacil by tbeducr^tiooof Phidiav." 

We caonulfullow Mr. Lucas »{ Icaglb. Iliroagh all tbe part* of bit ret> 
loratioo. The frieze 11 recontpoted in its entirely, on Ike outer wall of Iba 
cellar — llieeiuliug pari* beiug made to aucxeal die lot), Tbe colaniH 
arc iMtortd lu tfae iutetior in u double row, Mr. Lucaa having finally d^ 
ciJed, a> a choice auongil difficuli ici (for Ihii ii the puint dii which tbe erj. 
dcnoe b dhmI coalradiclcey and tbe ilcciaion ibe IcAtt tntiifactacy), «■ Oa- 
riolbian placed above lonie. Tbe Guddcu it rrplacrd io the gloriooa 
■brine wbkh wa« baiJl up for tbe utle purpote of conlaiaingheeHb^, Is 
bcrganneni of ivory und gold, and with her rich Mtilpiural acreaaorle*, -~ 
aa Jmcribad by Pauaaniaa and mvii on autiii-at cma* and genia. The 
miuing mclopet ara leatorcd, ibn tubjectt nupplied beiug iu eier| ease 
aonght ftom colut aad vaaea, and for thit purpoie on a prtneiide af coa- 
oeiiM NggMWd by a JnAclont (»a»idcratloo of thoec wbicb cxiil, in fact or 
b dr«»iBg. Even the tbieldt, of wbote fotmrr prcacace on tlm cilerior of 
tbo lemplt the trace* cetsain, arc here rtplaocd, — Ihoogfa nothing can b« 
known of the dcriaet wbieb they contaified — Ibat no feature may ba waotlaf 
to eoovay tk* general effect of tbe whale. Tbe adopiien nrthr.ie darteetli, 
tberefote, eonfaiaedly, quite ra^}eclural— but not quite trbiirarr, ootwlb- 
Handing. They kale b«cn Mlecteil from taaet, (roioi. and the wort; Maim- 
mmu litMIt, publiabed by the Inalitule of Rome, wbicli canlajni a Inm 
UBinbef of the ibbldi of lUoena. hothbg baa boen Mt out that eotild be 
atUhesticMrd, — 01 mlorrd upon pretanptlie icttfanoBy famblied by Iha 
Uuple HkU. Onl; in the caie of Ibe Polychronetic adlunrta, ef wUob 
cridcnoe 11 luppaicd to txiit, baa Ur, Lneai («ilh tbat eaoM •obrwty oC 
judgejent wlitcb hu ruled )ua enUiu^ta Ihroi^houl thk wori^— aad wWefa 
u out the deep puiloa for bk tbMO, tdwrtooad bftba rwee e nea ^Ui 
which ha approachn it,} lafiaiaad kaeaait. aa he taya, tt auaotbe drmea. 
aliaud tkit thay wsra in early u Iha period of f )ii<lit*--ond bectuae, •■ aa 
It affoiEBd ta IM ta iiifgli uie diaM«iiM> of tba temple, I am not called oa 



I» 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



U ran utj jvk of miking a gaud td tlut ratoralioti of the I'Arlbrnoa, or to 
dMiirt from tbat icrerc ilnpltciiT vrblek ia the cliancttriiUu uf all ibe art 
ofpliidiai." 

Innni; aHierpoiat or*ieir, vc r<}aic« al ll>c aijotitlian »t llui rTii>d<) b; 
Uie M'ltcuiii } — wo think ll palcutatrJ lo htlp (he triilp4or Id hi* pliM in 
EhUbiIi <in^ intpirc bin> witb Ibe d(t«rmitiitiaB ta lake it. KoiT)i«rc doei 
tba paiiu of amlptnro irein to gml t» in thr CanhMon. Tiitre it ao 
Oth«r hotIe w wiiielt lit ibarreli \ia,tt l>eeit turned to iiicb epic aocooDt ; and 
tiioagb wa lieuule to ga all i lie mb^ ir lilt >lr. Lucat. «Iid mypoui lli« 
Umnle ilMlf to have Iikh dciigocil u a mrii? pritntal fnt lliB fiiitt of tlie 
tiMUni— 4 frame fc7 the iculplor to notk on — ja c«riiln ll it ttiat if, in 
thia nnrtTallcd union of ^tbc AtU, lime In unr iiiirit iliat |iiciif]M oicr th« 
OlIiCTaiillb aMbaritfi it ii acrulptnre. Hut tbc true Ineuu la«gtit li; DiJt 
teapic i* tlie vitm*** and cntircl; of Art — ibc jaint uid harmon'oui contri. 
tiutiod of iU xoeral (orioa (o tt« production ol a great nboU — thit cmbod:- 
■nihl of B p<rf«ct thonghl— U propoettoiu «a/?log with Ibe drnitii>Ji o( (lit 
particular xutijeci. Thai apliuing into Hpaniie niembett vf Ibe gn-it faiuil; 
oEArt, wbi<Ji hu left tDmel)iin(t unesliaractorv in it* beat ecliievriueiila in 
£B|)aail. i( aalhorttativoly rtliuked in prcaonce of ihU miunlic rttult pro* 
dowd bjr Ibeir comb iiu lion. UtM o( all. In ibii preKoce, b iliat l|nanint 
erm detected which Ut* aMigntd lu aculplure, atnung«l fliintlTCi, a lower 
ptaoc than the Uglicat in Art. Vj acadcmiciana irbo bate Kivcn it the coal- 
bole. It ii nell it ahoulii ho letn hctewllh the ^orjon lli brow; and the 
aeitlptor who ia oonleet lo «rark a* Iha latn deooralor to the a/chitcL-t — 
called In lo ornament, u villi mere artiiii« mrpluHje, iU Rn'uhtti and tclf- 
nrtitat driigii — iDkv Ifiara how, ai a ■iia>ler. teulptun: wrought in linntt. 
Tlie archlleol md the KUlpIor, where tbrjr irr not oiv, mint >>InK iDgclher. 
Sculpture niuM lie a portion of the ro*/ of great ardklteclural HOtkt, not 
tbeir f aiincnt. ere the one or the oilier can acliierr, wiib ua, the narirclt 
nhidi bare icttllicd »n Ion; in Tain of the old Greek spirilunliijr. Till 
aculpiitrc iliill tic trchitccloiic, lii peat dcitiniei cannot be eccompliihad 
Bni4>ngat lu. Tbc tctilptor wbaconici frrafi from ibc atudj of the Paithca-on 
will fed that be i* a miaiater in the vrr* higheit place of Art; ami tlie 
ptihlik', iiutrected by the lame great rtrdaltoe, will, if the former be Irue 
lo hiiatelf, help to grl him hit own again in the new eta of Atl which ia 
dawning oMr Englaad. 

Hm ether model It M ytt unHnisbed — and nnporcbaatxt, We trutt the 
Hatesra will add it lo the niber : aed ihall liaie aoiue worili lu aa.i of it 
^Khtn eoRipltie. The inodtla art, aeviroU;, Iweltc feet iii length bjr oeatly 
ail in vidlh. 



REGISTER OF NEW PATEXT3. 

I( tddnieeal latniisallini tM mjiilird iea|>RniiB lay |'at«cil, II auy be obulaad at Ibe 

JoM.'i Clkvilamd pAtMBti, or EMt Iladdam, for " /m^reecmeaia jn 
■aeciUawy /or maAiay onyarr," ke. — Qrsotcd Match 17; Saralled SeptetD- 
bcr17, 1BU. 

The efcje«l of tFie mechatiltm li for manofadurin; the '■ lingle twiit" 
ao^nr, at uallj made of a rod of nitial, twiateil tournl a cylinder ialo a helical 
curve. The augur which the intentor'a tnoifhiocry ii inirnd>d Ia manufaC' 
Itire ii to be forui^ of a long rod of mtlat (ciihcr of o trlnii^tilai or other 
proper ihape, in ill crou I'^clina;. The Iron thuald be loKcd in aquare bara 
«r rod*, of tlie aiae required, and he cut i'llo plecca of (Bflloltnl length, to 
make the tool or iailntmcDt intcndi;^. A mitll pifce of ttcci of proper lite 
jor the rutting lip, (ioi the Cftnical aeien', if it i> lo be tildrd,) ti ueit 
wtlded upon one end of each nnn c( the aaid picpta, and the end li neit 
tcrned nr hent do<tn, at rtglil nngtei lu the rem n.1 ruler, upon an aii*il. ao at 
to Qi lnl4 the (dvityof the luner leeiton r>f the liiri. for foiinin; the lip, or 
the iip aiMl KttK cone. Aliaut thrre.funttlit of thr Icnuth nf the rod from 
the tied knub, ia ticxl heated to the nccciiarr lempcraiufc, to he rolled 
down by the neat portion of ilic laaclilocij. T^ic ueat jioriion uf tlie pro- 
cna of >nanaf*ttiirius the au^ir coiiii^it iii fiirTnin^ the cutting lip, or the 
catliug^ipaadcooLcal aetcw Mtok apon iU end. For thii purpoic, dl?i arc 
emplofed to fnein the lip taitlioul the conic blank. Tli« hniil of ttet\ hfing 
healed, it placed hetveen the <Iiai, and the upper of (liem caiiicd to ileicend, 
vilh the force nerruini to ivteiCge or can'prtu l^e meul Into Ike thape 
iMuired. The knob tliuj farmed , ii neii bvnt down to the angle requited, 
to be applied to tue macbioe. by whidi ibe rod ii cwiited in Ibe hellol 
enrv*. The ncil openiiou it, to gi>c Ihe rcquiiile dcg'te of unlfonnlly to 
the tir^ and aperad of tl;«[twitt, which U accomiillilied by haaiincring In 
the uachinei coMiatiag of a trip liamnier, airangtd aud 0|Mra(od otbt ami 
apon a die an*ll or btd-piFcc, grooved out, lo u lo receive Ihe (wltlcd 
belli *h(n Inid thereon. By lunilng the augur around. Gnt in one direelloo 
and seal in the oppoaite, mcccuiicty, laattocauMit to put back antt 
forth hetwcCB the bai&mer and beil.piecc or auiU, Ibe Iwitt ti tpreid out in 
t unlfomi manner. The lower pait of ilie hammer ihould be curved lu cor- 
reapoiii with (he t^ciimfcteQce uf (breilcrior of the twiil of the augur. 
Tba Iwbted portion of titc aazar it B|«in bcaicd, and rolled between heavy 
InwplaUa, for the parpotcof tlrai^htening ihc tviti, ilciring which opera' 
tiooi c^rc thoulil be take* thai llic cutliug lip uf Iba augur dnea not come ia 
OOatict with tiM plalea. The augur ii iml lo bcfioitlied by tiling, and 
tifom griMJing and politliing whecU, or by other proper meant, in ledi nan. 
Mt •• ma; he deairahle i aftd «h«i a aerew it to he conaecM with tho 



cuttiog lip, it Day be cut upon tlie blank by any cootrlnaoe uUpled 

pVrpOM, 



! 

dioltogi 



WiiMAM RcDixtoK MtTU.Br atMl Gm/nca Maaow, jBn.. of Ii. _ 
conlnclori, for •• /M^r«t>tiwr>i/j ix ctltivtimg «nd nittiai Umr or «mI«A 
from *(*ic tm/n*."— Uranied April 2( £urotl«d Uctober 2, IHi, 

Thia [orcntion it chiefly intended for railing Mment atone frora bel»w 
water off M'rM Kock, near Ilaiwicb, or mber placet tinulatty drcan- 
tlaaced, wbii:!! at piciciit ia perfonnetl by lailinft veucli, the dreajiDg ban 
being raised by manual lahonr. Tlie ohjcci of Ihit invention ia lo apply tba 
power of ilraai t» a tuiiaUc \tm-l to drag drcd^itig ligB, ami to nlK 
and eeneal iionc, or oilier isaltert collccictl tliereby, ioig the teaadi 





TiioKjva Mova, E*n., of Gainaford-ttmt, Bttnsbury.road. for " 
mmlt ht jrrmling md prtpnrmg tanitri' noln, e/ieqnn. anJ tHier pajun, 
rAf lelirr jntt^ntitm if /raui." Craaled, April 23 i ennilled DtUtlCf' 

Thji inteatioD roniiita in impreuiug patiein* on the anrface of |up«r 
uied ai banker)' noiea, and oiLcr dunitiientt. on which dnigm or Iriien 
hive been or are iatandcd to tte primed, that Ibe paper to treated will ~ 
aaoolh on one lidct wfalUt the other aide irlU hate a pattern imleni 
Itierrnr, no an lo produee tlie apjicarance of a reticulated aurfuce. 
appnntiiKoniittt of a pairof steel rotlen, one plain auj Ibo other eo; 
with (be rererte of tbe pattern to be fonnnl mi tlie paper; aod \ 
bravily d^wn upon the plain ruiler. The paper then beeoMM indenUd 
the paitprn ot drtlgn ; and if Ihe engraved roller be inked, at in tu 
printing, the Indeolcd pattern will at ihc laine litne be colnurecL 



JCHKFU Hill, of Ipawich, Suffolk, wircworktr. for " Imj^rtiremt»t* hi 
maHnfaelurinji in'rv fabriet/or btmdt and olArr ■tHi." Granted Um f 
tiirolled NoTcmlKr 6. ISI&. 

The Ent improvement conaiiti in giviag a OOrrugited fern to 
Kire fabric!, lo obtain greater atifTiicai, and render them coorc atefid 
tnaking bIJnda. tod other porpoael- Ihs eormgated form ia gj' 
pawing Ihe wire between two grooied iron rollen ; thn aiijit of Hit- 
gationa will gejirrally vgry from f to -j iM^b. Tbs aooond Improvi 
tlili in iiilimitliiig woven wtte ftbnn lo a proceat uf emboaitng. eo aa 
produce ornamtnul pattemi thereon. A die ia formed of brau or oi 
meUl, wilh the paltein ufKiii it in relief; over ibit ia placed a iheel 
" Tntcariizied India- rubber," } inch thick ; and ilien, by tncaui of a powerful 
tcrcw>ptctt, Ihe wiio fabiio ai pteiaed down upon tlic die, and the rc^juired 
embaiiing iv ptodui^d. The eniploynieat of ttie india-rubber rendeia a 
counter die or matrix unnecetaary ; and tlie tuae ahaat of Iadia<ntli 
Dia/, M it ia plain, ba uiad with diifertnl diaa. 




I 

cdiai™ 



FaeAfBicn Ranioue, of Ipawlch, englnee-, for " /irjMwmNnt/e 
tfimUnlnff rmaU eeal anJ 6tifr matlfrt, nJ in prtMrrUif »itJ." Gnnl 
llay 10 : ctiroilcd NnTcmher 10, 1845. 

The inrcntinii coniiitt in cumliining tintll coal wikh a tolutioo of 
or tiliccoiii ccinaot, nadi l>y diktolvinj; IVOIb. of cryatalliud caihonate 
toda in ai much v>aiti at will make a aoluiion of 1,1 iO ai>. cr, at a tem| 
tort of GO', and tlie >oiIa it reiMitred cauttie by the addittoo of lime 
Iniltad of earbohtte of icda, Sfilb. of carhonate of poiath are diaaolved ia 
the reqclilte quantity of water, and T(.'ii(ier«d cauttis by meaiii of hmr- 
Tbia canitic alkatino tolutian it intnduced. atoDg with about lOOIb. of 
lindy-broiirn (lintt or other tihoeout tulittancet. into in Iron boitet or 
•Itgettcr. and tlie lulxturc ii kept fur ten or twelve liaun at n tempera lore of 
almut 3(KJ" Falir.. heiiif; at Ihe lame lime frequently stirred. When aoi 
cieatly incorpDroUil, the mixture it pa«cd ihruugli b ilcvc.to remove 
nnditiolvcd atone tbcitfroni, and it it then evuporaCtd until ita a;, 
gravity it incteaaed to 1,100, al a Untpcraturc of CO". The oeinenl or 
lion li uow At for ui« ; or, if too thin. It may W bronght to the rcigoi 
contiitenee by evaporation, or by Ihe addition of land, or of ealeinvid tlinia 
in a Baety-pnwdered date ; if loo thick, it can be reducoil with watitr. Tbe 
mode of combining anuU can! into htocka it, by mixing any luitable qaaft- 
lliy of coal-duil oi tmall coil with from ^h to 4^ih of ita weight of tbt 
lillcMUt ccncnii which it put into mouLJt, and luVjectcd to pretaure : afUc 
which it ii allowed to dry iii the air, aud thru placed ia ao oven or hct 
lootn. Por prCMing limber, Ihe vrvod ii taturtted or itsprcgaalcd with a 
tolntion of tilica, in luch a manner at to cement Ihe fitiruuv part of tba 
wood witb Ibe tilica, to ai to form a lolid and durable naia. J'Le wood 
placed in an air-tight vcaiel, from whtrh aa mncli air it ahatraeied aa 
piautiable. by an air-pump or other coDienitni meani; a luffictent quantt 
of ailioeoiu cement to rover thr wood ii then admitted, and, in order 
cautc the crmrnt lo penetrate further into the porci of the wood 
would he efTectcd naiuialty, artificial prcttura it applied, by loeani of 
puuip; whcu rrniated, Ihe wood b iutmertcd ia lume enduUtcd or 
tolattoit, which will render the tilica inioluble. 




1S46] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER A.NO ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



XT 



RULWAYS OF BELGIUM. 
By John Anderson, Eaq-iFK.S.S.A. 

(IM^dl rroin • Paper lamd bttOTt tbe Roytl Scatllih ikiclttT of Arte.) 

The accniniiUted leogtb of the Belgian railniadB ftmounts to 348 miles. 



Tfaey conaitt part]; or a donble and partly of a siofrle way of4ft.8iin, 
betwiit thF rails of iho track, aiut a diitaoce of a ft. R|| in betwixt tlic rail- 
roadi. — Th« fiillowini; table Rtvei ihe leotttfa and coit uf tbe ditTvreDt linei>, 
tbe statioDS thereon, and tbe total cost of the whole establMhnieiit : 



LfaM. 


LcDglb oT 
Ua«t. 


CMt oT Una. 


Coft ofSUIlani 
per Lint. 


Total Cost. 


C»lpcr 


Rcmirln, vlth nfereace 
to Ihe EhIdUm. 






:e 


£ 


£ 


£ 




BtBHela to Antwerp (including branch from tbe station 














of Borgerhaut to the Scheldt) 


29028 


303.37812 


228,061-48 


531,439-60 


18.308 


Double wsy. 


Ualinet to Ottend 


76025 


633,350-24 


84,847-76 


718,198-00 


9.447 


Double way to Qhent 


llalinei to An* (indadiag branch to the Caail at Loo- 














vain) 


55-100 


743,45892 


42,658-08 


786,117 00 


14,267 


Double way. 


Ana to tbe ProMUo froDtien (including braoch to tbe 














interior of Liege) 


29-500 


1,210,303-47 


132.400-00 


1,372,703-47 


46,532 


Double way to Vervien. 


Landeo to St, Trond 


G'350 


48,336-;2 


6.823-08 


55,159-80 


8.686 


Single wa*. 


Cbent to Courtray 


27130 


170,923-88 


17.90000 


188,823-88 


6.960 


Single way. 


Conrtraj to the French frontier! 


9359 


131,000-00 


8.92000 


) 39,920-00 


14,950 


Double wsy. 


Uontcran to Toornajr 


11-890 


111.560-00 


10.520-00 


122.080-00 


10.267 


Single way. 


IhvneU to Qoi^rrain 


50-127 


648,875-94 


99,011-96 


747.887-90 


14,920 


Part daubie way. 


BniM-le-Comta to Namnr ... 


50-C99 


563,239-39 


;5,800-00 


639,039-39 


12,604 


Single way; but embank nieiits 
for a donble wsy. 


JuDctioD of Stations at BfDiiels 


2-911 29,546-04 


■■ 


29.546-04 


10,139 






34S-122 ! 4,623,972-72 


706,942-36 


5,330.915 08 


15,313 






iyiaterial o 


f Transport . . 
eral Expense. . 


823.921-12 










ToUl Geo 


6,154,836-20 





Up to th« end of 1848, 2TI'587 miles iiad been constmcted ; and in the 
aaiiDiD of last yrar the first way, and probably mure, of Ihe remainiog 
liaes had been completed. On taking an average of the cost of the Uriliah 
lailwaya, it will be found that those in England coat fully double, and 
base of Scotland anil Ireland folly a third, more ihao those of Belginni. 
Eitn tbe Fn'Qch railways, on the fullowicg average, are constracted at 
Brarly double the expense of the Belgian lines :— 



Fir Ullc. 

£19,000 
26,000 
39,000 



The line from Lyon to St. Etienne cost, in round oambers 
Paris to Versailles 
Piiris to St. Uermaio 
lalha Belsiao lines, both parallel and /sA-beffieit rails are nsed. There 
iiDoUiinft particular in their mode oflaving them down. The baltanling 
tWN'iits of sand and gravel, and, from various circumstances, formed a ron- 
Hdcrable item in the expenditure : — 



Between Wutmme ind Ans, 


It coil M S) per 


cabk rs"!- 




I»unln *nd Tlrlemoal 


.. fi n 






TIclcmDnl uid Vucmme 


.. .'. H 






Denyie iDd Caurtisy 


i 1 






LaDrtrn and SL Trond 


4 7 






Me]lno4 and Aotverp 


S Hi 






UillnM lad Trnnandi 


a ii.j 






<ihcnl uid D«Tiu* 


a 10 






Brujp* sad Oitend 


.. ;i hi 






Uallnt* and Lounln 


.. I BJ 






Tennunilp and tihcDt 


2 s 






Ghtot and Bnjgm 


.. 2 n 






BruiiHl* and TuUae 


.. -2 7i 






Usllnesaad Bnuiels 


1 11} 





Weighf Bad totl ^rniU. 

The rails were furnished io 1834-3'i'36 37, and at different tiroes io the 
tbllowing years, in lenKlhs uf 13 feet, 10-4 fret, and I4» feel. Those of 
IJ feel were furnished of dilTerent weights, weighing 401 lb., 39 71b., 35-S 
lb., 4S-7 lb., 54 5 lb. to the lineal yard i those of 17-4 feet weighing 60-4lb., 
sad IfaoM of 14-8 feet weighing SO-4 and 488 lb. to the lineal yard. The 
wkila («iU are of the raBaufactore of the country, with tbe eiceplioa of 
■boat SOO Inna, which were brought from Euglaud in 1834, to serve as 
Aodela. Their price daring the first foor or five years varied very much ; 
Mdoabt from the competition to which the extensive demand give rise. 
Tbe loa of raiJa, which could be furnished at MaliueB,foriaslance,ia 1834, 
Iv 141. ISs. 64., roae to Ifif. 4t. fid. and 18(. Is. Gd., and descended again 
to 171, la., ISI. Ifis.) and came even so low, io 1840, as lOl. 6d., but rose 
again the Mme year to 111. Sf. Od. Those, however, produced in 1840 
win mncb inferior to tbe rails first manufactured in the country. Until 
ins, ehaira, keys, and spikes, were furnished with the rails ; but since 
■hat lima tlw eonlractora have bargaioed to supply them separately. The 
toaof vbaira, in ISSl, was supplied at lOt. 7s., but rose the year following 
lalU. lSs.,aiid, in 1830, to 121. lOs,, 13J. 4t., and 141.4*.; and. in ge- 
aeral, flucloated with tbe price of rails. Keys and spikes, in I8S4, cost 
HI, 7j, per too, androaelhefoUowingyearlo24f. S«. ad.,2ll. Ua. fid. la 
liaC-7, tkej raried from SSI. 0*. (o 30f. Is, ; and, in 1838, came down, 



after many fluctuations, to 21'. 7s. 6d., and 3SA 19. 7d In short, tbe cost 
io general, likewise varied in proportion with the rails and chairs. ' 

Principal Work$. 

From inexperience or oversight, the section from Brossels to Malines 
was made npun so low a levfl that it waa often overflown by tbe Senoe, 
which greatly damaged, and sometimes even perfectly ubstmcted, the rail- 
way. The rails, moreover, were loo weak, and the sleepers made from 
white and pine wood. Frora these circumslances. it became necessary 1u 
ruisp the railway at least upwards of a foot aud a half, end protect the 
hanks, and form viaducts thruugh which tbe waters could flow. Theold 
rails were nearly all thrown aside, and others of greater strength laid down, 
and the sleepers subjected to M. noocherie's process for the preservation 
of wood. Between Brossels and (Joierraio. tbe groond on several sections 
coDsists of peat, and bot:s; on Ibis account it bus been necessary to build 
a (greater part of ttie bridges on piles, and raise the railway in some places 
13 feet; the tunoci of BraiDe-le>(Jooite is 16 4 feet of span, and 2i'7 chaius 
in length. 

From a short distance from Ualines the railway begins to ascend to Ann, 
The works upon ibe line, though numerous, are light. The greatest ua- 
derlakiue is the tunnel of Oumptich, which has been lately constructed for 
Ihe double way. It is entirely built of brick, and is 20-6 feet in height, 
anil 4S 73 chains in length. The heavy works, however, of the Belgian 
railroads only begin at Ans, where the railway descends into tbe valley of 
tbe Heuse, 

Thf Lifgt Inclint. 
Ans stands upi>n the west bank uf ihe valley of the Meuse, about 581 
feet above tbe level of tbe sea ; and Liege is situated io tbe bottom of tbe 
valley, aboot 358 feet below Ans. The distance betwitt Ans and Ibe 
Meuse at Liege is 4 miles chains, thus making on tbe lenytb of Ibe liue 
the general gradient about 1 in 60, To descend this valley was a matter 
of no little difficulty, aud it was only after many years' study, in which 
time numerous prnjecta were examioed, that Ihe administration saw the 
necessity of descending it by inclioed planes. Tbe plan adopted by them 
consists of two inclined planes of equal lengths, with a platform or level 
spaceof ground, on which the engines are placed, siloated al ihe bottom 
of the first and the summit of the second incline. The platform is about 
16| chains in extent, and the inclines 1 mite Ihj chains each of length, uf a 
rise of 1 iu 30, both of which are constructed with a double way, the one 
being employed for ascending, and Ibe other for descending, Heferring to 
tbe section, the railway proceeding from Ans describes a curve of 1 mile 
S7 chains of radius, and det^ceods Ibe first incline. Having crossed Ibe 
platform, it descends the second incline, and arrives at the principal station 
of Liege. Tbe Irums descend the incliued planes by gravitation, tlierr >e- 
locily being regulated by drags attached to the carriages and wagons. Two 
fixed engines, of 160 horse power each, are placed on the platform iVir 
raising the trains, which is accomplished tiy means of an rndltit ropt. Bo'h 
engines being siiuateil cluse tugelher, are supplied with sivsm Inim the 
same boilers. The system of signals, we are loM, they employ, is somt:- 
whalno^el: — A lube of fully one inch diameter is laid along tberailwiiy, 
E<«cb of its extremities commuoirates wilh the interior of a bell. Ihe mutitli 
of which is imraeraed in water. Into the top of Ihe bell a wbietle is lixird, 

3 



IS 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[Jam u ART, 



which, ai in the cur of the locomotiTe whistle, uU bj tbs vlbrmtion of tbt 
tnet«l. Wbea it ii required to coinmanicate tfaa lime of departure of kay 
of the traJDi rrom either iiation, the ligiutl-niu has ddI; to shot off com* 
muoicatjon with the whialle, and imniene the bell farther amonfcst the 
water. The air in the ooe bell will thaa be forced, by preuure, tfaroush 
tbe tube into the other bell at the further ead of the tube, and will etcape 
by paiBiDg throuftb, and at the tame lime acting upon, the wbiitte, 

Nothing ilrikea the traveller bo much wiih aatooisbniPOt, when ha de< 
KCends the valley of ihe MeuK, and eaters that of Verniers, ae the coolrast 
the face of the cuualr; preMols to that which he a few mioulea ago lefL 
The tcearrj. Indeed, as (oon as he leaves Ans, i* eolirely changed. la- 
■lead of Ihe Sal and man otonoui country through which he baa jusl paired, 
he i» ushered into a finely varied diairict of hilli and valleyt. The uumber 
and extent of the diHereut world of art he obeerrea, tell him alco of the na- 
ture of die country through which he it pauing, and the difiiculUea which 
the engineer encountered in the execntiou of thia part of the national lystem 
of rallroadi. 

It may be reoiarked, that, in the eiecutioo of Ihe different works of art 
throughout the different lioea. the workioaoBhip is inferior to Ihat of similar 
undertakings in this country ; and that also in iheir construction, due at- 
tention has always been paid to the fortifications of the towns by which 
the railway passes. 

CarWf and Gradient*. 

The carres and gradients, as necessarily follows, from the extent of the 
different liues, vary rery much, and present nan; of the resnlts which arise 
from their exislence on railways in general. The radii of the principal 
curves are as follows: — S*7S chains; 9'd4 chains, (both on the branch of 
Louiain to the canal); S94 chains; 12 43 chains; lT-4 chain*; 1014 
chains; 19-88 chains; 2125 chains; 29-83 chains; S4-8 chains; 37*28 
chaias; 3077 chains; 43*74 chains; 44 74 chaios; 40-71 chains; 04-68 
chains; 59-63 chains; 6^*14 chains; 671 chains; 6059 chains; 72'St> 
chains ; 74-56 chains ; 79'S4 chaios ; and 1 mile 4'G chains. 

The most important gradients are : — 

That towards Waremme, at the sUlion of Landen, of 1 inS41,of2 aiiW 
39 chains in Itngtb.— That towards Tirlemoot, at ttie station of Louvain, o' 
1 in 250, of t miles S8 chains in lengih. — Thai between Tubise and Braine- 
ie.Gomle, of 1 in 200, of 6 mites 47 chains in lengih. — That on the branch 
from Louvain to the canal, of I in 71, of S2 chains in length. — That be- 
twixt Jnrbise and Braine- le-Comte, of 1 in 2S0, of 4 miles 3 chains in 
length.— That betwixt Mons and Jurbise, of 1 in 209, or 6 miles 42 chaias 
in length. 

SlaliotiM. 

The ststiona throughout the different lines are numerons.and, in gener&U 
neat and coiDaiodioas buildings. Antwerp, Brussels, Malines, and Ghent, 
are rectioned of Ihe first order, and coniaios the warebouies and arsena' 
for provision and material. Ample accummodalion is set apart in them 
for passengers ; one large room being always devoted to first and second, 
and another to third class, passengers. The neit stations in importance 
to these are, BniKes, Tcmionde, Louvrin, and Tirlemont ; and then the 
minor stations upon the dilferenl subdivisions of the line. Afa lines was, 
from the very first, chosen as the central statioa through which the greatest 
uomberof pasaengers was expected to flow; and it was also fixed upm 
astheworksbopfor the repairs of the heavy machinery, and of the railways 
in general throughoiit the country, the workshops at any of Ibe other sla- 
lions being only of a secondary importance. But, nolwiihstaading its 
many advanlBges, Brussels has become Ihe principle station, and draws 
one-fourlh oflhe receipts ofthe whole of the diltereol lines. Inconsequence 
of this unexpecied result it became necessary to build a more extensive 
sUtion at the north of Brnssels. The stations, with the exception of 
Osteod, Bruges, and Ghent, are placed without tbe towns, for the parpose 
of evading the local taxes, which caa only be accomplished by placing 
Ibem beyond the boundaries of Ihe excise. Tickets for tbe trains are is- 
sueil from the windows of the different offices ; and, to avoid confusion 
during a crowd, stalls are erected, through which the passengers pass one 
by one, receive their checks, and return by a passage parallel to the one 
by which ibey entered. If the traveller has luRgage excrediog 44 lb. 
weight, he has to proceed to the luggage depdt, where it is weighed, and 
he is charged a trifiing sum perlb. Upon paying this sum he receives a 
ticket with a nniuber marked upon it, vorrepponding to one which is put 
upon bis luggage. From this time be sees no more of b'm property until he 
Bixives at hia destinalion, where it is broagbt from Ibe luKgxge-wagon, and 
the numtier marked upon it called out h; one of the officers in attendance, 
who returns il to its owner on presenting the ticket which he bad received, 

Locomoliee Enginet. 

The locomotive engines, at the 1st of Jntiuary 1843, were 139 in nnmber, 
42 of which were made in England, and Ibe remainder iii Belgium. Of 
iliese, US are in good working order, and 34 nndergi>ing rei airs. In addi- 
tion lo lhe»e, however, ID were in course of being consirucled, which »tll 
make, in all, 130, The following table gives the makers' names, and the 
number eai-h has made, with Ihe diameter of the cjliaders and driving 
wheels :— 





Diinetar 


Dlsmeler 




Nomlwr hj 


Hskm'Ifaoea. 


of 


or DitatDt 


Narobcr of 


each 




CTllndcr. 


WliHla. 


«aeh all*. 


ll>k«. 


Snglaul. 












'11 inches 


a feet 


81 








12 .. 


5 .. 


6 






Stephenson 


. 12i .. 
12 J .. 




1 

7 


■ 


30 




14 .. 


*i ■■ 


7 








14 .. 


& ,. 


1 






Londgridge and Co. 


12J .. 


5i .. 


10 


10 


Penton and Murray 


12 .. 


& ., 


1 


1 


Sharp, Soberti, and Co. . . 


12 .. 


5 .. 


1 


1 


BtlffiuM. 


fll .. 


5 .. 


121 






CockeriU 


12 ,. 
• 121 .. 


5 .. 

64 .. 


27 
20 


. 


69 




14 .. 


*i .. 


10 






Soc. St,-UoDard 


12 .. 

13 .. 


5 .. 
54 .. 


*1 
3. 




7 




12J ,. 


5 .. 


1 






Soc. dn Renard 


124 ■• 


54 „ 


5 


, 


11 




,13 .. 


54 .. 


6j 








Total.. 


129 



Fuel. 

The coke rrquired for theconsnmplion of Ihe locomotives Is manufactated 
at Motiplaisir, Malioes. Antwerp, Ghent, Osteod, Ans, and Hal; and 
costs at these places respectively, U. 4s. S^d., II. 3s. ll^d , If. 7b. 7{d., 
M. 3i. 81d., U. Gs. 24d., 17b. Ofd., and l{. Is. Sd. per ton. The quantity 
consumed in 1811, in running over 927.0S0 miles, was 29.303 tons, or 
70'80lb. permile. This is including, however, Ihe quantity required for the 
re*»-reand JigAfin;, which amounted lo 4399 Ions, and which, if dedueled, 
will make the consumption 60'17 lb. per mile. In 1842, the distance ran 
over was 987,433 miles, and the total quantity of coke consumed was 
28,317 tons, or 61-24 lb. per mile. The quantity required for the rearrrc 
and lightimr was 5633 tons, and which, if deducted, will make th« m» 
sumption 51-40 Ih. per mile. 

Carrjo^ei. 

The carriages consist of three classes, as they do in this country, but are 
much more commodious, and, in some cases, vastly superior In comfort. 
For example, second class carria);es possess not only windows, bat tbe 
seats are cushioned, and almost as comfortable as those of Ihe first class, 
though, perhaps, a Uitle less elegant. Even third class carriag<ts have 
covered seals, and very often roofs supported upoti perpendicular iron roda 
fixed at tbe corners oF (he carriages. Tbe seals are placed traosvenely, 
and without any proper mode of entrance, which is a great inconvenienca 
to passengers ; and Ihe doors are, in every casi-, unlocked, but are held 
close by a catch, which can be opened and shut from either side of the 
carriage. 

Tbe rate of travelling, generally, is about 20 miles per hoar; bnt oa 
some lines, un account of the gradients, il varies from 19 to ii milea per 
hour. 

Power nf the Engines on IncUnet. 

The greatest gradient, wiib the exception of that betwixt Ans and Liege, 
is I in 71 un the branch from Loavain to the canal. A locotnuiive, of a 12* 
inch cylinder, and driiing wheels of 54 feet dianieler, can ascend Ibis slopn 
with a train of three loaded and three empty wagons, of a total weight of 
about \l^ tuns; but a lucomollve of a 14 inch cylinder, with conpM 
driving wiieelsof 44 feet, can ascend it with six loaded and three em pi j 
wagons, of a total weight of about CO tons, the rate of travelling in both oif 
these cases being three miles per hour. From a curve in several parts of 
this lint', however, of 3 73 chains of radios, it is thought tu be more «». 
venieiil to work it with horses. A strong bone opon this incline can draw 
a wagon of aboot six tons weight, at Ihe rate of 'i\ miles per hour. 

On the inclination betwixt Tubise and Braine-ie-Comie uf I in 200, two 
trains, of 16 and 17 carriages each, with a total weight of 8^4 to 9S4 tons, 
and a locomotive uf a 12} inch cylinder, and driving wheels uf 64 feol dia- 
meter, were unable to proceed in unfavoi.fHble weather. At anoiher tin*, 
equally unfavourable, an engine of the same size took up two trains of It 
and 1 1 carriages each, wilb a total weight ofabont 884 and 7BJ tons, with 
great difficulty. On the inclination betwixt Jurbise and SoiKnies of 1 in 
2S0, two trains, of 13 and 13 carriages each, with from 78} to 884 tOlM, 
and an engine of the same dimensions conld not ascend. A third, bow* 
ever, with IS carriages of 884 tons, succeeded in roouoting the slope. 

From these observations it was concluded, that the greatest weight wHh 
which an engine of a 12} inch cylinder, and driving wheels urGJ feet dia- 
nieter, can ascend either of these inclinaiions, is from S84 to U04 tons ia 
ordinary weather, but otherwise with only from 73J lo 78] tons. With ibe 
same of cylinder, bnwevrr, either of these iurlines can bs ascended wilb 
69 tons, at a velocity from about 12| to 194 miles per hour; or, niih aa 
engine of a cylinder of 14 inches diameter, about IO84 tons can be takci 
up, at the rate of about Vi\ miles pt>r hour. 



1840.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



10 



Od Cba iacliiiatioa betwixt LonvBin ud Vertrjck of 1 in 250, tlia foUoir 
ini Irmiu mMcndrd with difficulty in nitfaTounblv weithw :— 



with cooplcd drldng-whccli o( 4^ 



Lurooo- 


Inrh 


Un. 


CTllidvr, 




U 




14 




1:1 




14 




M 




U 




14 




14 




14 





TDMUIkl 


F(«t. Carriarci. 


mlRht. 


4* 30 


137} 


23 


W 


i 1* 


W 


M IS 


1.17 


34 


147, 

mi 


3il 


111 


m 


32 


1S7I 


» 


ia7i 



notnnipltd 
coDpbd 



From IhfM riperimeotB it wu coocladed, that a. locomotif e of a 14 inch 
Cjltoder, and coupled driving wheel* uf4|re«l diameter, could ascrod Ibis 
incline with dilHrullj tn ordiBarj weather, wilb from IB7| to 14T^toi]8, 
bat durioK limrg ofaoow with only M loo* ; and a locomotive of a 131 inch 
cfliader. wiib driiiag-wheeUof B feet Jiameter, not conpled, could ascend, 
is ordioitrj weather, with from Ttif tu 9Ht ions, and in timet of enow with 
(root 44} lo 40 ton*. They aevend Ibi* slope re)[ularl;, however, with 
tnins of T3J and 1081 tons, including; the weight of Ibe loconotifei of 12 
and 14 inch cylinders, about the rate uf 151, ^^d from 12{ to IS} miles per 
hour. 

The whole railway bniiaess is under the maaaicetDeiit of a dlreclnr, who 
is nnder ihe control of Ibe Minister of Public Works. It is divided iolo 
four branches— namely, the general oianagement of Ibe whole system; the 
manaBcDient uf the lines; the lucomotite department; the iraflic of the 
nil way; and Ihe manaicemeni of Ihe ilalioaB, The Srstof ihese, genemll; 
■prakiiiiti iocludes the other three, one of wbich consists in the maoHg^- 
ateni of the lines, and tlie Gaiabing and construciiogof new worksof art ; 
aaotber in the tntctioa of the trains, the maonfaciure of coke, and the ma- 
■agemantof the antensal at Malines, including the workshops for repairing 
Ihe loeooioiives and carriages ; and the third, in the management of tbe 
■iaiions and the passenger and merchandise traOic. Over each of these 
bar deparlmenls a fuoctiODary, entitled Engineer-in-Chief, or Inspector uf 
Admioisiraliuo, is placed, who furniibea an accuunl of tbe proceedings of 
his department to the Minister, and malie* such proposals to him as be 
thinks uece^s*r> or advanlHgeous. The propositions he submits are sent 
ftir cxauiinatiiin to tbe Council or permsnfni Commission of Ways and 
Bridge*. Besides the surveilUotv exercised by tbe director, and th» agents 
Under his orders, Ibe Hinisier oaui-es all tbe works to examined by the 
iDspecior-UeDeral.andby the Divisionary Inspector of Ways aod Uridges ; 
and with the tlocuments rec«>veii from tbe dilfereut departments, renders 
an elaborate report of the whole business annually to the Chamber of De< 
pnliea. 



ICEBERGS OF THE ANTARCTIC SEAS. 

"Icebergs were seen in all stages of formation, from five to two hnndred 
feet above the surface, and sacb exposed its itratili cation la boriiontal 
layers, from six ioches to four feet in thickness. When the icebergs sre 
fbily formed, they have a tabular aud stratified appearance, snd are perfectly 
walUsided, varying from one liundred and eighty to two hundred aud ten feet 
in height. These were frequently found by ui in their original situation, 
attached to tbe l>i)d, and having tbe boriiontal stratification distinctly 
visible. 

" Is some places we sailed for more then fifty miles together along a 
straight and perpendicular wal!, from one hnndred and fifty to two hundred 
feet in height, with the land behind it. The icebergs found along the coast 
afloat were from a quarter of a mile to five miles in length ; their leparaiion 
from tbe land may lie rfTected by severe ftojt rending tbem asunder, after 
wbicb the violent and frequent storms may be considered a sufficient cinte to 
orcreome the attraction which holds tbem to tbe parent mau. In tbeir 
next stage they eihtliit the proee)s of decay, being found fifty or sixty miles 
from the land, and for the most part with their surfaces inclined it a con- 
siderable angle to the horizon. This is cauied by a change in the position 
of tbe centre of gravity, arising from the abrading action of the waves. 
! " By onr observttioni on tbe temperature of tbe sea, it is evident that 
these ice islanilt can be little changed bv tbe melting process before they 
K»eh the latitude of GO". The tempentnte of the sea (u observed by the 
vessels going to and returning from the tooth) showed but little change 
above this latitude, and no doaht it wu st its maximum, as it was then tbe 
height of tbe lumraer season. During their drift to the northward, on 
teaching Inwer latitudes, and as their distance from tbe land increases, tbey 
■re foand in all stages of decay, some forming obeliiks, otbeii towers and 
gnlbic arches, and alt more or lets perforated ; some eibiQit lofty columns, 
with a natural bridge reaiing on them, of a lightness and beauty inconceiv. 
able in any other material." — NarraliM qf Ihe Vnittd Slale§ Exp'orimg 
Xtpeditiam. 

Tht Rattler screw -propellril steam-sloop, Commander Smith, is having an 
dtwed scnw BUot ) thi Ktnr hnXof provnt a arwt dnvtwck to her speed wbrn under 
mU, a balckvar la Im<b| cdI (ron the upper deck dtmn Into tbs dml-wood, bf wblch 
BModh* taww may b« lifted np so u nst lo Imped* her prorn wtin anArt crnvM*, 
sad nsv ba alugcther nmoved or repUced. If dseiagsd, irlUuiDt going Into doclt. An 
nira RDiBbcr of mlUiTr1|lits wers put upon btr yMlcrdmr lo get hf r out of band as qaickly 
is posstUi. 



EAST INDIA COMPANY'S NAVY. 
The compantin strength nf the East India Company's Nsw at several 
periods, firon 1B29 to the present day, will be seen from the Table here 
salf^Md. 



1S2S. 
ElpUaatdM .. .. 18 
Amhant ..IB 

CUvfl ,, ,.18 

Coote .. 18 

Den ares. 14 guns, surveying 
Ternste ,. ., 12 

Thetis .,12 

Nautilus .. ,. 12 

Euphrates ..10 

Tigris .. ..10 

Palinurus, 8 gans, snrvrviog. 



1S32. 
Hastings, 30 guns, frigate. 
Btphinslone . . 18 [ 

Ambent . . 18 ' 

Clive ..18 

Coote ., ..18 

Benares, 11 guai, sorveying 1 
Temate .. 12 1 

Thetis .. 12 

Nautilus .. 12 

Euphrates .. 10 

Tigris .. 10 

Palinurus . . 8 

Shannon, 4 guns, schooner. 
Royal Tiger, 4 guns, ditto. 
Stiau VasaBL. 
Hugh Lindiay. 




I 1831. 

JElphinstone 
Amherst 
Clive 
Coote 

Bensrea, U guns, inrveving ship.' 
Ternate 
Thetis 
Nsutilus 
Buphrstes 
Tigris 
Palinurus 

Royal Hger, 4 guns, schooner. 
Hastings, 30 guns, frigste. 
Steam Vkssbl.. 
Hugh Linduy. 










I6Sg 








Hastings,* Receiving 


ship. 




Bons") . 
" Lo 


Coote* 




18 guni 


s. 


Clive* 




18 „ 


. 


„ Cs 1 Elphinstone* 




18 „ 





..J"" 


Tigris* 




10 „ 


1 


ship. 


Euphrates* 




10 „ 


guns"' 




Taptee* 




6 ,. 


n 


tt 




Constance* 




3 „ ' 


e 


n 


. S, Shsnnon 




* .. 




» 


'= Royal Tiger 




4 .. 






Hahi* 




3 .. 


"5 




Nerbndda* 




2 » 






Margaret* 




2 „ 


u 




Palinurus* 




8 „ Bria. 




Sr>AM VisaaLs. 






AtaUnta. 










Berenice. 










Zenobia. 










Victoria. 










Hugh Lindiay. 










Semlramis, 










Euphrates . . 














Iron 






Comet f 




Vessels. 




Meteor J 








thus * were sttsched to the Indian utt it the 


close of 1844. 









Tbe Sailhtg Vessels marked 



List of Steam Vessels atucbed to tbe Indian Nav; at tbe close of the Tear 

1844. 



Name. 


ToDDage, 


Uotse Power. 


.No. of Guns. 


Acbar 


1143 


350 


6 


Auckland 


946 


220 


4 


Sesostrii 


876 


220 


4 


Semiramis 


960 


300 


4 


AtslanU 


617 


210 


3 


Berenicet 


664 


230 


3 


Cleopatrs 


770 


220 


6 


Hugh Lindssy ,. ,, 


411 


160 


2 


Victoria 


705 


230 


3 


Zenobia . , , . 


684 


280 


2 


Indus 


304 


60 


2"^ 




UeduiB 


438 


70 


3 




Assyria 


153 


40 


5 




Comet 


204 


40 


2 


. 


Cooqnemr 


— 


— 


^ 


"C 


Meteor 


149 


34 


^^ 


mt 


Meance 







^^ 


>• 


Nimrod 


153 


40 


5 


g 


Napier 


— 






1-4 


Planet 


33& 


60 


2 




Satellite 


335 


60 


2 




Nitocris 


153 


40 


2J 





t It is understood that this vessel has been condemned, and the ' Queea,' 
from Bengal, put on as a packet in her room. 



30 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHlTECrS JOURNAL. 



[JdMUART, 



EVAPOOATIVE POWER OP TURF, COMPARED WITH THAT 
OP COAL.* 

The following rNDlti, u to the comparatiTe effectiva power of turf and 
enal, Ire derived from ihe working of the l^niilnvnie, one of tha itcuncra of 
the Inland Navigition Compinf wliich plj' upon the SliBonon nith good* 
and puieogeri. Tlirj have heen kindly placed in my handi for mj pretent 
ol'ject, b; Mr. C. W. Williamf. Before th« uie of turf irai inttoduced there 
was burned in a week, which compriie* fbitj-niae houii of work, twentj- 
four tona of coal, which, coating on an average at KilUIoe 15*. per ton, 
amount to 18{., or It. bd. per hour. To do the same work at preaent, burn- 
ine nothing bat turf, there are coninmed per week 315 boxea of turf, which, 
at 7ff. per box, coat! 9i. 12«. 7d., or 3«. llif. per hour of work — but a (hade 
more than half the co9t with coat. The enginei of the Lanidowne are con- 
denting, of thirty-eight incbei and a half diameter, and three feet and a half 
stroke. The uiaal velocity ii twentf-fiTe itroke* per minute. 

The box of turf contain! twenty cubic feet ; not verj cloaelj packed. It 
weigh* about 3} cwt. ; ao that Ihe ton weight of turf coats about 3*. Cd. The 
weight of 315 boiei is hence fifty.Bve toni and a quarter, and the practical 
value of the turf is to that of the coal as 24 to 55}, or aa 43 to 100. It ia 
intereiting to conaider the inftuence which the anbstitution of turf for coal 
in the Shannon steamers baa on the population reaiding near its banks. In 
the jeir IS39 there was no turf burned, and the coals consumed on board 
the company's boats amounted to 3,108 tons. In 1643 there were burned 
hut 724 tons of coal, altliough the amount of trade was much increased. 
The quantity of turf consumed waa upwards of 7,000 tons, which, at 3*. 6d. 
per ton, gives an expenditure of more than l,200f. distributed in wages of 
labour, by which almost Ihe entire cost of the turf la made up. The equi- 
valent quantity of coals would have eoat above I,800J^, so that at the same 
time the Company saved 600'. a-year. 

Those remarkable facts are well exhibited in a letter written hy Mr. 
%Villi«ms to the Board of Admiralty, which is subjoined, as it illustrates 
some additional circumstances. Mr. Williams's estimate of the saving is 
greater than mine, for, in the preceding analyaii of the reanlts, I have taken 
coal at a lower price than is assumed in his letter. The reason is, that it 
hai fallen since those results were obtained, and I have calculated from what 
the price is, whereas he calcnlated from what it waa at the time quoted i — 
" 6, Princes Street, Caveodiah Square, July 21tt, 1843. 

" Sir, — I have bad the honour to receive your letter of the 12th instant, 
addressed to the Secretary of the City of Dublin Steam Packet Company, 
inquiring, for the information of the Lords Commissioners of the Admiralty, 
tlie proportiooate duration of turf to coal in Ihe Company's boats which 
ply up the Shannon from Limerick, to which I beg to give the following 
reply, derived from experience of the boats on that river. 

" The Lantdowne, a steamer with two engines 38^ inch cy- 
linders, at 3 ft. 6 in. atioka, consumed upon an average 1^0 
tons of coal per month, running daily (except Sunday) a dis- 
tance of forty-aix miles, at 18*. per ton, covering expenses . £108 

" The aame duty is done with 1419 boxei of turf of twenty 
cubic feet, about 250 ton weight, at 7d. per box 417 9 

IMfterence ID the cost of the fuel per mouth . . . . £G6 12 3 

" 2. The difference in weight is, therefore, aa two of turf to one of coal, 
and on the Shannon the diffeterce in price is less than one-lialf that of coal. 

" 3. Its proportionate duration may be estimated by the quantity required, 
compared with coal to perform the same duly, that hieing double its weight ; 
il& duration in the furnace is half that of coal. 

" 4. From recent experiments with turf in the experimental boiler in the 
Company's yard at Liverpool, it is found that turf can only be profitably 
iij(!(l when it is of the quality that ii obtained in good seasons. If bad or 
damp, its evaporative power i* reduced one-third and more. To improve 
the eraporative power of this fuel, however, results have sbowa that an 
addition of 40 per cent, of a preparation of turf by an improved method, 
which I have been engaged npon fur some years, will render it cheaper than 
eijal used with bad turf, or tbsn coal burned alone ; and that the same per 
I'l^nlagc of thia pr''*>ared fuel added to good turf, greatly increaaea its eva. 
|ii>raiive power, wii.n a very trilling addition to the cnsl. 

" From these facts it is evident that turf may be used advantageously in 
localities where it aboumls, and where there is an aliaence of coal. Care, 
hovrei er, must be taken that the furnace hari are lowered, not only to admit 
a greater bulk of fuel, but also to prevent too great a volume of air passing 
ill the ash-pit, and then through the bars. I may add aUo, that in burning 
tnrf it is highly essential that air be admitted in the air chamber behind the 
bridge, in coosequeoce of the rapidity with which tlie gaiei from this kind 
ni fuel fly off. If it he excluded there upon the common furnace principle 
the weiglit and bulk of fuel will be increased, the evaporative power reduced, 
and the cost pro port ion ably greater. 

" It will give me much pleasure to furnish jon with any further inform- 
aiioo in my power. 

" I have the honour to be. Sir, yoor obedient humble servant, 

" To Sidney Ilerliert E»q., Admiralty." C. W. Williaiib. 

I have already notice.., that from my own inquiries the best turf may be 
had in the turf districts for 3f. Gif. per ton, and as it is a fuel that will never 
be drawn far for any iuduitrial use, we may take it. per ton as the practical 

fr«m the " ladustiial Besourcea of Ireland." 



vitnc of turf well dried vrithin the raun of the central eoontiea. At Ac 
price, and allowing It 44 per cent, of the ealorillc effect of coal, the hone 
power sUouId cost 6d. per day, that is, one-fourth cheaper than coal. Hr. 
Williams, using the same sort of fuel as is employed at the corn mill, and 
paying 6if. per hot, but drying it well, found that, with a large working 
wa^on hoilf r there were 3-87 lb. of water evaporated per pound of turf, 
and that it cost 3«. 7d. to evaporate 100 cubic feet of water. Now this ia al 
the rate of i^d. per horse power per working day. When Ihe turf wu 
burned in the furnace without Mr. Williams's peculiar mode of elTectiag 
perfect combustion, the co«t per borae waa Gjd., coinciding with the reiolt 
which I have derived from other sources. 

Pioni all theae examplea, it may be decisively eonriuded, that in Irclud 
the horse power of steam coats per day In fuel : — 

Using FoaU, whether British or native . . 7|d. 

Vting turf, properly dried 6d. 

Using turf in Mr. Williami's mode . . . S^. 



COLOURED DECORATIONS. 

At a meeting of the Decorative Art Society, on November 2Gth, a piper 
"On Chromatic Decfiratious," was read by Mr. B.Cooper. He oommeaeed 
with a chronological review of various modes of apply. ng or using colour U 
Eg>-pt, and on the continent of Europe, from remote times to the end of tbe 
17th century. In referring to the stupendous and richly-decorated remains 
of temples and porticoes in Egypt, he commented nn the dull and opaque 
colours, contrasted with mat and burnished gold (laid on in leaves) which 
are found therein, and also npon mummy cases ; he described tbe eolour«d 
intaglios on ths walls, and the painted ceilings of deep ature, studded with 
stars in the temple of .Viedeenet Haboo, at Thebes ; he exhibited driwinga 
of Egyptian ornament of excellent design, and remarked that no progretslw 
improvement in decnrstive art is discernible in these works. 

The temples of Greece were then noticed, where colour was applied to 
capital!, friicc, entablature, and the backgrounds of the tympanum ; also on 
Ihe ogee mouldings, where honeysuckle, egg, and other enrichments were 
painted or stencilled ; and it was observed that, although no remaina have 
been discovered, it was reasonable lo infer, from the eminent atste of ptaaUc 
art, that contemporary pictorial art had arrived at considerable perfeclian, 
and the names of some Greek artists were given, on the authoriiy of Pliny 
and Quintilian. After some remarks on the vases of Greece, and the mural 
decorations of the sepulchres of Etruria, he directed especial attention to tha 
ma;(nificcnt baths, or therm*, of Titui, at Home (erected a, n, 70), and 
(referring to the ilUiitrations by M. I'once), he observed that the fresco 
paintings found there display, in the grouping, drawing, and management of 
dra|.ery, a reflned feeling and knowledge of art ; and in his remarks ou the 
colour ua«d, he observed tbat the decorations were execnied, most probablr 
by Greek artists. 

Tbe decorations of Pompeii and Ilercutsneum, being of the same period, 
were Ihen described ; but, aa might be sopposed, from their being provincial 
towns, they would be found inferior in execution and splendour to tlioie of 
the capital. The arrangement on the walls, of masses of black, red, and 
white, exbiliited a principle which was commented on at some length; and 
it was also remarked, that these examples do not afford an Bbsolute crite> 
rion by which to estimate the perfection of the arts of tbat or the precediog 
age. Paising over several centuries, he next noticed the early efforts of 
Cliristian art, remaining to us in the mossica of the churchea and palaces trf 
Italy; and after some remarks on the productions of Ciniahue, Giutto, and 
Leonardo da Vinci, he entered upon a consideration of the decorative worki 
of .Michael Anicelo and Raphael. 

In Ibis period of Italian art, the anachrouisma and diarrgard of relative 
proportion, in the parts composing arabesque or grnleaqne decorations, were 
especially noticed, as well aa the enrichments, similarity in design and 
colouriog, existing between the works of Raphael and hia school, and thoaa 
io the halhs of Titua, before alluded to, and which were discovered at thia 
time : « striking instance wa* exhibited, in the decorations st Mantua, by 
Giulio Koiiiano, and Andrea Mooiagna. (See Gruner, plate 24, and plate i 
of tbe Bat I IS.) 

Ihe magnificent decorations by the Venetians were next described, Iq 
which massive mouldings richly carved and giit, divided the surface of ceil. 
inga and walls ; tbe coffers ot panels being filled with paintings hy Titian, 
Tintoretto, Ac, produced a gorgpiiui effect. The decorations of the ceiUnr 
of the sacristy attached to tbe Uuunio, or cathedral at Venice were said to 
be worthy ot recommendation, no account of durability and spleudonr. for 
open colonnades in this country (such as at the Uoyal Exchange) ; tbe back 
grounds were of vitrified gold, and exhibit all the beauty of ancient mosikc. 
combined with the harmonious colouring and beautiful ornament of the siil 
leenth century. Thia century wiinesacd the rise and decline of fine art in 
Italy, and in the following one, althoogh we meet with some good artificen 
they were mere copyist* and mannerists, and not great artists. ' 

In diicussion, the terms arabesque, grotesque, moreique, &c., were argued ■ 
the modes of lighting, and the principles of graeilalion of colours oa 
walla of apartments were commented on, and a rvgret expressed that deco- 
rations in the houses of nobility are not sufficiently known or accesiiblu lo 
the inspection of decoraton and artists. 



I8J6] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



31 



BELFRY TUHftETS. 

No Urge tower can be couideied complete without ■ itiireue-tnrret of 
■tODOt contwDing ut awent by a oewel ti«ir to the hell- chamber. 

Thii lerj unportuf feature of ■ church towrr hm bi-en lingulirly neg- 
lected ia modem detigni, io which the eOect hu been often much ini|iured, 
ud en eeientiel pert of the conitruction omitted, under the ides thai It b 
either a ueleia appeadage, or au awkward and uniighily eicreiceatre. 
Both theee uotUna are estremely rrroneout, and io urging upon architect! 
Uw more general adoption of belfry turrelt, we wilt eiiiietvour to (haw that 
both mililj and tike principlei of effect luggeiled their uie to the ancient 
boildera. 

Belfry turreti are niually placed in thr louth-west. more rarely in the 
nort«-we>t, angle of towen; they occur also in the loaih-eait and north- 
eaat. Tbey are polygonal, and project half eitrrnally and half internally, 
and have ■ tmall doorway opening into the inside. They are carried up 
either to the height of one or two stagn, or to the belfry windows, and then 
weathered off with ■ bold and picturesque tlupr, or thry rise above the 
parapet, and form a kind of castellated pinnai^le turret, sometimes carrying a 
weathercock or other pointed termination. Very frequently they are lost in 
the buttresses, which are, ai it were, thrust prominently outwards by a 
bolgiog swell of the masonry in one angle, readily distinguished from the 
rest by its visihle protuberance, and by small slits to admit liB[ht and air 
air tato the staircase within. Sometimes, as at All Saints, Paaton, near 
Peterborangh, the head of the turret merges into a broach of the spire, 
wbicii gi*es an extremely bold and irregular efTccl. 

There can be no doubt that irregularity gives effect to a tower, or indeed 
to any Gothic building. Not irregularity for irregularity's sake— that becomes 
affectation. But such irregularity as arises from the absence of hy[iocrisy, 
or show, or making one aide the same as the other, or the like. Theie ia no 
need to fear a broken or shapeless mass as the result ; unif irmity ii far less 
pleasing than variety ; and the eye caa never be (ilfcuded in Gothic buililinj^s 
by a door, a window, or a bottcess, being fairly imahed aiide by the inter- 
veotioB of any necessary constructive feature. 

NMhiog was more fully felt by the ancient architects than this ; while 
■othiflg is more cautiously and timidly adopted by modern imitators. We 
hare aeca with much pleasure, in very elaborate and stilenrlid towen, one 
bdfry window placed quite on one side, instead of in the middle, even 
though the belfry staircase which caused this reroarkiblp irrepularily wns 
leareely visible OD the ontside. Examples of this are St. John. Kyhall, lod 
All Saints, Oskham, in Ratland. Sometimes, as at St. Wutfran, Craiitham, 
the splendid decorated tower of which hai scarcely a rival in the kingilum, 
one of four pinnacles is considerably larger and liijther than the other three, 
because it forma a capping to a itaircsae turret. Yet wlio slull be bold to 
sty this is a fault? We would say, by all means breakup niunolimy and 
aameneat of sides by tome such expedient ; and a belfry turret seems mott 
■doiraUy adapted to produce almost any kind of hold picturesque effect. 
Prom a distance, the lights and shadows, the peaks aud the broken liiie», 
are vailly imposing and arresting to the eye. Cln a near view, the buld 
abutment o( an angle seems at once to Dank and to pmp the stages of a 
lofty tower ; and on every p^iint whence the effect is visible, the mind is gra- 
tjied by the idea of ingeuiiiiy or pleased by the suggestion of necessity 
njde suhaervient to decorative effect. 

Some bclfrj turrets are corbelled off s little above the grnunil riiternally. 
Thb, though not a material difference of conitruction, is in he di.'|>recal('d, 
bccaiiie the tower ia apt to appear ovcrbaUiiceil by an eiCtcscence which 
emerges from the wall itself, and does not rrst upon its own ha-ii nn (be 
groaiid. Ve have seen (as in St. Peter, Uarton. near Camhriilgi) the suuth . 
west angle singularly prolonged into a wedge-like furni from the inli'rnal 
formation of a belfry tower ; aiid af;ain, we liave noiii-i'd the uio>t beautiful 
forms and enlargements of buttresses to i^lve scope for ilie stairi'aie. 

It is true that many ancient towers were ascended by Isd'lers. andia a 
few we have seen wooden stairs inclosed in vattled ur ho.irdpil lurrrla con. 
itrurted in the interior. The ascent to the floor un whi.'h the lii'll 'ringers 
Wienible. if above the ground, should he the belfry turret; though we may 
h«re repeat what we have often urged befure, that the eiilrnii' e to it should 
never be frnm without, independently of any other cuinmunicali.iu with the 
interior of the church. 

Uodern ardiiiects are generally compelled to construct a staircase in their 
towers; hut then tliey strife to bide rather than boldly to diojilay it rater, 
nally; and herein consists their error. We are inclined to prefer those 
belfry turrets of which three or four sides project externally, oonieiimRs cvru 
in the middle of the north or south aide, and are weathered off at the uppr 
or belfry stage, to those which are only partially developed from t!ie outside. 
The attention, however, of architects neeils only to be directed to the suli- 
ject, and their observation will abundantly supply fit models and devices for 
imilatioo. — Ecclaiobgitt. 



LiairTNiNc Rods, — In a recent ciimmimici'lnn in (h* Xew Ilavrn Guirpr, 
mpnUpg*onierKPnilntanrrso(liD'ii» brhie ilnirh tw lightning, ProfrK.ir SlillriiBn 
TTSIM 1h*t tlw Itghtiilus rods cannot tie relied ii|ion nnln* Civy r^i'li ibe ijtIIi, wlicm It 

■•(iidsd by nrrylng tti* rod or sodif gouit imlallic i:'itiiiiK'iur. ilulr iiinuriicil with li. lu 
ihf water ID the well, or to kmhc other walrr Itiat iirvrr titili, ?niiri^.jr Sirininii'aU.iiur, 
II wnne, wis stnrk i bnl bis llghlnliiK nxli Kerr nut morr thin two or lhr« Im hr« Id 
It* Bsound. wmI <v> ttunfare rlrtuBlly of no avail ui prolecUng ibe house, lie ■tain 
<Wlilaeanfid(ncclaUiccffideDcyatr.Nlsisliiuade(rtc dtmluiahed.— 'New York Ob- 



SYNOPSIS OF RAILWAYS INCORPORATED IN 19M, 
WITH THEIR ALLIANCES. 
[For the fbllowlnf Imporisnl paper we irc iDdebled to Ihc Indifitlgahle and well 
directed enrtlons of aa old rormpondant, who under the ilgnature O. T., has conlil- 
buted tcveral lovslinbla pipen to Ibla Journal. 

Id the fonoatlDn of the rollowlflg iTnopila, Ihf Huppl«nicnt of the " Times,*' Nor. 17, 
IS41. tbe Rillarair Almuitv anil Directory for 184C, the CompaoloD to tbe Brfliati Alsw- 
naclCr IKM. tbt Bailwiy Shareholden' Manual, by Hcnrr Tuck, fith edition, and two Par- 
lUiof atary itcturni, duled July l.'ih and Angnit 4lh, have twen coniultMl. None, how- 
ever, ot tbese aulborttin give Ihe alUanna of tbe new lines wliJch art hrre added. The 
parllwiKDiarT return of Auipui 4ih, tIMJ, which Is Important, a* It glTef the numlier of 
■ bares lubicTlbed for, SI veil ms the uumtier of shares empowered to te created, nbleh 
■bowa the aiatlstlca of fueh line In public opinion, and the ntani of the dimton In coo* 
trolling Ihe market by gradually lelliDg aharei where tbe Damber sulborlied cxcttds tbi 
nuinljer aabscrlbed for.] 

1. frijli Great Wetlrm. 

20,'>«OahsreiDf SOi. eacbi npllal ],0tiO,OO(U, 

From Dublin to Mnltinxar, conuecting the Valley of the Shanooo with 
the Irish capital. To commence in connection with the Dublin and 
Cashel line. Dear Lurcan, passing near Ihe towns of Leixslip, Celbridge, 
MayiMMilh, Kilcock, Clonxrd, Kioorgmr, and Kilnear, to Mulliogar, and 
tlience by Meute In Alhluue. 

Length of line 77 miles, 2 furlongs, 4 chains. Reported afEainit by the 
Board of Trade. Cupitnl subscnbe<l, »U3,(Hiar. and IH.OtiO shares, kstt- 
Diated cost, tltiCSSU. Power to burrow on loan 333,UO0(. Embodied in 
group 'A, unJ recommended by the commiUee. 

Workiui; eipruses eslimaled at 40 per cent. Hoyal Assent July 21. 
Sir John M'Neil eugioeer. 

S. Lmulondernj and CoUraine, 

lU,OiX<sbsn«,afU)t.eacb| capital -Mil i,'KIO(. 
To commence at I<oi>'louderry, pasaine the border of Loui;h Foyle, ami 
lermiuHling Hi C'lilerniiie. with a braoch to Newtown. LeuKth of main 
lioeund branch.SiJiuilrs.GfurloDgStSchaios. Amounl subscribed, 380.<KH)(, 
Power to biirrow IGG.GIiCf. Keported Hgainbt by Ibe floerd of Traile. 
Considered hy ciimmilteeof F:ruup S, and reconi mended. Woiking ex- 
p<-u4«s 14,01101. per annum. Kojiil Aaaeut August 4. ^Jharlea I.dnyon, 
engineer. 

3. nelfaxt and HnUiimtan. 

7,7QH- ibam of M't. each ; capital arafiixit. 

From Ihe former tu tbe latter place, with u brMnch to Garrickfergus. 
Deposit -U. 1U«. per share. Amuuut of depiisit:j t'J.USO/. Totul length of 
Ihe line 37 miles, 7 fuiluugs. Puwit 1u borrow I2)J,33JJ. Itecommeuded 
by tbe Hoard of Trade, unJ recctinineuded by Ihe commiltee of gruup S, 
Single liuf. Estimate of working expi-nsea 11,0001. Uuyul Asseot, June 
21. Charles Lanyoo, engineer. 

4. Dublin and DrJfast Junction [and Naroa Branch). 

I'J.nWiahunsoTAOr. each i cnplt;i1 Mo.iniOf. 
Depostl '21. iOn. per share. Amount of deposit 47,5001. Tolal length 
of the tine, from Urui;heda lu I'urtaditwu, 73 miles, J furlonifs, IJ cliaiua. 
Esiimitle 950.733'. Fuwer to borrow 31fi,GC:!f. Itecommeoded hy 
Board of Trade ; aUo by cuiDm ttee of group It. llrnuch toKclU. Work- 
ing expenses 40 per CKnt. Uuvul Aaseul July 21. EiiKiDcer Sir John 
M'Neil. Meeting August 20. Miles Uech, Kecrcinry. Oflice, 2, Talbot- 
street, Dublin, (')dl September 10, 21. 10s Prupusfd threat County 
Down company are tu inspect a trial Sfclion of the line to Uillshorough. 

5, Dundalk and Enniiikillfn. 

1.t,ii"0 iharei of iOl. tich ; capital T.'iO.OOIiJ. 
Drncisit2f. lOa. Amount of dcpu-ii 3^,500/. Tolal len::Ih nflhe line, 
inchidiii.; binncli to MuauKlmn, 40 miles, furhiaj;!. E^tiinatnl cipcuscH 
4o0,U00[. I'lJKPr to borrow 2 "lOjOUtK. Kecummviid d hy tlit- UunrJ, also 
by cuiuiniiti-e of uroup II. Vt »rkiii); eipenses 30 per crtit. Iloyal As- 
sent July ai. EnKiiierr Sir John .M'Neil. Ili-gisiir of scrip ()ct. It), 
Inli, lliitli-'ld .Nicholson. siTrelary. Ollice 72, Tnl bot-s I ri'ct. Dublin. 
Conipnny ojiiTiit'-s and in FUnjiinriinn with Dublin aiid Drogheda iss< 
Uelfuat J uncliou aud Irish North Midland. 

0. CorA- and Uaa/lon. 

4,ti>hi (hires of .'iiiJ.esthi npit'l l'4'1,iW1(i;. 
To connect the toivni' of llaiHry, Itauduu. Ktiisule, Berehaven, and 
Cssllelonu with a rich a,>ricultural and mineral dislrict aud Ihe city aud 
harbour of t'ork. I,*ngth of Liue 20 miles. Power to borrow 811,000'. 
Subxcribed 200,000/. in 4.000 shares. Jtecommended by Ihe Board of 
Trade, aud hy couiiniiiei' of group XX. Wurkini; expenses 40 per ceni. 
Uuyul Assent July 21. Engineers .Messrs. Sealey. Secretary J. H'Dunnell. 
7. Cireiit SiMlhern and Wculerti. 

34,' HO ihirei af bul. each i capUil 1,:-W,(i0i>f. 

Extension 1o Limerick anil Cork. Tlie exlensina to Cork will com- 
mence brtwein iloiycnias itnd Crtshel, in conjunction wiih the Ureal 
Soulhcrn and Wcslcm line, anil pass near the towns of Tipperary, Kil- 
mBltock.Charleville, and MhIIow. The eiteiiaiim to Limerick leavrs Ihe 
wain liue near TipperKry, passing Ihe tuwus of Pallas Greeu, and Ciliir 
cnnlirih. Length of line 93 nulirj, .Sub*nrihei| l.lKl.toiU. Power to 
borrow 400,000f. itecommeoded by tbe Board of Trade, and coiumitt«« 



23 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Jam u ART, 



on punp AA. Working expCDBM 40 per cent Roy*! Aaient July SI, 
Engineer Sir J. H'Neil. Subscribed to Inth Great Weatem {Dublin 
nad Galwn;) 800,0001. to Weifbrd, Cnrlaw, and Dablio Junction 
1 00,000 J, to K ilia roe J Jaoction 30^001. Alw new line propomi, Clon- 
mtl, Cachel, Teroplemore, NentKb, Borris in Ouarf, to BnecrNi, Par- 
aooatown, Enoia, KiUaloe, and Waterford and Kilkeanj, for wUah to 
Act ia obtained. Hr. Taylcw, aecretary, 

8. Wattrfiri nd lamtriek. 
1S.W0 *hun of MM. odi , CMifiUd 7M,O0al. 
To commence at tbe city of Waterford, proceeding through the town of 
Carrick-on-Sair, Clonmel, Cabir, and l^pperar; to Limerick, affording 
accommodalioo to a population of more than a roillion, and giving to a 
rich agricultural district an excellent port for tbe abipment of produce to 
Eoglaud. Length of line 77 miles, 7 feet. Subscribed 690,S0M. in 
llS.Oett ibares. Povrer to borrow 290,0001. Recommended bj the 
Board ofTnide, and committee of groBpAA, Working eipenaea 40 per 
cent. Bojal Aaseot Jul; 21. 

9. Ntwry nd En»ukUle». 

\t,aOi itura o/KU. Mchi mplUI WO.OOCU. 

To commence, in janciion with the Dublin and Belfast Jnnction, at 
Newry, passing through the towns of Mooaghan, Clones, and Enniikillen. 
terminatiDg, in junction with the Ulster railway, at Armagh. Length of 
line 75 miles, 6 furlongs. Capital subscribed 14,2101. in 284 shares. 
Estimate B33,B47I. Power to borrow SOO.OOOl. Kecommended by the 
Board o( Trade, and by committee of grunp U. Working eipensei SSi 
per cent. Royal Assent July 21. Engineer Sir JohaBennie. Mr. Saunders 
secretary. 

10. Waltr/ori and KiUcenn^, 

13.H0 ihtnt of SO/, (uh 1 capital iHl.OOOI. 

On this line tbe wooden rait ia to be used as a fubstitnle for iron. The 
wood U to be prepared by Payne's process, and the engines and carriages 
are to be fitted with Prosser's guide wheels, length of line B7 miles, 
3 furlongs. Subscribed capital 200 OOOJ. in 10,000 shares. Power to bor- 
row 89,0001. Recommended by the Board of Trade, also by the com- 
mittee of group BB. Working eiprnses 40 per cent. Royal Assent 
July 21. J, Valenliae, Engineer. Ollice,S4,Broad-Btrcet-buildiugs, Loo- 
don. Thos. ProBser, secretary. 

It. Londonderry and EiinUkUhn. 
lii.DOO (btm DfMf. cadi i <aplEal £00,0001. 
Commencing at Londonderry, and passing through Carrigaos, St. 
Johnston, Strabane, Cliffurd, Newlownstewart, Dromore, Trellick, to 
Enniskillen, in junction with the line lo Dandalk, thus forming a direct 
communication between the north-west of Ireland and Dublin, and the 
east coast. Length of line 66 miles, 1 furlong, 4 chains. Estimale 462.1231. 
Subacnbed 380,0001. in 7,600 shares. Power to borrow 106,(i6GI. Work- 
ing expenses 40 per cent. Royal Assent July 21. Sir John M'Neil. 
Engineer. Register of scrip 21 Oct. Fred, H. Hemming, secretary, 
Hoorgate -street chambers, London. 

12. Dnblin attd Dmgheda. 

CaplUl 150,000<. 

Howth extension. Lengths miles,5 furlongs, 4^ chains. Estimated ex- 
pense 40,0001. Power to borrow GO.OOOJ. Working expense 30 per cent. 
Royal Assent July 21. Engineer Sir J. .M'Neil. 

13. UUter Extension. 
EsUmste ISS.OSW. 
From Portadown to Armagh. It was uriginally intended to run the 
Ulster line from Belfast to Armagh, and CHplial was taken for that pur- 
pose, so that it will not be requisite to issue any new shares. A tbirireoth 
call for 2'. 10*. has just been made. This will make the amount paid up on 
32'. on shares of SOf. Leogthoflinell miles,4 furlongs. Working estimate 
33 per cent. Royal Assent July 21. Godwin, Engineer. Raised 
6O,O00J. on loan, and It is proposed to lake interest. Newry, Baobridge, 
and Belfast Junction ; the engineer to surrey the country between Nowry, 
Hoira, and Usburn, as also Lough brick I and, Dromore, and HiUaboruugh. 

U, Letdt and Think. 

To commence at Leeds, and terminate at Tfairsk, patting throngh the 
most populous part of the West Riding ofYorkshire. Length 40 miles, 
1 furlong, I chain. Amount subscribed 863,1001, in 17,302 shares. Power 
to borrow 209,0001. Reported against by the Board of Trade, and re- 
commended by committee of group B. Working expenses 40 per Cfnt. 
Royal Assent July 31. J. Grainger, engineer. Payne, Eddison, aod 
Ford, solicitora. Office, 58, Albion -street, Leeds. Proposed extension 
through the Valleys of Wharfe to Skiptun and the Nidd lo Fateley, also 
to the uortb-east to Stockton, 

lb. Ltedty Dewtbnry, and ManckeHer Junelimt. 

ll.OM sluurn a( U/. each ; esotCal SM.OOO/. 

To commence at Leeds in junction with the Leeds and Bradford, pass- 
ia- through Dewtbury, towards UaddersBeld, and terminating, in junction 



with the Manchester and Leedi) balf a mile west of Dtwsbary atatioa. 
Length of line 20 miles, Sfurlooga, 5 chains. EstimatMl expense 6M,oaoJ. 
Power lo borrow 167,0001, No report from Board of Trade. Beeoin- 
meoded by committee of group B. Working eipenses 15 per ceoL 
Royal Aasent June SO, Heasta. Grainger and Miller, solicitors, OOce 
of the company, Leeds. Wm. Eagle BotI, secretary, it. call B3 OcL 
Interest paid Feb. and Angutt. 

le. SkrewOMfy, Oiwetinf, and Ckater Jutetiat. 

SO.MO Shane ef 301. Mcb I capital 410,000'. 

Will form a continuation of the North Wales Mineral railway, and srfll 

oomplete the direct line of railway from Cheater to Shrewsbory. Length 

oflioe S3 miles, 4 furlongs. Estimate, 37 1,000 J. Powerto borrow 186,00M. 

No report from the Board of Trade, Recommended by committee of 

group Q. Working expensea SO per cent. Royal Assent June SO. H 

Robertson, engineer, Amalgamatfd with North Wales Mineral railway' 

allowing to the latter company fur 301, shares 20t. ISf. 4d. stock, and for 

lOf, shares I4J. 6s. fid. and issuing new lo^ stock fbr extension, one 

for each 201., and one for two 101. North Wales Mineral railway, 

17. Ely and Huntingdon. 

10.600 ihim or 3U. nth) capital lM,«»f, 

To commence at Ely, in junction with the Eastern Conntlen and I^ynn 
and Ely railway, passing through St. l»e's, Huntingdon, and 8t Neol's. 
to Bedford. Length of line 22 miles, 6 chains. 87,295 ahareijaBbseribed 
a capital of 157,1251. Estimate, 100,0401. Power to borrow fUMU 
No report from the Board of Trade. Recommended by committee of 
group I. Working eipenses 80 per cent. Royal Assent June M JO 
Raslrick, engineer. Cnll of 3/. 18». OcL 1. OIHcea, Ljno. Norfolk' 
Secretarj.W.W. Williams. ^ ' ' "<*™*- 

IS. Grareiend and Roebtiter (Thame§ Sfedwag), 

S,000*hamor!01.«cb; caplul tB,00a;, 

To comraenee between the Town and Terrace Piers, through Um IW. 
race Gardens and grounds of the Fort, over the lands adjoiniac the 
Marshes, under Gad's Hill, crossing tbe Medway, near Rochester bridn 
and terminating at the Gibralier Inn, Chatham. Lengib of liDaftBUM! 
7furi"ngs, I chain. Amount of capital subscribed 127,5001 EatiaMtfe 
170,000/, Power to borrow 66,6061. No report from the Board of Trade 
Recommended by committee of group A. Royal Assent July i\, ■•! 
tension i mile. J. U. Rastrick, engineer. 

19. PreitMoad Wyre Branehe$. 

12,000 •bun of 30/. each ; capltsl lOOfiOtU. 

To commence at Preston, in juncUon with the Prvstoo aod Wrta 

ing through the popnlous manufacturing diatrict of Over Darwen li™^ 
nating, in junction with ihe Blackburn, Bolton, aud Darwen rall^Tl^ 
Lower Darweo. Length of line 8 miles 2 furlongs, 6 chains VmiZJZ 
fi«,000i. Power to borrow 33,S33i. No report frim the B«a^ of T^ 
and recommended by wmmitiee of group HH.,as Lytham Branoh.iud 
Blackpool Branch. Wurkmg expenses 82 per cent. Rov^a^TT, 
Juljai. G. P. Bidder, engineer. '" *Mea( 

20. .Vor(A WaUi. 

li.OOO iharai of HI. each ; caplLal a»,000/.-Ann]gaqi«i«i. 

To commence at Bangor, in junction with the Holyhea-I and Cli.»(«. 
i^llway, passing through the slate disiriels of Ca.-rnarvonshire and Sn«. 
don, aud terminating at Furl Dynllaen. Length of line 45 miJe, la^M 
Shares. Subscribed, a capital of 205,000(. Power to borrow 100 OML 
Working expeniies 40 per cent. Huyal Assent July 2|, Sir JohnU™ 
oie, engineer. Negotiating with Chester and Holjliead Railway. 

21. Brighten and Chieheiter (Portimoulh Eiteniion\ 

B,«» sham of SOI. eath i capital 3I0,OMI.~Amalgmi>uil*d- « 

From Ihe Hope-walk, Chichester, to St. James'sroad, Portsea wiih . 
branch con.menciog at tbe Fariiogton Waterworks to the Gospori' hrMch 
of the London and South Wesi.rn railway. Length of ifneM n^ 
Reported agamst by tbe Board of Trade. Single lio- lU,ytl A^t 
Augusts. J. U. Rastrick. engineer. Mr. Ott^. «creUr, t«~ 
Dean-street. The above sharea issued and sold to tbe Brighton Railm^* 

22. Oxford. Woreetter, and Woltrrhmaplom. 
sw,wis ■haie* of Ml, each > caplul I,fi ^.OOOI. 
To commence at Wolverhampton, dicergjng from the Grand JodcUob. 
passing through the dwincts in the vicinity of Bilsion, Tipton, Do^ 
Stourbridge, Kidderminster, Stourporl, Droitwich, WorceiiWr Perj!!^ 
Eiresbam, Moreton, aod Oxford, in junction with the Groit Wea^ 
railway. Leased in perpetuity to the Great Western railwaT mt Uw 
«n(. on 22,500/., aod capital 1,123,000/. Aulborised loanf SOolSS. 
Working expenses, 40 per cenL Royal Assent August 4 Bn™!| 

L°S"i?«. ^r- J- l^H^' "'="'«^?' Worcester. This CompanyU« 
bcn^ht Stratford and Moreton railway. Siratford-upon-Avon and Stan' 

ffi.''L;snu:?d';^irraitVy!'"^ *" ^'"^"'•^^ ^''^'-'"-" «- 



ISM.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



33 



lI,eo* (bun of tOI. Mch ( cB)dUl MCOHL 

In JoBction with the Great Weilera railway at Oxford, paaiing ihrouib 
Waodstock, Baaburr, and Southern, and ipraiiDatlDg at Kugb;, in joac- 
lioa with iha Midland and UirininRhan] railway. T Trrt gauge. Length 
M mitM, 4 farloDgs, 6 chains. N urober of ibares subicribed for U.OIH), and 
capital 45a/M0(, Aothoriard Iobd, 200,0001. Eatimated expenses, 
inOjtOOL Working eipeoera, 40 per cent. Koyal A»ent, Aug, 4. 

%l, CUtgoai, Barrhead, and NtUalon Direct. 
BfiOO (bam i nplul lU,OuO/. 
Length of line 8 miles, 7 furlongs, B chain<i. Capital 130,0001. Estltnatvd 
expeuea, 143 OOOf . Aalborisrd ioun, SO OJO/. Number of shares sub- 
scribed for, S,1421. Capital 188,S90^ M'orlciag expensea, 4S per cent. 
Royal Assent June SO. M. Bobson, engineer. 

X5> Littrpool and Mattckeiter ExU»*ui», 

Capital 80i,000/. 

Estimated expense, 804,0001. Aathorised loan, 26a.S3${. Workiog 
cxpenaes 40 per ceot. Royal Assent July 61. Clias. Liddle, engineer. 

36. Emtlen ContUi ExttMton. 

Estimated expense. Ely and Whiltlesea deviation, 320,000J. ; also Cam- 
bridge and HuotiDgdoa line; estimated expenses, ]50,000J. Capital 
stock 1M,OOOI. Authorised loan 50,0001. Lencth of line 17 miles, 4 
furlongs, S ebains. Amount ofcapitatsubscribed, llS,000i, TheCumpany 
do not raise any money by loan on shares for the Wbittlesea deviation 
liae. Royal Assent July 21. M. E. Dunhnick, engineer. Kuyal As- 
sent (Canbridge) August B. H. Stephenson, engineer. 

ST. York and Norlh Midland Eilention.. 

York and Scarboroagh Deviation line. Eiitimated expense, 38,2301. 
of Bridlington branch, B7,OU0I.i and of HBrn>):ute branch, •i%\iflUDL 
Leogth of bmncb to Bridlington, 19 miles, 6 furlongs, 3 chainn, and amount 
ofcnpital subscribed 70,0001 , with power lo borrow !i»,O00J. Length of 
Hnmgate branch, 18 miles, 3 furlongs, 4 chains. Amuuiil at capital sub- 
scribed, 180,0001., nirh poner to borrow 76,CQ6J. Working rxpentes, 
IS per cent. Royal Assent, July 21. J. C, Bitkeukliaw, eugincer. 
Wn. Gray, jun., secretary. 

28. South Emfera Exlenlian. 

From Ibc Tunbridge elation of the South Eastern rnilwiiy. Length of 
liars miles, I furlongs. 3 chains. Amount of capital subecribi-d, 135,000J, 
with power to borrow GO.OOtlJ. Company atito ublnined power to burrow 
47,5601. for widening and extension of the Lundoo and (irceuwich, which 
was estimated at 60,SOOI. and na increase of their capital of I42,?U0I. ; 
for tb*l purpose alio an increase of ISO,O0(Jl for the liue from Tunbridge 
btTonhridge Wells; as also an increase of lt)7,CH>lll. with puvrrr tu burrow 
n,OOOL for branch to Deal, and extension o' ibe South-Eastern radway to 
Catenary, Hamigaie. and Margate. Um. Cubiit, engineer. Royal 
Aaaent Aug. 4, Aug 8, July SI. 

39. Leeds, Demtlwy, and Sfiinchetltr Janrtios. 

l.t.OOn alurfa j cipltal OO.SOu/. 

A line from Leeds, joinins; the Leeds and nradfonl, through D'wshury 
to HodderntieM, joining Ibe Leeds and Mnncheater at Kirkhi'aion, with 
branch to MirtJeldand nirstsll. Leaglhof line:illinil^», STiirlonr;-, 5chaius. 
Estimaled expense, G:tC.00O'. Authorised Ioh", l(ili,'i(PO(. Number of 
shares autmcriljed for, 2,737. Capital, ASJfitOl. Kt'porlcd ■i^uiiid by 
the Board of Trade, aod recommended by coniiiiittL'e of f-mup U Work- 
ing expensea, 35 per cent. Royal Assent, Jiioe SO. Mvssrs Grainger 
and Miller, rogiaeers. 5tb call, Oct. 33. Interest paid, I per cent, feb, 
and Ang. William Eagle Butt, secretary, Lreds. 

SO. Exeter and Crediton. 
1.900 aliara; capital 70,0001.— Amalgam aUon. 

To commence at Credit on, and termioate, in juncliim with the Bristol 
and Exeter railway, nt Cowley Bridge. Length uf line 5 niilcs, G furlongs. 
The whole of ihK shares subscribed for, with a otpiial uf 70.0001. Au- 
thorised lo4o, 23,333^. Recommended to be postponed by (be Knanl of 
Tnde, aod rccumnended by the com mil tee of gruup M, which enI only 
one day. Royal Assent, Aug. 9. R. Uimond, <rnRine<-r. Tbuniss Hact- 
maie, secretary, Exeter. Leased to Great AV'esiern at 3,0001. per annum, 
and oae-lhinl of receipts if above 7,0001. per auuum. 

S). L^n and Dertham. 
1S,800 shares i capital 3;0,00('l. 
Commeoeei at the tenninas of the Lynn aod Ely line, and proceeds, by 
way of Swaffliam, to East Dereham, in Juoctioo wiih a Hue to Norwich. 
Length of line, Xtl miles, S furloogs, 1 chain. Number of shares suhscrilit'd 
ttr, 10,310, wllb a capital of 262,7501. Aathorised loan. 9U,0001. Esli- 
■ntod expense, STO.DOUf. Recommended to be pustpoaed by Uie Hoard «r 
Trade, nnd recommended by the committee of group K tu be adopted. 
Torking expenses. 39 per cent. Hoyal Assent, Jnty 31. J, U. Rss- 
Irlek, engineer. Call of 31. 12a. Cd. October Ist UlUce, Ljod. Secre- 
Ury, W. W. Williwna. 



n. WilU, SmtrtH, and Weymonth. 
80,000 absraa of Wl. ewb t capital l.Sou.OOOf. 
To cosBBWDce, in junction with the Great Western railway, at Cors- 
ham, passing throogh tbetowns oTMelkshaiD, Trowbridge and Westbury, 
with braocbes to Devixes and Bradford. The line passes throngh War. 
minster, and the Valley of the Wiley, to Wilton and (ialishury, and the 
other diverges to Frome, Bruton, Castle Gary, Yeovil, Dorchester, Wey- 
mouth, and Bridporl. Gnarantnd 4 per cent, by the Great Western 
railway. Leiii;tuuf tine, S3 miles, 2 furlongs, 6 chains. Number of shares 
aahscribed, S3,04li, and capital, 1,1S2,30d1. Authorised loan, 500,0001. 
Estimated expenses, 1 ,500,0001. Board uf Trade reported in favoar, and 
curoniittee of group G cuaGrmed their report. Working expenses 40 per 
cent. Itoyal Assent, June 30. I. K. Brunei, engineer. Leased to 
the Great Western at 4 percent., and } per cent, increase, should the 
Great Western railiray pay 8 per cent. Interest paid, Juue 30, Dec. 31. 
Propose to alter the line, and extend it to (Salisbury, with the consent of 
the South M'eslern company. 

33. Southampl^n and Dorcheettr, 

10,000 iham of Ml. tach ; eapllal MO,«W/. 

From the former to the latter place, by way of Redbridfte, Brockeo- 
hurst, Hurley, Ringwood, Wimbonroe, HanworLhy, and Warebam, Length 
of line, 62 miles. Number of shares subscribed for, 7,625, and capital, 
381,2601. Authorised loan. 168,6661. Estimated espeose, 900,0001. 
Recommended by the Board of Trade, also by committee of group (i. 
Single line. Working expenses, 40 per cent. Royal Assent, July 21. 
Captain Muorsoui, eogiacer. 

it. GuiUford, Chlekeiltr, and Portimontk. 
SO.We sham ol Ml. each i capital 500,0001. 

Commences at Guildford, in Junction with the tiaildfoni and W'okiog 
line, passing through Gudalming to Chichester, in Juaciion with the 
Brighton and Chichester line; thence, through Emanurth and Ha va at, to 
Ponsmouih and Fartham, lerminating in junction with the South Western 
lioe. Tu be leased by the South Western rajlwa)', und guaranteed 4 per 
cent, ou the outlay. Estimated eipecse, 3B0,U0Ul. Authunsed loan, 
ICIi.QODl. Length ol line, 60 miles. Recommended by the Buard of 
Trnilt;, and committee uf |!Tuup L. Working expenses, 93,0001. per an- 
num. Rojul Assent, July 21. J. Locke, engineer. Purchased by Soutti 
Western, also Fareham Branch. 

SS, iVeicnMtfe and BerKuk on-Tvoted, 

ie.OOOitiirnofVSJ. ascb) raplul lr«D0,M«l. 
Commencea in Junclioo with Norlh British line al Casile Hill, Berwick. 
on-'I'weed, and termioutes, in juocliun with Bradley junction line, in Gates- 
head, will) a brnnch to Neville -street, to join the Newcastle and Carlisle 
liue, aiiil a branch, T niil>-s, tu BIytli, and one S miles, to Aluwick. Length 
uf line, 'JS miles, 3 furl iiugg. Number of shares subscribed fur, 3>l,725, and 
cspital, Ul>3,ll!51. Aulliurised loan, 466,0601. Esiimiite<l expense, 
1,40U,U001 Recommeuded by the Board of Trade, and criiiimiltee of 
eruup E. Working expenses, 40 percent. Hoyal Assent, July 31. I{. 
Step lit utioti, enginetr. J. Close, secretary. 

36. Ilickmond, Surrey, and Wett End Junction. 

lS.n»0than>ar2ai.cirbt caplul :«!0,COOI. 
Tu commence at Richomod, and terminate at a junction tilth Ihe Son^h 
Wcateru, at Fdicuii Lane, Buitersea, passing thus the di^l^icts of Wands- 
wurlh, Putnry, llurues. aud Morllake. Length of line,6 miles. Number 
ofshures subscribed, 8,715. Capital, I84,3DU1. Autiionsed loan, Hi.DUDl, 
EsiiiiiatFd enpeii^c. liUO.llDDl. Kecommendsd by the Hoitrrl of Trailc, as 
also by llie c'.inraitue of Rroiip LL. Rojal Assent, Jul) 21. J Luthr, 
eiigiiii'iT. SDiTuturj , Richard Meade. UHice, 3, Mourijaie-street. Call 
ur41. A'is. ;iU. 

37. Ljfiit and Ety. 

U.OOO iham of -ihl. euh i caplUI 3' O.OOOI. 
From Kintt's L>nn tu the city of Ely, meeting lliere the Norlhi rn and 
Eastern iiiii' and ils exlruMou to Norwich aod Peterbciruuch. Lenitlh of 
line,3Tiiiiie!', 5 riirluugK,6chnins. N umber of sharessubecrllied for. 11,620. 
Capitul, 3mi,7'^0l. Authorised loan, lUO.OUUl. Kstiniatrd expense, 
SUO.OOm. Iteciimmen;led by the Ituard of Trade, and riiiuiuittee i>f gi'oup 
I. Hrauch to Wi^lieach. Working expenses, 13,4331, Itoyal Assent, 
June 30. J. U. lia&lrick, engineer. Call of 31. 10«. Oct. 1. Ulfice, 
Lynn. Secretary, W. W. Williams. 

S8. Tresl f'alley. 

O..'<00 ihsm or 201. fuh i capital l.!-'>0.a-ai. 
Commences at Ruiihy, passing through Nunealon, Atherslone. Tam- 
worth, Lichtielil, and lerminstvs, in Junction with the Grsnd Junction line, 
at Castir Church. Lrngib uf line,40miles. Sfurh'DES, 4 chaios. .^ umber 
of shares subscribed fi>r, 57,443. Capital, l,l4-i.tao(. Authorised litan, 
in.lil}lil Esliinutctl i^xpense, !M0,000(. Kecu nun ended by the Board uf 
Tnuli-. also the cuiniiiiltt'e (if group U, When cumplele, tu be leaded in 
|>erprtui[y tu the London and Birmiaghain railway, i;iiHninteeing the shiiih 
diviileiid as Iheir own line. Working expenses, 40 per cent. Rntal Ai- 
sent, July 31. T. J. Gunch, engineer, beiretary, E, J. Cleather. t>f- 
Bce, t>8, George street, Manchester. Registered, Aug. 21. Meeting, 30 
Sept. Subscribed 306,0001. towards the North Stafford shire. 



34 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[Januaut, 



39. S<mth Wattt. 

itfiVt (bun ; (splUl S.aOO.WOf. 

ComiDeiicef at a juDclion with the ChelleDham ud Grwt Vesteni nil- 
WRT, Kt GloncBBter, crouiog the Serero, Ihroagh the Forest of Dna, by 
Hoamoath to Chepstow, Newport, and Cardiff; tbence to Cowbrid|[e, 
Bridgend, Fort Canl, Neaih, Swaoiu, Bod Caermartheo, termiDatiog in 
two bnncbea, one to Pembroke and the harbour of Milford Haven, the 
other to Fisfagnard. Length of line, LSS miles, 4 cbaint, Namber of 
■hareB tabwribed for, 42,000. Capital, 2,100,0001. Amhoriaed loan, 
US,93S1. Estimated upenM, 2,500,0001. Recommended bj the Board 
of Trade, alio by the commiHee of group P. Leased to the Great We«t- 
era railway. Working expenses, 4lt per rent. Royal Aasent, Aug. 4. 
Bronel, eogioeer. Secretary, N, ArmBtrong. Office, 490, Wert Strand, 
London. Register of scrip, Sept. 8. Meeting, SI OcL The Glamorg»o 
Central Mineral, late Daffryn, Uysard, and Port Cawl, hare resolved to 
uniU with this company. 

40. Monmouth and Htr^ard. 

lI.OOOihuMi i9pltd350,<)WJ. 

Length of line, S6 miles, 2 feet, 8 cbaiot. Number of shares lobscribed 
for,8J»0. Capital, 4ia,S00(. Authorised loan, 1B3.3S5/. Estimate of 
eipense, 580,000i. Recommended by the Board of Trade, also committee 
of group V. Working eipenses, 40 per ceot, Royal Assent, Aug. 4. 
Brnnel, eagineer. 

41. Blackburn, Dancen, and Bolton. 

lS,D0Obilfillsr«ar&0J.»cll;caplUl3D0,000<. 

To connect the towns of Blackburn, Darweo, and Turton with Bolton, 
bT which a railway communication will be established wilh Maachester. 
I^ngih of line, 14 miles. Estimated eipense, S00,000i. Authorised 
loan 100 000/. Recommended by the Board of Trmde, and committea of 
group D. Working expenses, 40 per ceot. Roy»l Assent, June SO. 
J. Watson, engineer. F. H. Jamei, secretary. Office, King-street, 
Blackbom. Regislered Aug. 20. 

42. Blaekbnrn, Bwntey, Aecringtun, and Colne Extenrion. 

11,200 ihsm of 15/. nch ; cspltol SSO.OOel. 

Commences, in juncUon with the Manchester, Bury, and Roweodala 
line near Haslingden, coonectiog the populous towns of Blackburn, Burn- 
le». AccrinBloD, Clltberoe, Colne, and Wballey wilh the town of Man- 
chester Length of line, 21 miles, T chains; number of shares subscnbed 
for 190U, and capital, 47B,325i.; auiborised loan, 176,C66(; recom- 
me'nded by the Board of Trade, and committee of group D ; working ex- 
»nses, 40 per cent.; royal assent, June 30; — Collisier, engioeer; regis- 
tered 19th July ; James Smithers, secretary. Market street, Burj. 
43. WhiUkaren and Ftirnt$a. 
17,100 »h«rti of aoi. e«h i dsposll il.( cspils) 850.000;. 

Commence*, injunction wilh the Furoess railway, in North Lancashire, 
DOW in progress of formation, and eventually to extend, by way of Ulver- 
slone to Lancasler. Length of line, 34 milps, 8 chains ; number of shares 
subscribed for, 14,237 ; and csplul, 284,740i. ; anthorised loan, lie.OOOi. ; 
estimated expense, 3S0,000i.; recommended by the Board of Trade, also 
by committee of group II; single line; working expenses, 11,392/. per 
annum; royal assent, July 21; J.Stephens, engineer; John Meyer, secre- 
tary 1 Guild hall -chambers. Bast ngh all-street, Lonilun ; call of 3(. 3Dth 
Oct.'; p'roposed extension of line to DWerstoneand to Lancasler, 2S miles, 
at wi' estimate of 750,0001. for which the stock is issued. 

44. Caledonian. 

43,<00 atisni al SO/, ticb -, canltal 2,100,0001. 

Commences at Carlisle, junction with Lancaster and Carlisle, passing 
through Lanarkshire aod Dumfriesshire, and terminating. In junction with 
the Edmburgh and Glasgow railway. Length of line, 137 railes,2 furlongs, 
S chains. Number of shares subscribed, 34,4001.; cspilat, 1.723,000/. ; 
anthorised loan, 700,0001,; estlmaie, 2.100,000/.; recommended by ihe 
Borjd of Trade, and the commiiiee of group DD; working expenses, 
47 per cent. ; royal assent, July SI ; J. Locke, aod J, E, Errington, engi- 
neers; secretary. D. Haakine ; office, 122, Princes-street, Edinburgh; 
registered let October, 

45. ScoUitk Ctntral, 

34,000 ibuHoTSM. each) capital B50,OaOI. 

Length of line, 47 miles, 3 furlongs,S chains; number of sharessubscribed 
for 26,311 ;aDd capital, 637.7751. ; anthorised loan, 263,330/. ; estims ted 
expense, BSO,000/. ; recommended by the Board of Trade, and committee 
of group DD; working expenses, 40 per cent,; royal assen:, July 31 ; 
Messrs. Locke and Errington, engineer ; secretary, Robert D. Ker ; of- 
fice, 34, St. John-street, Perth ; registered, 20th Aug. ; Leased to Edin- 
burgh and Glasgow at 6 per ceot. 

4ft. Aberdeen. 

10,600 ■ham ot 201. each i capital S30,OOOI. 

Connects Ihe city of Aberdeen with the towns of Stonebateo, Montrose, 
Brechin, Arbroath, Forfar, Dundee, Perth, Siirliog, Edinburgh and Glas- 
gow. Lentiih of line, 51 miles; number of shares subscribed for, 12,925/.; 



ud capital, e4(l3S0l. ; anthorised loan, S7fi,S6SI. ; estimated expentea, 
830,000/. ; recommended by the Board of Trade, and committee of group 
EE; working expenses, 33 per cent. ; royal assent, July 31; Cubitt, engi- 
neer; Geo. Keith, secretsry, S3, Uniou-sireel, Aberdeen; call of 2f, 10s. 
Nov. 1 ; amalgamated with the proposed Great North ofScoUand. 

47, Cljfdetdale Juiutien. 

ejKt iliam or »/. Mcb I capital 310,000/. 

Commenoea at Glasgow termini of railways, and passe* thraagb tha 
Valley of the Clyde, and near Ihe towns of Hamilton, Bothwell, Mother- 
well, and Wishawton. Length of line, Is miles, 2 feet, chains; number 
ofshares subscribed for, 4,393; and capital, 219,650/.; anthorised loan, 
110,000/. ; estimate of expense, 290,000/. ; recommended by the Board of 
Trade, aod by committee of group DD; working expenses, 40 per cenL ; 
royal assent, July 31 ; J. Locke, and J. £. Errington, engineers ; seers- 
tary, Alexander Grahame, 124, St, Viocent-st., Glasgow ; registered, Aug- 
27 J amalgamated with the Caledonian at par, and guaranteed 6 per cenL ; 
wilh division of profits ; brought Pollock and Govao railway Ua 
120,000/. 

48. Edinburgh and Northern. 

24,000 shsni of 25(. iscb i cspllat 650,000. 

From Edinburgh , tbroogh Fife, to Dundee. Length of line, 41 mile*, 
7 feet ; number of shares subscribed for, 19,830 ; and capital, 493,750/. ; 
authorized loans, 2)6,666/. ; estimated expense, 630,000/. ; recommended by 
the Board of Trade, and committee of group FF; single line ; working 
expenses, SO per cent.; ruyal aaient, July 31; T. Grainger, eogineer; 
The Company propose various extension, and have issued new sharvs, 
26,000, ui 15/. each, aud allotted one to tvro old, und one to every three 
of Newport; exteusion shares of 151. previously issued; secretary, Mr. 
Henry Lees, 4, St, Andrew-square, Edinburgh. 

49. Glasgow, Barrhead, and Neititon Direct. 

e.OOO abaita of ZHI. cacli ; eapltal 150,0001. 

Leoglh of line, S miles, 7 feet, 8 chains; to form a direct line of commu- 
nication; number of shares subscTihed for, 6,142/.; capital, 128,5filW. ; 
auiborised loan, 50,0001. ; estimate of expense, 142,500/, ; recommended 
by the Board of Trade, and commitiee of group GU ; working eipenaes, 
45 per ceut.; royal assent, June SO; Neil Uobson, engiueer ; lueeting 
Sept. SO ; ihe Glasgow aod Greenock railway work the line, the loU 
arranged wilh Glasgow, Kilmarnock, and Ardrossan company. 

50. ^cotluh Midland Junclion. 

12,000 sikana oT 25/. escli g capital 01)0,01101. 

Passes through the Valley of Strath more, and will form a link of cMv- 
municatioD between the Scottish Central railway at Penh and the Ar- 
broath and Forfar and Aberdeen railways. Length of line, SS miles, i 
furlongs, 2 chains; number of shares subscribed for, 10,740 ; and capital 
268,100/.; authorised loan, 100,000/ ; estimated expense, S00,00f»l. ; re- 
commended by ibe Board of Trade, and committee of group EE ; working 
eipenaes, 40 percent.; royal assent, July 31; Messrs. Locke and Ecc- 
rington, engineers. 

51. Dnndtt and Perth, 

ie,OO0sbsra of 25/. each , eapltal :>l}a.OOO/. 

Joins the Dundee aud Arbroath line, and is 20 miles, 5 feet, 8 inches is 
length ; number of shares subscribed fur, 7,899 ; capital, 147,4731. ; autho- 
rised loan, 66,600/. ; estimate of expense, 200,000/. ; r«cumm>-nded by the 
Board uf Trade, and committee of group EE ; working eipuiiDes, 33 per 
cent.; royal assent, July 31 ; J, Aliller, engiueer, J'he Couipuoy have 
agreed to lease the line in perpetuity the Dundee and N ewlyle, guarantee 
1 percent, upon a capital stock of 115,000/. antl issue new sioi-k furuaew 
company, the Dundee and Stratli more Junction, who are to have 6 p«r 
cent, dividend, the Newtyte subsequently to participate, 

32. Kendal and Windermere. 

S.OSOibsKtofSSf.each; capital 125.000/. 

In junction with the Lancaster ond Carlisle line, at Kendal, terminat- 
ing at Windermere, and the Lakes. Length of line, tO miles, 2 furlooga, 4 
chains. ; number of shares subscribed for, 162; and capital, 3,8211. ;au- 
thorised loan, 40,0001,; estimated expense, 125,000/.; recommended by 
the Board of Trade, nod committee of group II; royal assent. June SO- 
John Harris, eni^ineer ; T. Hudson, secretary ; meeting. Sept, 23 ; a com- 
pany is proposed for a lioe from Cockermouth, by Keswick, Ambleside, 
to Windermere, called the Furneas and Windermere ; deviation of liue at 
Kendal proposed at an increased cost of 25,0001. 

53. LoKeilo/t Railaai/ and Harbour. 

8,000 aharcs of 201. nch I coital 120,OODL 

From Lowestof), through Thorpe, Loddun, and Reedham, lermlnatiBf 
in junction with the Yarmouth and Norwich line. Length of lioe, 11 
miles; number of shares subscribed for, 5117; and capital, 10S,9SM; 
authorised loan, 40,000/. ; estimated expense, 120,000/. ; recommended 
by the Board of Trade, and by committee of group K; single line; nurk- 
ing expenses, 2,760/. per annum; royal assent, June 30; G. P. Biddes, 
engineer; secretary, Richard Till, offices, Guildhall-buildiugs, Luudoo, 
and at Yarmouth and Norwich. 



I64<I.J 



THE CIVIL CNC1N£ER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



Ct)ilUl MO^MM. 

KxtCB^Mi of (lir Olrfkoni nnil 11f;w«n>] Bnin<li«*i >l>o oT Bnrnlfj 
Sraiith lt> jt>in lb" M'lurlinti-r, Ilarj, uid Itou^iKUlc liai> ; ctpiUl iub< 
Kribnl, StO.OOOJ. : »uil»»i>r<l loan. 1M,0D(W.; iMglh of liM. 13 luUp*. 
T ffrt. 8 ctiMiiii; Mtinalexl ctp-ntr, SuO.OOOf. ; menniHniili-d b}> llie 
UmM of Trade, auc) cmiiuitipi- •>[ sroqp It : latil Mfnit. Jutif Si). J. 
Mp[<hruru*, cngiitcrri olMcr, l'<iUt>nr-buiIiliflj^ Hum's Uaiik, >ta»- 
tMtntn'. t\ Laurcnu CBoiptidl, Mict((u;> 

U. Bt4M't -'xt Lnd»n vni AtrmiitjtAan. 

I*)uBrtin» will) the LuoitiiD and lUrmtDfihani at ill*tclil»tr, nnning 
Itnyvgh n rtrh aEriciilltirid •lutrict h; Malftan, rennliiallng «| [trribrd. 
bnwtliurilnr, IS mitra. r riidiin^, tcfaaina; DuiabnoTthnret MUeribt^ 
ta. SilflT. ■ml cji|>iiial IM.SMl. AuUiuritvd loa«, 4l.<fS0f. K>tin«U<l 
Opcaac, ISi.W.l. Ilctommru'lril bj the Kuanl ot TnAv, anJ ty e<3«n- 
olnee of k'*"'P "^i ""r^>a£ vspmw*, 40 p«r c«ol. Roy*! uMent, 
jnaa KO ; K. KupbfaKin, etgioMr: icHp exthanxMl for cMiiAcalc* 
X$i> Jaly ; B. K. !i<nll,li«a<?l«r]r. ll.Old Jenrf,cliaiulwn, Luadoo. 

«& ir«*r;f<W, Ptmlffract. anif G'Mlt. 

OmkhvI Ihe port of CdoIc ai>d Ponlcrracl wlih the dUtricti of Lnnca- 
»Vi)r and Yn*k>lilr». aail hy a juaclwii nilli ibe Vwk line Rt*r }t'>alih. 
Milk alt |>4rt> of itt« Kin.Tdom. LtBgUi of liu« 'tn ail In : capital aab- 
sWiked, SCQ,AO(M : aiilli«ri»-d \^n,\t\/itM.\ rcoaaiacodeilbT lb« Btianl 
of Trade aari tfUHitlt^ of Rrnup M' i working eapen*** 4ff p^r cpal,; 
ivr*l*3**'>l> j'lb 'I; J- HarfSj, eni;iu»r. M«llil«]r MttMikin, X5 iharva. 
1 srw fi" 1 "'''< ■'■>■' ■>*'■* *'°^'' '" pr»po(«d Cr**t Grinitliy. and Kh«llpl<l, 
■nd Wakridd.acd I'uitt*/ni<t. and (^oolc, Ulob« railed) lij Urlin*bj, 
)bj WskfUtId iu'J Ooaie; tb« lali«t ii> tharei of 101. cacb, one tttw fur 

'[JfiV'AUfiifKi.wt-b; cipllDl GMinMt.-AnolcMiitrllen. 

Ibflpaa aoomaiunicaliun from Liiprpool na Itia ««l of flrimibj, on 
Ika Eaaler a coait, anil fumiili tbo inunurHOdiniiK an'l aghciiUuml diMrictB 
witk a rominonication with each oilier, and acccaa td a vah purl uu the 
f.«at«ra C.'uaat. LcORlliof lirif,M Biil«, -I rotlanf;*, S thaia* ; H»p wliule 
wbaeribcil for ; aallioriaied loao, »,W«. ; eilininied ripiMtie iSO.TSal.; 
worfcisc psp*"**, M per eeoL; r«r»' •'aonl ; June 10: J. Konlcr, 
aciav^r ; awalgaaaleil wilb lh» 8h«IA«ld, Mandmier, and MtrOirld, aitd 
1 ^— i*tt.. M MDpaaiaa, s« alto ilir iitraX (>rirn»hj di>ck and railway, and 
BCOMM lo indiida the inlendcd £a*t Liucvlnaliira Cunpanj i Swrelarj, 
i. U. llumfrejr, ShcOidd. 

^H. Frma NodicghaD to Liscola, 31 mile*. 5 furlooK*, S cliaina, for vthicli 
^Hh* asthoriicd liHu ii 13fi,IKior., and aa iucreaK of the cnptlal aiock of 
^EK|M*I..i>>Ilina'.rd eip«na« 4O!:l0«0if., cxttaxion froui Ljaton to l'clcf< 
^Ffeoraasb, 19 mllra, ' furlonpa, 4 ckatat, (or nhich Ih* aullBwiaod loan ia 

41,6>I>1., or tMI,O0lM. T*« iec«^ie of Ibe rajulal Hock TStl.nooJ, ; 

atflMaleO eip^aw T»»,O00(.i c-<piul anlwcribcd, IW.JSOf. mora fjr lUit 
{■MMbllkain and Liocuin ; rof«l aui'nl. June 30; Murkln^t rip^nuri, 
^^^^EJ, b«r •unum fur Lyston and I'llnrlHitnugh: cniclrjcrr, :^1t*jrs, 
^H|iK7it..Hl?p1ivnaoii,aad 1'. ii«auntck. IWnjjUubc Aaltli)' dc-ta^i{bucli 
^^Tualfur ItU.utlOl. : ptopoua to maLc u line bj Hioklejr ami Muira, to 
V Barkia ua I'rcoi. alau a caw>) railnaj, tii Mid)iu>d gHogc, to Urttlur 

CoajmoB, alaoLciCcslcr, S«aiit;i'.i;li.ni«iUay,f«r UO.ilOIW.al 8pM will, 

Jl),tf»»i.i tirwojkiBg.Uiik; 7,000/. drill redompiiou in 3 yeara. 

». Lmh^tniStath Wt»l<rn,{Mtlraeolitaa Extentlott, S«. I.) 

FranNin4'Flnal'i WdtetlnoaM) Itonitr-rfiinl bri<lR«>; IcnEili of line. 
Siailoi; eapiiat a«b»»fib«d.T3B.II«ll.; aulhoriMdloaii, aSSWKIf.; ott- 
anMl npentc.lKiB.0OM.; capital alock, Md,D»M. ; rcconimcDded b; the 
Boanl nf Tradr, awl caniniillM uf group LL. ; rojat aaatal, J11I7 31 ! 
J. Lockr, Eaclwtr. 

CO. BrMol inul F.rrter (BraaeA.) 
Ijm (Wn •>■ IW. Mcta : capital aOO.MO;- 

LcBKtti of line, SBmilr*; nnnib^f orabarn •iibacntwil fur, 2,silfll. ; and 
E«pHal VHflUnl.; aiilliuriwxl loan. IMl.OOOl.; «UmatedMp«o»e, JJS.Wdf.; 
Coralai u Juettioa b«lw««n Biiitul and EsH^r. and thr (imt \t'i-s1r[D 
Baa in lb« cilf of BrIaU), wilb a branch to VcotU ; fccooimcndrd by llie 
BavdofTrndf andcontDilucof icruup O.; warkinK opcuxa, Si per 
colt rtijituMati Julj II ; !• K. Itrauel, eugiiiccr; 1ciu«d lo O'rMt 
Wcaiara Hailwax. aud piopoa^d mI* ■» fulJuwa; ud capital, l,0H4),l>M>i., 
aad 4iO,ODOJ.. t" call up at lot. earb, at iDlrrraliof lit muDtht, until 
Jaoaarj IHIO; for ItMll. aharci and uatilJaaiiary l.imu. f^rib* | iharva. 
Aflar JaM«nr7 1*1. IHU), lahRVf! a per cent on u cifltal of 2,<I0«,IKh>I., 
iwillaiiiil an any new line or nairoiir iptu^ betncm Bicur and LondoD i 
tfauimU r«aa(d ouly lu liate »] per Mat. 

Al . iMiti fd Itraiiftrd, iEiUttiim) Sitiptty la Cotntt 
Caphal »M,MW. 
FroM the Laed* and Bradford Bailoay at Shipley <■■ Bradford, toCoIar, 
h laifihlir: lra|tb of line, se niUea, 4 furlonga, S chalo*; npiial 




«ih*erfb«d, W3,500/. ; power (o Iwrrow lOSXCW.; <ftiniil«l eipewe, 
fiOO,M)Si. ; reco«ivao'l«I by tbe Board of Trtde, and oooiaiiUrc vf xroup 
!>.; WorklnzP>p«nt«*, 40 percent. : rojnl aiwrnl; Jiiaft4(l; H. FolUm, 
engilBrrr; Ofllre, llunilpt lane. Leeda; Krerelnrj', U'. R. UreraUnd. 

Ci, Xft/mJajrAoJa vul dhruttiitrr, (GUactttcr Extmtita, Sltkt BrmMh^ 
gad SJUIUnd J»K*ti«n,) 

CoametiCMalllipJunelian near RirmiitittiBin. and teRnlaafeflkiJaiietiMt 
vtiiblliit 3lt'llaiid Railwa; at Alton, Miib branciiaa lo Sloke Frior, Woo 
criUr, and Utaitnrich ; Icnctb of linr, 1 rail(,6 farlon^l cbaia; poahatM ' 
irabacriliod or power t« borrow i>tM8iaed ; rroanaiendrd by ifae Board of 
Trade | voikiag npeam, 40 per teat. -, A«guu4 ; J. Baylis, 

1,(00 aharM, ■■pllal M,Ml», 

Lrnglb of liar, 8 lailca, 1 fnrlungai i efcalas, fron Aberdacn to TaSa 
Vale Ua«, near Vay>i autlwriaod loae, IO,SlMti ilrijlr llnr : mjal Mitit ■ 
JnlySlj Williiun Uarbrr, ciiginMt. 

M. Aihltm, Slaliy Dndgt, ind /.Jcrrpoel Jmctivn. {Ariwifk and Caida 
ttridgt Araacbia.) 

Lenilli i; Biilea. Maocbolitr and Uirmioitluin l.ine, and Ardwick lo 
Aaldon, Siuky Biidf^r, and Liferpuol Line, and Ncvrton; cslinuttcd 
ezpcSM*. M,0O0J. i capita], Dt.OOM. ; aalbonwd loan, U,D«Oi. ; worktnc 
ripeaiae*, U percent.! daleof act, July dl ; Haak*b«w, cagia«cr. 

•S. ArrJ^ nd HvUm. 

BiOaOllLanai capltri WWWU. 
Len^ti of line SO mile*; Termini, NVtrbury, Hoajterfi^rd, Soalh ' 
Wealam, near Btainstlake, and Gnat Wottrra iM<nr Readmit ; aatherifad 
loan, I33.33M. ; eipcnaa 40 ptr cent. ; June 3li, IWt; I. K. Unn^, 
eagiocer. 

66. BtatlAmm aad PrtHtn Dtfiatlm. 

c^uiiJMUi lou le.awi. 

LeagUl of |in«, S ainet,4 furlong, a cliaiu* ; TermiDi, BUckbarn and 

PrMlMi Um ia Mlaekbnra, and Blacklifrru, Biinitey and Colne line, ia 

Blukhum : capital, tO,000{-; eitiinatcd cxjienaeB, 00,060 ; royal aaarol i 

JulyaU CoUlstar, mginaer. 

QT. Brightoa, Ltirit, and iliutinf* (Bramth Exfrni/oa). 

Keynier branch, milea, 1 furlong, 3 chiini; aHOOaharea; auUiorlteil 
Ivan, 4(t, ecu'. -, IlatliaK*, KyCinn-l Aihford exlcniiia. 29 miW, T chain* g 
lU.OOOaharea; anlhoriapd lniui. l(lfl,uOfJt ; iocreaae nf capilal, UM.OOOI. t 
and for Kejmer branch, IID.OUOL ; and eiimaiimuf Brightun andChicbo^J 
tec (FonsnouthExtcniina}, XZ Didri: O.tDll abarca; tticrcaan of capllaU.I 
120,0001.; single Hoc ; auihariaed loaoi 10G,''i<iC;, ; riaiKof act Aupiat B^ ' 
J. J.Baatrl«k, Kigloecr. Tb« PortamonUi Hiicfttioo ia froinl'ic Urislik 
and Cbicbm»cr line, hi Farakam, OS ihn b>ud>ju mid South U'caiera, aa 
the Uaalinga, From Maailng* to Aahforil on !>ou(h Eaalem. Tim Brigfcl 
LewM, and Haaiioa* llaa it enendrd front Souihoior and Liewaa, 
theUrighlonlinr at KejiDnr, Sutd to the llrtehtnn Iiok for T(. perriii 
prtniioui, bj act had puncr lo acil at iSiMOOi.. the catmuOcd acl, and ISLH 
per abare addiiloaal, Boynkaa. iiMrcuryt UfBco, 11, Kang H'iUiaa- 
atrcct, Cily. 

«fl. Ciirri<riutdfi(VlE<flK«ad;(£;x(<iuio*.) 

htagth, 3 furlong*; capital awbacribed, lUjOOOI.; anlhoriaed loan. 
lOO.OMt.; capital alvck. 300,OOW- : aatimated nKppnap*, SJd.IKiUJ.; fruin 
Utmnge'laiiaio<iraiige.«d; datcof acl. July Hi ; CT. Fayncjcnftintcv. 

«0. ClWaler aad //vlyAnd. 

Length, 4 mile*. 4 farlnnp*, ehaina; evUmated etpeate, AOff.MOi. ; 
date ofaM, Jnne !Oil>: KnWrt Slepheaaao. engineer ; Secretdry, Georgs 
KJug \ Offlca, tU, Moorgaie-atrKt. U»aAoa, 

n, CMfccrwoMlA and WtfkitgHH. 
4fiV>iiu^t (si'itja tn.»»i. 

Len^tk of line, 8 mllea, G farlonga, T ctiaiii : eallnalcd etpenae ao^lKM. ; 
■Uthofiied lnan.a!a.li(ll)l.; iiRmlwr of aharesaabftribcJ, 3,111; and c.prlala 
a>,1Mf.: working eipeMCa, 40 per couL i kuiletiuei duieafact,Julyaii 
Joba I)lioDi eMgincaTi From C*o«k«riuD<>tn to Wbit«liii*eii hue at 
Worliogton llarlMwrj G. H. Bareea. SMr«ury, Cockermoulh. 

TI. Dirtti ^^ndiM aad FarlrtaoatA. 
caplM t,Mil,»WJ.: loaaa ttmjuM. 

Ealimatrdeipenae*, MS0.OO0J.; rcUnied a»pM*ed iardttnorUoai* 
of Comntuaa, printed AugualS, 19I&- 

II. DaaalaMf, Lam d om, amd fiinaiajrhcM. 
X^OO ihtfH ) capital M.etA/. 

Lenplhof line. 7 tnilw; anliiorised loan. 10,6041.; nuiabw of itiarra 
•abacribedfur, ll»; Mpilal.l.Stnl.; otlioialrd c»p»nte,M/WI'.i ttorkinfi 
espeaan, l,T3vJ. per aonom ; alniU iia* ; dale of act. JnaelO; Holier 
Stepbf naon, Eagioeer i Secretary, Tboi»*a Long; leglatercd, AoguM IT t 
Uffioe. EiiatiM-aqaare, Loodoo. 



9i 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[jAKVAKTf 



7>. Eattm Vnitm (/pntiVA mrf B»ry St. EJnatiii.) 

KiMtfUi of Ubo, fS milM, S ratloftg*, 1 elwia*. Nninbar ef »k>rM Mib* 
WfllMd Ibr, l,]RSM, and npita], SlT,00e/. : kulbnnspd rooa. lU^U'- ; mIU 
BMtMl eoM, 4M,O0tU. ; froni F.iutDra L'r.ion lin* at Iptwiob to \iuwj St, 
EdDMMda; wortilaf np«Mr«, 40 per cml. ; dole of act, JbIj II, IMS ; 
P. Bmir, njclDecfi oAtor, Bnwk-aiml, Ipewlch; McrcUry, Junes F. 

74. Edtmtwrglk »»d CUa^me. 

iMigth of [ia«, SniJM, SckftiM; (ApiUl luhMribtd, 9I4,H0/. i Mlko- 
tiMd loM, 93,«0*li. ; captUI (lock, lOOfiML i Miiin«l« of etpt,t4t,S%fiW~t 
worlihiK «ip«iM. laperctDt.; date of ki, Jalf 31 ; J-UtUer^Mg^Mr; 

7S. £iliiiHrrA cimI iUvitk. 

I«Dt:th oT line. 49 nllpf, S furlODsa, 8 ctulna. ; kotlioflwd loan. 
I3S,33U : »l«gle Hm0; vorkbir expcBK*, W per mu. ; due of Kt, Ans- 
C i J. Miller, cofiDwr. 

T.fn- itiiiu nplut, I»>,»»0/. 
KciRtt of Use. II initM, firioDCi ; •hmret •ubKflbMl. 3,9M: captal, 
14MM(.; Mlfccrhtod loaD, e9,INH»A i etIMials uf aspruA, ISTMtf. ; 
date of act, Jaly 31 ; irofkioK eipenent 3* per cent, j eaKiiMeff G. 
Cope i from lb* MMIand line, •! I>«i«l«]i, Dt-rbTihir^, to M>ui«&el<l WmI 
PiDiton ,Iine at ScUton, NotUiijluuMfalTa; Hcutedto the MldUad at e 
|>ee cent.' 

77. Effing (E^en C«mti*» JwutUn.) 
MMslMMi caplMI. aM»,O0OL-AinalK»iallsa. 

iMgtt ofQn, 1 mil<s tnrtnnp. AnlboriMd loMi, sa,«lM. Nwn- 
[ Wrof thsiM mbachbt-d fur. 7io. and capital IMS'"- Ketinataof «x- 

Kiw, SOO.MMI. Fruiu Loiulua lu Ulaclioall and Eoiteni Coantin' line, 
(e o( act, Aug. 4. Koberl Slercnioo, cnKtnrar to BlioknalU 

78. GliugtK Junttiau, 
Ccpieai, Ufl.Mn. 

Lmstb of Itoe:. 1 mile*, 1 furloani ; eapluj nhiwribed, S3J/I0IM. ; tn- 
flbodied loan, U,000/. ; eetiraNted eipence, IM/KMII. : date uf act. Id 
aBd2I*lJat;; eagiaeer, J. Miller. 

T9. Gtagmr, Pairfry, KSmaraftt:, amt Ayr [Cmumvtk Bmuck tn 
iurtranMi.) 

Leanlh of line, 18 miln, 3 furlani:*, cbilu; caUmaled expeiwc, 
UMIM^* aaibariKd 1«aa. 68,0001. ; WMkla^cxpenK*, l*percefit.,aiid 
«<linalrd cspfjiM;, 440,000/. i cji^itsij atoek ta iMdt, i\Xfi09f.; aatliariacd 
Isaa, 104,166/. ; (nKtnerr, J. 3liUcr i priutnd la partiameMary felnraaa 
■laifag ptuued iha Hoom oT Coaimona. 

80. Grcaf SarUaf Kngtaitd (CUirtiKt n»l HaTtUftMlJuaelum.) 

Ciplcal. 21,MHM. 

AattMiiMd lu botnm T.OOOI. LecgDi of liiie, J of a mil* : dau of ad, 
July 11 i ansiiicer, Jowpli Stercmoii • «aliiii«ti;d eipcDM, 8,T7V. 

81. Gml y»rtlt o/ England mud RkhtiKMii, 

LtBKtb at line, tnilra, S furlens*, > cbniai; capital lulueribed, 

SJ1,14M.: MliMitedtnipenaa, 112,3831.; autherUrd loaa, 30,0*0 1.; woik- 

, il( azponaea, 40 per cent.; date of act,iaty tl, ISiB; angiMci, Jcaepb 



BSI. GK^fWd, Ckuhftrr, aid P«e<niw<i(A. 

Ci^ltalUU. lEnlpDUUiHi. 

OoMArd Jnnclioa. porchawd h? .'iouth Wnttra ; capllal Hock In 

abar«(, MOfiOOl. ; anthoritcd loan, LM.tiflO i IcdkiIi uf act* liae. If latlca ; 

Farcbaio braacti; tatJiated wurLuij; uipi-aiiv, tliUOI. per aaauni ;date of 

act, Julv •i\,\lBiS-, eogineet. J. Luukc i capital, til9i,OU0l. ) — 

, Band, t^cratai?. 

&1. HniUtnfitld atd Utiuketltr Aoiliray and C«naL 
•,>l.uan 4t>*rM, gniMi,WBjeoi. 

Imrth of tine, S2 idIIps, T furluaipi, 1 dmio. Number «f iliaras aab- 

ecribod fur. 700, and eapiial. 3D(t 13D(, ; aatfa»rbrd loan, SIO.OODl. ; catl- 

■Mlod ripcnic, 63U,H«t. Fnioi SlieJSttd auil Mancbailer line U Staley- 

.Srtdge U) Mancbett«ir. Leeda, at Kirkh4ab>Dr; e«liiBat«d working «x- 

. HBW, 40 ser ceaC. ; date of act, Jul; 21 ; pagiDcrr, J. Locke ; aeenUry, 

Kttmrd Ledgud, Ouildhan, H uiMuraCeld, Aug. la. 

B4. Buddtrifirld md Shfffield Jumctm^ 
l9jBm ibam , opitai, na,eaMi. 

LeBBthof Uae. IS nllea,4 l^irl(»iK>. 4 cbaina, Namberof (hareanib- 
LMtltoi fer, 9,3m, and capiluJ, 4SI,0OW.: Baliiffriaed loan, I774ML ; 
T«MlMaae a(«Xpe»M*, S3l,a&8; from UndderaSeld lo Ibe SbafiaM tmd 
. Maaohaaier lia* at PenHlane ; dMa of mi, autb Jau ; eafjaear, A. S. 
, Jae; awnlga wat ad with M a M fcl irr Md Lead*. iD.ditU. ; ■i«ek. rf hUnr 
ONBpujr taiamteddo propoaed HwddtnlrM, UaJUai, and VndAfd, 




«'#4t IlidioK aad Veil Yorkabir* Companie*, and propoec lo cueod tma 
HactDK to Btmtlsjr. 

U. UMUaMdSti^lBrldUBirlMtOniKh.) 

»,1Mttmtmt fapllal. 3.I<l.Ui<K. 

Length ef Hnr, SI mdM. Nanber «r tbarM iDbtcrilied, 9,013, and 

enpilal,l(IS4l>ai.:BothorlaMl Iobd. 79,0001.; ectiBMUedecpenae, 910,0001.; 

From Hull and tteltij lloeio ItrMlingUm; dote uf act, IMfa June; Mfl* 

ueer, R. 5lcph«iwoo. 

B6. tirtrptial and Burg {B>tltoit, Wigan and tJrtrpQtt,<md Bury Uxttmivn.') 
l»,3U *harwi eapittl. »l9.«<W.-<ARiil|anatknt. 

Lcnet)) of tioe, M mllra, 1 farlooff. 20 chiiaa. ; number of fhmtn aaf» 
acribedfcr l>,ST8.nadcapilal,fl0S,MOi. ;auilic)mNt loin, I04,ai0<. ;catl> 
mated MpevM, 1H9JVM,; Vftiaate dI workioc eiproaa, 40 paf otaLj 
dftia of aet, Jaly SI, 1844 } engiaeen, Jiim» TliMipaoa and Sir Jubn 
Maeaeil); Sib call, October 18 ; amalganated with ib« Uanobonler aad 
Leeda. Uooday, Ociobcr a. 

ST. Iionden and Croydtm Eitlargemcitt, 

C«lilt»I.IWJ,OWJ.'. 

Lcogtii of line, 19 nitei, 4 fiirlaoga; capital iiiliiiefilid, [U0,0OlU. ; 
aiilboriMNl Ituin, 00,0001.; dale of act,* Auftiit »( CDglnrer, C. 
Oregorj. 

S8. landM nmd Brighton (Koratain.) 

CaiiluJ. lOu.UKM. 

L«o|tk of Itae, 8 milsa, J furlMigsj eaplial eTibtcribffd, 72,0001.; 
tlinrbcd loan, 33,3111.; etlimaied etpenie, 100,OUOJ. ; from Three Bridj 
SlatMo, on the Brigbtoa line, to llurtliaui; norkiuz RtpesiM, 49 
ecnbl dale of act, July 91, 1543 ; J. H. Jtaitrkk, cogtneer, 

89. MaAcktttit aad Birmingt^u (^ibfea firmcA.) 

[fCOgUi of lioe, At aiilc«; estinialcd expcotc, 93,0001.: fron Bealaa 
N»rri« ta SbelHcId and Mikocb««teT lioe near Guide Bridge; *ror 
expeuea, 3D per cent. ; dale of act, Jolj 21 ; engineer, W. Btdier, 

W. MviuhiiUr Soutli Janet ion aad Attrinckatn. 

Capital, MOJ'fial. 

LaogUi of lbw,D nde»,3ferloDR«; Baliarrihi><l oipit4l(40(M>0iL; 
Ibortaed lonii, 1U,131J. ; eatinaied expense, Jiii.i,oooi. ; from Jlaaeh 
and Binniatbam, and Mancbcaicr and l.lierpoul line* at AllrinfbaHj' 
worliinc etpeoMa, 40 per crnl. ; dale of act. July 21 ; engli 
Bakers Mordary, Joha Litbiuu ; ufllce, Mancbetirr aiwl Bki 
StaiiOD, MaDoherter. 

91. Mii!ileihor«afS and Bfdenr. 
7>'thtnt: Mpllil ja.CuOJi dspaili SI. Ita. 

Leofftb of lino, 7 mlln, S cbatnti oamberof aliaret Uken, 509; <»pltal 
subecribed, 2t!i,lii01. ; auiburiaed luaii, I3fiooi. ; estitnatod rtpeadltare, 
30,0001.; irorklDg expenses, 40 per cent.; dateof act, July XI ; alagta 
line ; eD|[iDccr, Jobn Uarrli ; aniDl{;aiDiitrd, nnd aonraaleed par OOll by 
ibc Grciii North of BngUod ami Siockion umi DuilioKUn conpMlM, ana 
di(i*ioo olbairtho proBia: Ifll. paid N<jfciiibi:r 4; Ur. MagDay, M«r»> j 
iiry ; oSiw, North Gale, Darliogtoo. 

03. Mmmaulh mid Htrefitrd, 
ll.OMibimi nptUI ^M>,(IOU. 

Leaglh nf line. 36 mile*. X rurlongs, 6 chain*; ibarea nbaeribed 
8.300 ; eapllat, 419,3001.; aaihorlKd loan, 183.333/.; e^maied erpei 
450,aeo{. : worklnz eipcnan, 40 par cenE. ; dais of act, Jaly 9t ; *i , 
Dcers, Georxo and Robed 8i(?;)he]i>on ; fmm the Cheltcnhun and Ofint 
IVcftciD UaioB line tu Munoioutli and Hercfnrd ; lald to f ircal Weitfln. 
ti. NewtattU and fhirlingte* {BraitdUng JaaetMa). 
C>pit>I (.Mti^l. 

Lenirlh of line, 5 milea, 7 furloDf:*; capital aiib«cribed, I3,ai>or. ; aV 
riaml loao. llbJlOUl : eilimalcd exptnac, IID.OOU^. ; worhine expw 
4,007/. per Biuiuni ; dale of act, July 'il ; englocor, T. F.. ilarrum, 

04. A'cuYiuffr tifun-r^iM on J Jiorih Shieldt {Tf/ntiiwutk Eatntmm), 

tienjilli oflioe, t mile; antboiiml loaa, IO,Ci!HU, ; ealimated etfttnat, 
49,091/.; Horking expcuK*, 40 pcrecnl. ; date of act, Jnae 30;engbioar» 
Uobeet NictiulwM. 

94. ytieperl and Penfypeol. 
i.IM alin**; piiiiui 110.1001. 
Length of line, 14 niilra, 'i cli.iina; uuinbernf iharel «ai 
MO; capital, 00,01)0/,; niillinriMd tnan, TH. 11131. ; ealMmtad 
199,M0f. ;warfclageipeDics, 40 percent.; date of act, Si iaiy 
T.Biank. 

00. .VerfA BrituA. 
C^WMjaOL 
Leaglh of line, I mile, 7 furioniO ; eitinHtad axpeoM, 47,000/. | 
riied loaa, 13,3331. ; date of act, SI July ; enjpneer, J. Mdlee ; 
J. F. Davtain.a4..'4t. Andraie-K]uan>, Ediabur^h. 

97. A*er/A t/atea ead RitlfU lYericn/ioa (Branck\ 
Length of Ihw, 6| ehaia»,7 furloogt; fRxn North Union lin to 



M 



'■iofhi^y 




1M0O 



THE CIVrL ENOINKER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



37 






N 



m ta QaKjr, PrMlaa;Mtiiii>udMpeBM, tG.DOOr. ; anlliDfifnd loaa, 11,6601. 
<iw hl%[ espasMf, U par cmU. ; wo of act, 21 Jaljr ; vogiuMr, WiUittn 

g«. A'«/a IfMiMck. 

1 JW ■hvra I ■■(Ual M,W*I. 
*I«BCAariiB0. Snila*,*fiariaaKft, d dialMi nnnbcr «f Auta taltm, 
«Mt o^flwl. U.OWI.; Mlborbtd loan, lO.OMt.; crtiOMlml np«M, 
a^atM,;SuMmOoaet*M; aiaicto Hm; wftfkinK eEpciuM,40 p«r««al. 
dtitot tet, J»\r 11 ; «(igl«Mr, G. P. Riddar; fram Ue F.uUm CoinitiM 
Tw, Bear Um nonlti of (taa La^ la North Woolwith. 

99. Nsnciekaad Bra»d»» {Detialum), mud Diu oad DtrtUt* {Bnnuhri). 
Caplu)3»,,aa«L 
t«^a gf liM, If biUm; aa^lMl Mibaaribed, ITSjIOL | Mitli»rii*d 
Ibmi. 7t,S0W. ; ««()«ftl«d •ipMMe. IOO/H)M. ; wurkla|; cxpMMa >7 pw 
;dftl«oraei,>l Juljr langiuear, ti. i*. Uiilder. 

IM. North Vr*k4 Mitrral. 
lifiM >hvni aapltal MJUKH, 
Lasftb ttf line, 12 nlle*, I fnrlane, Ocbaioa; naoibcr of aham lub- 
ited fur, IMlii captt*! lU.lSoT. ; auUianactl loan, ao,OlHM.i call- 
ilcd itiiMM), IMSftJ.t from North M'aka MiaarKl liou Id KuabM i 
«s«kiii( osptBoaa, 4Q p*' oeut,; <l«l4 of Btl, Jul; SI ; togMva, f. Ua- 
t«ftMa; ikMMU^iJolia HarHa«ri bmI at lb Lnndoa Tavera. 

101. SktJUUtiti RatktHum. 

CflplMU»W. 

Tmpti iif Una 1 fnrinngi T rhnlfii • patluiatrd cipenv, lS,mMM.: fron 
SkiAud and Roihcrhaia liae la SliifllrlJ and Manclir^ilrr llae, la Rrlj[ht- 
nde^ Barlow, Sbcftehl; aHialQdBHioa wUh ibe AUdlanO j date of act, 
Jdlj ai i C8S>a««r, Hr. itwuniricfc. 

1«. ir«r Kattip. 

l.<M*IuM| w«U*)iS;M(lt. 
J.m^ of line. II nllM. « furlMRa; namber of ihana anbaeribad for, 
l^MWt capital, 6i,mM.: aatbnnawt loaa, ST.Met. ; aatiaaUd npaoae. 
9tJI9U.i fni» CriKkbraDcli of the Iticliop Audtlosd Uae to Waidilaaa 
HUL ProalcriPT : date of aet, Jul]r 31 ; caginetr. JiAa I>iioji ; Thenwa 
M*Kaj, aocralarri I>ailiact«a. 

log. WlilhfmilHciMriiig. 

Cbplbl l3»,IH0t 

Sale ki Yati and NotOi UidUud; eslitnatcd espeoae, lUJAM.; aotUo- 
kiied loan, U,OOU/.idute«f lul, 30 Jua«i cagioMt, J. 8lcpbau*oo. 

10*. H'ratJlMNfM. 

C«[iiuia«.«inu. 
l^Biftk of tloe. I mito. A foHunt*, I rliaia ; from Weal Iioadon, ai Kn- 
i,IO a pMiit nrar bailrmra Bridici otiiBalcd npcncc, CV.QOOI., 
Ia«a. ]W.iKN>f.; workiDfC eapeaaaa, M percent.; dateafacl, 
Jaly 11 ; eaclaecT, A. StepLcanta. 

103. I'arawafA aiuf SetvUh. 

Leasih vf liae, 3 fatUiazt, & ebaisfi MtioMUd ospeuv, 40,i>00r.: 
dat« iif Alt. -I'lOf SU; (-n^inetr, J- f- Bidder; see alM I,on«i*t«rt 
mlway; oOlcc, Uiiildliallbuihlingii, Louduu ; aeenHar;, Rtcbnrd TilL 

100. lla»U ami Rf4nilh. 
From RHfuth, tbroueli Cain Hreii, (.'antlMiniR, to Hayle, ia Cdtewnl) ; 
•cpittatius fc aalv (o WdM Curowall i aecrvtarj, Hr. rieniag. Old 
Sfoad-atnat, Loodoa. 




H«c9Kmc TciFoaAPH.— The maMlihsmt of anagnallc lalmntilia, 




in "H -' "■- '-' *•'- pMDU. ThaM *t tlKi ■ Una f»BlnnM»j bN<mMthl*d»f 

ia Taaal liHrnl auHiaallMaaMaiiKuiud <>t uwrtMUiiadini^vldHabvlwdtrtar 
ttilr poMra (ran ik* lawatoc FnOuur Muru, rxnr la Km>pa. I( |> mppattJ lliat 
<W nt u W rfthra will fcc arf4i(4 In the MiaiM vT Arte m faor Imnillii i ud Ibtt >Im 
liliiij I Dm Mlwna ikk dif ud Wi*H«Ma wOl b* inafMal ki Urn* ta inaivti 
^mUmu^m^oll^FnMetHa Uik Utr, wil >• auUc U>« paUlibna la hua it 
■IniUMautT ■*)•■> Uw Waililoiwo pupm. Utitn conplcMa ih«« oaiurf llMaoC 



AnaUMaulT «■•■> inc waililoiwo pwptn. wara ronplcMa ih«« oaiua uoMor 
ailMmitl'i tauaiiafcatiaa iMIl (Hl>iae> a Wnitary ol nnrlv JOO mUn frwB Halh ta 
^■^andflMa mt» u«M— toctitflv W.UOa IHiaailaKatuui* tar ortrapall^ WmIi. 

Mdlala dda*. ■« pam c< Ui* c«a< acfcaaa of 
»Mc«MiBwlMiiinioif Ul ilfKrtptlva* of oaHi 
of Ibla iMIroviu. tail alt anlauiail bfttw 
ilia, pHikaU*, ■ DopolallM «r aaarir lira lall- 
Haai. iBinriil**. aad aMManRiMtctaWlaa* 
ke (MBttUn Ual Ibia -nM and wnr^ laainr 



laflMi, MulUa, Baxae. wILb all tka lawfuwillala dda*. ■« pam ct Ui* c«a< acfcaaa of 
(■BHaakaUaa. ttHtAaanMaof Mla^wMccMiBwlMiiinioif UI ilotrtptlao* of Dam 
■HtMakalhamuauaaheHUat lUbufU dTI" 
nB*ap><» *mI cha MMifaBpalHa, buibWHi 
Obm •( tka aaat ultra, lalmiail, iDMIkMaal,' 

MBasftrbcraflkaautt. Jt«ltl »vl be (M«ttUn thai ibia *tt<aDdc<aipi 
artnl* or MinapUt oaaiaoalcdlun will be nimpUMd In Ue eoaiac at a faw lauuUi*. 
aaaaalaUiaMadaariaaMdiuiilar ihair evn aMantata tad ^a i Ba "* . wtrbagi aar 
MafoaMblMir •eat««>nMcnai>rw(*«lrlD aar patUaalar wbatrrti. Oaa •< tb* Uaia ui 
■dafnph. aad t£t ibortai um) bm*i cDptaaiictlt 
I liar It. ba* •Iraa'tj *ad* erayualtloiM <» 
*iH< «f <Mp Bin Ml a«&M mwtne 



=?t' 



'^H>btrlbM«W(aUi»oa|nUi_i(« ll« aU MMlMd. Thl* b a aavpl* < 

caf«cli4 frooi Ibe oiarr ucpmIh ^ miii Inlma pnartdad tkn abouU lie 
*lla«p4 M a<li»Tla> UMr *w« anil nmiiiahriHln lAiWM wWluiai tidac ilaUe ud rr- 

1* <Kt. <•« MWTcl^tUw 
I «( tte aadil UallMUaai 



^ im bla Mrnr •( Ika lagUMlrr pa*tH of tfc> tvunfy. 
aanaOe li4invli Uioliw toandaMaiNaiarrtiHKcfeii 

jittanH " 



^^tfcantri 



lliaa •»! «a« au« liatgiata.— * .*4tv Vorii tUrtU,' 



PBOocEDiiras of soicimno sooxsties. 

BOYAU lySTITUTE Of BRirrSH ARCHITECTi 

IW Dtttmttr, IBlSr— J. B. ParwoHTU, V.P. in (ka C^if. 

A paper waa read by JotiK n'HiciH:i>HD,jun., Aiaoriale, oa 
KtoTiiM D>o Stoni aa a Bcit.nixa M;iteriil. 

Thla stone, n«w ao moch aaad in tb« dvtropolU, U nrioclDatl; qoanled 
in a diairi«l exleadliig abnut SO milaa igut uid weM, thn>u|fa tb« oastrc «( 
Kefi(. and litvtnf m brMdUi of frooi 4 to !• Miitai. Thi* dlMrlcl, whUi 
cunpriaea Uic lona of ScTeooaka, MiMalonr, Lenhan, &c. bti Its Mr- 
facR within the limUaaf the amn orShauklin *and. The character of An 
Mind Ti/ioi conaiderabl; ta tt« diftrid alladcJ lo, nod (be qualitln of Itie 
buUiliog iMleritIi wblrii It jkldt are therefore terj dilTncm. 
Cni^'irai CtkanuttT, 

TheKaotldi IU|8toooia uuaUvfaind labodi of fron •iadhaatAS 
fee* ia Ibiduieaa. aad ihcw diaareoi Uyan an iDwfibl? aaparalMd bj a 
apcciefl of aand, known by the ume nf Uaaaock, wU<li» to kwm rnaoa. to 
aafiaieatlr indtanlad l« imaaat m UiltraUy good mw-kiaf bIoim, yaad A«> 
ijneallj in lh« naighboiirlwod an an ioaida lioiiif to i iIiimI Bat BtUKl 
wall*, air. Whwlkcoed pnacipally eandud kia reinarka to (k quarry at 
BiMgbtoa. in lb« Daigbbourhaad of Maldaloae, frou which flho (mm fO^ 
litiea of Rag arc ant* oMbIomI. and a dtawiag »a* eihUiitinl to the aieal- 
iag, which arpwaaaiai a acMloa of the alrala in lliia pati of ib< dliiriet. 
TIk- (luarry at Bougliluii lia« b«ui marked for sotsc reoiunra. aad from it 
waa rcrf probably prucun-J Ibv ituac caiplojcd id the iuctit>pbliii during 
the period whrn lli« (lomtMl Hty te of arcbitcclurc premiled. &Uiuttot% 
aplierleal ihap*, 'nth ae wtre ihmI in Ibi^ Mth aad \t»b caaluriea for 
artillery, are atiU fuutuj amuo; the aeetunulnled nibhbk. 

Ai lloufblop, a* in nioit of iba Rag Stoae dlttrtcta, tha tarface layer »f 
Tfjcelable muuld in succeeded by a tird ariatm, wUdh It aaiiiciiiuek li 
feal la deptli, and rorjea lo lla character m it deacnoda, okaogitiK ('"'o m 
atiffbricknrtbloakladoritra*ellyloaDi,calMiaUwdiitrki lUd /'ina. 
It b mccevde^ by three veint of fnrrugioona (aad of a r«d culimr, aller^ 
Baling with the Mme nunltpr of laytm of Sua Haaaoek, wbirh in tbia 
C8i>i> relaiua lU aandy cbaracUr, and forma, with the Bag SIudh lime, 
a very eioellenl mortar. 

BcDfatb th« Ihird bed of Haaaoek Is found the first of alwol 20 layei* 
of liweatoac, which lieam the name of Lamit B»g, and m found niticb 
brvkeu. Jl cvotioiiolly occur*, thai tkia bed thio* oB iatp dvtached ai»- 
dulM. and •miicIiuim ceues alto(«ttier. Ita thiekocM is therefore T*fy 
variable, bat blocks of from 5 to S feet in length, and S to 10 ioehas dtep, 
can uccasinaaUy be procund from iL The iUiiia ta ban tolefably frrc la 
work. 

At prerioiuly stated, ibb bed of stooe ia (as arc at) otiiera of ihe strata) 
fulluMt^ by tw« of Huaock. The iwcnad bad of atnoc is called the 
Jita4<i-La)tT, seed (or beadrr*. The oeil ia Uie Ort*ti Raf, which fra- 
aocatly diiidcs OJul re oajtcs, the inlcf^ruiog apace being Klled wUh tha 
naaaoek saad ; it is frreB ia colour, and frre Ut work, though not veey 
sound. Tfaa layer or lluaaiick, wbichaDfcaeds iIm Green Bag, is work* 
able, aad Is diugIi uacd La ih« Drlghbourhoml for tha purpose beilarc Men- 
tlontdi Itre^uiftft irry liiUe lattour la dmetog, aad u the qaaliiy of 
naMtaucn tu luuUluro is superior la brick. The neat bed of BloiKia oaUod 
the Veliotc lUg, aad is utrd p^^iocipaliy for pilcbiag ; it t* Kitcccaded by 
tli« PflMa. froai wblch iha largest Uocki can be procurr-d, soni« af 13 
lucties in tbtckness ; U ts >ery kard and stmoi- 

Tbe next two la)era of Haij are ca]l«<I tlir Coleinam and the Ltdlr Coir- 
mam, aad meuf a hard lliuiy luiure : iliey an sonselinM* used as handera. 
We have ibto the Orxut Rag, which is a bed of cuaalderaUe dcfHki >•«>*• 
tinea aa much •* S feeli bul aa it icry often cltai-t» into two thickaesaea, 
aad is full of croaver^ nv aloops of a Ibteb sim ooo be precuivd friun it ; 
It Is murh ui^d r^r liin«, of whicb ft sHordi the beet qaality. The bed of 
Haaaoek imniediaicljr under tbu t:reai Hag ia of a eer; superior quality, 
being uf a Cdc. clnsr, and free wurkinK iiniia, meMtaling the llclc«ie 
Stone, and ntands npciaoro Id ih« weaiber euccdiaeiy writ. It is fol- 
lowed by the iNnc-iBfTfaa Ckarca, which, like the Great Bag.oflao ipUta 
into two lujcra ; il is reiy hard and flinty. Two hrds of HassiJtk, sepa- 
raUd by a tliiu flinty U>er of Rag titoae, iatervcoe between tha clesiaa 
and the WMUUnJ Briilgr, which i* eqnat ia ^nattty lo any la tha quarry ; 
blui;ki of 111 r«et lo leogtti, and nf ainosi any breadth, can be procured 
from it; its workable thlckiwia is about Kiadies. 

Thn Btit in order fa Ih* Mtambridfc, simiUr to the prec«ditig ht^. 
tliouKfa 00 sioBca of auDk Inrsa seaiitltae t;aii be ohtaiacd from it- 1 1 ia 
s*i>aralcd by a layer uf iofcriof Hasaodi fro« a bod called iiai-l, wad 
generally fur headslooes.. Tbo UurtbriAt* lacceedtit: fhlslsafood 
ttoo.' ; blocks cAo be pmciirrd fmni tbe bad IB fe«t hsag. and 10 ladita 
Ibick. Tbe aeit lajer, rallnl lirtdtttmt Cafcrs, Is abool T inches thick. 
This is fullowrd by Ino or three header layara, Inferior in qaality, and 
atiematios with ihclr raspeetiio btd* of Hasseck, below which arc what 
are lermcd Ilin apiwr aed midrr iefiom tajwr*. Tboao yield stones of Bood 
quslily and cQlour,aa<l of coosiderable etae. Next come* Ihe White Kag, 
aaoflHou*, rewoibUiig cltalk,aad criuubling oa riposnrr U the atasoa- 
pherv; it rapoact oa a bed of basswekj clay, below which lbs quarryasen 
lia«e aal peoctraiatJ, il beiag very doubtful whether any llcno-stoa* wonU 
he louad braeaili il i iadced, in some quairica, 11 hu oot been ihoagkt 



?■ 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[Jamdakt, 



worth whil* to work evu u Uw u this. Hr. TUshcord tbn sitntlou 
that ttas notl hTonraUa n»Dner of woHdng theie qaiirln u to npose 
the whob MctloD of the eliff, and carry on the work In aach a w&; as to 
ky open the upper iDrfacca of mcb of the beat Uyen of atone in tome 
covvenient part of thn qaarry. By thU neana the largeat •cantllng can be 
procnred at once, and the frequent dtfllcultj atlendinK the workfoE of 
quarriea in « different Danoer (thai of obtaining large itonee when wanted 
Inhute). 

Pra€tieal PnptrtU*. 
Vilh rMpect to the mechanical properties of the atone, it atauda next to 

Suite in the list of Britiab aioneg in respect of reaiatanfe to preaiure— 
t the Tenia to which eiea the beat quality of ttiia alane are liable, render 
ia anaafe when applied in auch a manner, tiiat the itrain acta tranarerMly 
to the length of ihe block. Hr. Whichcord then deacribed the Tarioui 
nodea of working and dreaaing (he KeotUh Rag Stone, mcDlioning that, 
aa Aahler, it ia uanally worked with a pick, inatead of being tooled, aa the 
"Haaaocky" apoia which continually ocenr in it give it, when amooth, 
the appearance of bad Portland. 

With reference to tbe mortara made with lime bnfDt from Ifaia atone, it 
^nM mentiooed, that it aitaioi, after a time, a degree of hardneaa equal to, 
and, in aome caaea. eteo grtattr than ibe Beg Stone itself. The durabi- 
iily of Sag Stone wall-work caa therefore beat be depended on when aaed 
with thl* mortar. 

fifr. Whiohoord referred to tbe node of burning lime in the neighboar' 
beod of the qaarriea, and the qoaniiiiea oaed in making coDcrete, tie.— 
six of broken atone, two of aaod, and one of lime. He alao gaie a list of 
the prlcea, both at the quarr; aod at London, of the Tarboa qualitiea of 
■tone, and of the price* of labour at Boughtoo, 

Chemieal Atudyii*. 
The following aoalyaia of the Kentiah Bag Stone waa made for Hr, 
Vhicfacord'a paper by Mr. Phillip*, of the Muaeum of Economic Geo- 

ioa-— 

Cirbnwicarilnwiiritb alltUc nigneaK ■. ■- K* 

EutbT mBtur, .. .. ..Si 

Oxtdc of IroB, ,. .. .. .. O-.'i 

Cutxmiccoiu matltn, . . .> B'4 



Hauoeki. 



Cutionite of lime, 
EarlliT' nitiara, 
Oiidaof Iran, 



lOd-O 



M-2 

"12 

Is 

1000 



Royal Exchange. 

December 16th, 1845.— Mr. Kendall, V.P. in the chair. 

Mr. Tile rem! a paper. 

" On the, Original Faiindalian and Election if Ike Rnyal Exchange, 
iy Sir Thamat Greaham, trilh tome Nalicct of the late Building destroyed 
bg Fire, and an Acc«mtl of the Roman Antiquities dhcorered in excavating 
Jot the Present Edifice." 

The firat branch of hia aabject Mr. Tite illastraled by numeroua extracts 
from the records of which the rurpnralion of London poeseaiea a rich 
collection, commencing with tbe original charier granted to the city by 
William the Conquerer, a document which he iQcideotally deacribea aa 
being compriaeil in a few line* in the An^lo-Saxon Isoguage. Coming, 
then, to iLe ftuihoriiics more immediately cunnccled with ibe auhjecl, Mr. 
Tite detailed the tranaactiona relaiing to the buiMing of the lloyal Ex- 
cfaaoge, througli the munificence of Ibe princely merchant, by whom the 
whole expeoae of tbe atructiire waa undertaken, on coodition Uiat the aile 
•hould be provided by tbe city, from bia Brat proposal to that elTecl in 
1S64. The purchase of the aile colt the cilizeoa ZfiKl. 17a. 2d., iaclnding 
freeholda, leaaeholda, and tenanla' Intereala ; and it ia to be noted that the 
former claaa of properly realiied abuut Iweaiy-tbree ycara' purcbaae — a 
value not Tory different from the aterage of later limea. The building waa 
completed and opened for u*e in 1607. During the proftresa of Ihe work, 
« qoestioQ apj>eara to have arisen between Sir Thomas and the city 
respecting tbe property in the buildiag, which terminated in bia aaau ring, 
after his own life, half Ibe profit of the shops aod other lenemeuta to the 
Corporation, and balf lothe Mercer>' Company i andit ia frooi Ibiaditiaion 
that the affaire of tbe Eichauge hare olwaja been in the baada of the 
mixed body calle<l the Greaham Committee. The appearance of the 
original building ia preserved to oa in Hollar'a engraving, which shows 
it to have been in a much belter style of architecture than Ihe Bourse of 
Antwerp, of which it haa been pretended it was a copy. Tbat of Amsler- 
ilain beara a much greater reaeBblancelo it, but in ihis case tlie London 
building lathe original, and not Ibe copy ; that of Amsterdam dated only 
from 1019. Sbortlj after tbe dcaih of Sir thomas Greaham, some part of 
the building failed, opon which occasion tbe members of ibe CorporBtiuo 
cndearoured to caat the repaira upon the widow of Ibeir benefactor. From 
a report made by the Uresham Committee, after Ihe destruction of the 
building in the great fire, it appears that Ibe arcadea of Ihe court were 
vaolted with atone, and that it had been necesaary to stay tbe supporting 
pillar* by transverse iron ties. Tbia report ia dated on Ihe 17th September, 
1G60, so that Ibe committe had lost no lime in taking measures to repair 



lb* ealamlty thay had nSend, Eatlmatn for tha new buildiog 
speedily proeidcd by Uesen. Milla and Jerman, who appear to bar* 
proceetlcd io the plan of making out quantities, and giving then to Ih* 
tradearaeo to be priced. After aome coquetting on tlie part of the latter^ 
who profeased to deprecate any interfereace with tbe ofBce of city anrreyWi 
held by Milts, Jerman waa at last appointed the architect, and tbefint 
alone of the new edifice waa laid by King Charlea II., on th6 Mrd of 
October, IMT. In erecting the new edihre, ibe aite was conaidenblf 
enlarged, and it waa the wiah of the citiaena to diaengage the bDildii^ 
from Ihe houaes, lute Sweeting'a Alley, which preued upon It to tka 
eaxtward, encouraged by an olTer of (be proprietor. Sweeting, to dispose 
of bia property on Ihe moat libera) terms, and wbicb ended, aa such 
offen uioally do, in demanda loo exorbitunt to be complied with, 1^ 
tower of Jermao'a buildiog, which, from motivea of ecuoomy, waa cob- 
atrucled of limber ioaead of alone, yielded to the effects of time in 1B18, 
and waa replaced by a alooa cupola, deaigned by Mr. George Smith, 
architect of tbe Mercer's Company. With reference to the building lalelf 
completed under hia auperintendeuce, Mr. Tite confitied himself to the 
antiquities. Four glass cates, coolainiog uaumeraua aelectiun, were laid 
on tbe table, couaistiag of pottery, coina, writing tableta and atyles, K great 
variety of objects in metal, and a quantity of shoes aod aandala in excel- 
lent preservalion. The whole of these curiuu? otijects were found in oob 
apol, at a depth below the general level of the solid ground, and bedded Ut 
black mud — eiiOence ihat it bad been a pond, and the receptacle of mbtnab 
for Ibe neighbourhood during the period of Roman London. Mr. ^te 
concluded with a powerful appeal (o the members of the profeeiion In 
general, oa tbe subject of Ibe preaervaliua of Antiquitiea, and of sup- 
porting the measures recommended by Mr. Hawkins, in hia letter read 
at a former meeting, 

SOCIETY FOR THE ENCOUBAGflMENT OF ARTS. 

The Firtt Meeting qf the Society for the eneouragetttent qf Artt, Uamt- 
facfuret, and Commeree, took place on the 17th, in the great room of tiu 
Society, in tbe Adelphi, which was completely filled. 

B. Bono Cabbell, Esq., F.R.S., one of the Vice Presidents, took the 
Chair, and an address from the Council waa then read by the Secretary. The 
Council congratulated the aociety on tbe auapicious commencement of their 
ninely-tecond »etiion. During the recess the society had undergone a com- 
plete reorganiiation, and the new system of management proposed by the 
Council had been almost unanimously confirmed by two general meetings, (O 
that the aociety being ihui rewarded, ila yontb would, it was anticipated, 
diaplay all tbe vigour and energy of a new institution, combined with the 
stability and influence of an old one. 

It was tbe intention of the council to add largely this year to the value 
and number of the premiums. In the fine siti, the mechanical atta, the 
man ufac lures, agricullurei and commerce of the country — rapid improvemeota 
were in progress, which it had been the peculiar province of this society foe 
nearly a century to encourage and direct, and in which nearly 100,0001. had 
already been expended by it wiili great public advantage. In tbe preieiU 
session many valuable subjects were abuut to be otTured (or competition by 
premiums, and so large a number of important impcra were coining forward 
fur notice, tbat the Council beliercd the aiiipiciea uiiiler which Ibis session 
comniEnced were unusually bright, and lliey iberefoicbad tocuogratulateihs 
mcmbera upon the improved progpects of the Eociety, 
Broad and Harruw Gauge 

The first cammnnicatioa read (o the society was a paper on certain im- 
provcmeuts, in constructing Ihe Locomotive ^ngiae», and permanent Way of 
Railways, with reference to the quealion of wide and narrow gauge, by J. G. 
Bodmer, Esq., formerly of Mancliester, now of London. In tins paper the 
author examines ibe question of the relative oierita of wide and narrow 
gange j he aicerlains that the question ia not one either of relative aafetj or 
danger, but that it resolves ilielf ultimately into this qnealion, which gauge 
will admit of tbe most perfect means for obtaining high velocities with 
grcster regularity and economy. At present he admit! tbe broad gauge has 
tbe advantage in more powerful and ipeedy engines. But he then proceeded 
to show that hy placing the eylindert outeide, and by inereaeitig the firebox 
and the flue surface in the manner he propoaei, and .by adopting the 
principle of compensation as in bis double piston locomotives, high velocitie* 
may be obtained with security, safety and advantage. In short, that u 
powerful an engine in every way may be placed on tbe narrow gauge aa on 
the wide one, and one equally well adapted to high velocities. He ilien went 
on to show how the chief limit in increaie of power, and the corresponding 
incresseof weight in locomotive engines, consists not so much in the con* 
alructlon of the engines, aa in obtaining a permanent way suitable for the 
support of such enormous loads. By these loadi travelling at high velodtaet 
concussions are produced which derange the permanent way, anil are at 
present the chief aources of danger and coat, and tbe chief limit to the speed. 
He approves of the triangular sleeper, originslly invented by Reynolds, and 
he proposes to use a modification of that on a larger scale, as a longitudinal 
bearing. He alio proposes tbat tbe breadth of the rail should bc]!0 increased 
as to diminish the continual attrition lO destructive Io wheels, and procure 
greater durability. In the conclusion of the paper he suggetli that an ex- 
perimental railway ought to he constructed either at the expenie of the 
government, or of tbe joint railways, for ascertaining the beat meana for 
giTing tbe incretaed velocity wnich the public ore begtoning to demand in the 




THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECPS JOUUNAL. 



3f 



iMit MUWr. TbH pip«r giie rite to ■ Long nm<\ interetling dUeuMioH. wtMi 
■BciUd the opinion or engtuMre ma6 ideatiiir men prpMOt on lh« nxrili . 
ICr. Bodsiir'i plan. The principlo on which lili englnei an canilrucle] 
««ffe BpixaTfd bf all nbs tpolit oa Ibe uhjut, ■nil the tbuki of the 
DWliag ncrc UBunirritiuily Kvonlcd lo tUt aatbor. The net I paper read wci 
1 frqaef tv the fotOK' bv tbe losi* uKliDr, au ImprOTcd naiik •ttci uid aile 
e«i bjr irliich (jTcalcr ■[^lultj an! cconamy trc o)>uiiicil iu rtilwaf Irutit 
ttikg ■! Iiljtli vflactlii^. TIiar« wprc ullitr p»f>«n an the liit of tbc 
nlag, OM of ih«m ronubing » rtlutblo iliiuv«^ I)]- Mr. Nott, on llie 
^ ufe of ihe Fbolojrapbie r»;i. inilaMeihod bvuhUb kgrut irnprsTMurnt 
'6 effected i a Digticrrrotvpc piclurek Dut Iheleitjili u<l lat«roil olih« 
4i»citi>l'in rfo'-rrcd It nKOntrT to paitjtuiie Ihat ud Uic olUer coaiiiiiLni- 
cuiuAt tn n luiatt mtellag. The meelingwucroniledind dccpljrinlcmiiii}, 
udwiSDd wtllfor the pra!|«rttf of llie locicty unilec the ncwfe^lme. 



l Mm 



ROY^VL SCOniSU SOCIETY OP ARTS. 
Mooda^, Nov. M. Iftlir— John Bcatmn Bell, E«q., tn the Chair. 

Tbe fallowing comniaDicaliaDi nercmailr; — 

" Dttniplion and Diiutl*f itf a nfir Rijit Urtech." Bj: Mr. Tho»ab 

^^■Ir. MixiM't ■clbw] id tu alUch two *pint *' rib*" to the lireech uciljr, fur 

^^■boAl tHu itick** wbctc it acrvwt niIo ihv biurcl, aaJ uvt Im tliv burel it* 

^^fitlf, aa in ib< roaimoo oii-lHuJ ; llie ribi b«ing tat/ie lo <ItMnb« « <iir«« 

^■•fos] Ui a whole lura tn iwelie inthvi. Th« brMch, after bfing Daiibt-d, 

^> li cm*e.l'aril«ii«d. Th« lund can bt ninite tuuch loutter wo Ur. MouM'a 

plao wUbom daogHr of >iri|i|iin; ili<- tinlt. Afler tiriag iritb Ibi* rifle, tlio 

met ot \\tc ball call be clriLdj Bern niannn; in a spiral direclina alani; the 

isiid« «f ibe barrel, if tbe breech bu tinncrvwcJ, and tbc barrel be held likn 

> telMci>p». The piece i» also laiJ lo bo much ca>i?r lo-sdcd. ItorcrieJ 

b ft Coons itiM. 

" Dttriplio* amd Drmtinjc eft Ritll»tiif AUnni", by vrblch tbe (nan] 
■M7 eooMiiuoiMte with the Kaniurcr. By Mr. Anbrlw CaftiiicK, ThU 
pWipM*! bfiira toflinianiciillan lu bn rffrctril (ruia ibr l<i<uiiiaU*'> alt 
•kaiv tlM traia bj nMasorrodR patning benralti each carriitcs, whifh ara 
aDilpd by chiJD* after the carrlt^n ar« atiactifKj lo rich Dthur. On Ibe 
fnti pnlltRji the levtr atlacbeil to this, a bell Is alruch i>d Ilie locooioliv* 
■»«» togiie waroio^ lo lh« cnguieer wbea any ibiof ia wr«B£, or nbeii it 
W wiibed to atop tbe train. 

" Dt*trjjiiiaa and DrtwUg ^a RnUirny t»ditat»r," tat ihowia; al nl^ht, 
w lo diroM (<>zi. tb4> tpfed of llie en<-iiw. ur ilUtaoaa il haa travelleil (torn 
tbc iiAljitii. By Ibe SaiiMt. Thu iMiiuior cuutiita of n scren worhiu^ 
into a pi»ioi) oa itir axle of the driTiaK wheel, whicb cairics a spindle that 
»-■>-'. .:ii;sui vf a traio of vrbi-ctB. upon uito thai carrlr* \ lianil or 
' itiK ln><* oiun} riilcs tbe eugiod hoi t/a*plled from Ihv st^tiu'i, 
''I rt'ciriiiiumdit Ihiit, at eich >'jtion,lbe m^tnMT tclt I he puiiitpr 

tanm. ar.ti ihitt ti« will Icnoor alMMi eioclly vrberelhe iraiA ii,cven ia 
tt«da/i.es:Li,^a: ur inak-nM fogt. 

" Dtt^rtpllen alul tirairing of lA-tthtr Ralt'tvy ludlatttr." By (he S^oiV. 

. Thti M rt.Mlher futin of the iiij>i;jltir. I( (-•maitu In harlit)j tttuls iiied 
alon: tlw ittiliTay at rach loili.-, winch <>u liip pii^iaH pi-'siii^ otvr Ibeiii, 
loiae rii cur^Uci Mllh a bell cmuk, niiiJ riu^ a bvll Uxe-I i>:% lita IocoiujUvp. 

I Tbe e<>^ii.crt cdD ibui count ttu iiuusber ut mile* paucil uoer. 

MuwUj, Ueeembom. — Joint Br.anos Bull, En)., V. P., in the Chair. 
^^L TV« f<>Ilvvli)(; connuDicaiiuiia were ntndc : — 
^^P XnlJce reluliiH to the pro^unica iif 

■ Pkri^r loTOHtcoCcMimrr, with ilh)ttraliru»pecimei». By Hra. M*r- 
I 6UC7 lltvDttrtj AlAUEMai.L. >hiip«rt. 

It Kik t'aMd that l%« priactpal clalnia to nolirc poiaoued by this c%- 

mem, aiei iii obcajuiesa, hanloM*, auddurnbility.nnd the almost ItaondleM 

ij,,.:i ../ .<irpiM(B to which il may be uaually apjditd. Thai In arcbiiec. 

< ).u litieil fur nall», diiurin;;, ueiliu;;, mi<l puintiuK elates, which 

<.-av tviiA i in moveable bu4). Tlinl it eela in a to* buur«,aiiiJ 

: . . ..i r.<pidlj, tt-&t a Ii4>u»v pIdilereU with il may iviih perfiicl lafeiy he 

led ID elgiit 4laya. That il i« alilce hard Ibrougb ils 1•'h(^le BUbslaii<.'e ; 

ud.eteg as exienof ceaient, in iitiiiaiiou u( atuue. hu» remained uainjunHl 

I aod laaaliered iu all watttliem. never liJoog been kuuwrn to purl ur tbrotr 

•■IT any mU front (be anrtutci That it ii sucb a aluvr conductor of hoal| 

i^aUiuo uf e<liial IhicLscsi, cipoicl la ecjuul ilecrcca. ahowud a baUticu 

v( h\ 1-1 luauur «( Ihe Inlon«co, «go»cqueally il oiler* a very great lecurily 

, Ir*« I/e. Tliat u it ahatrx al Icoat iis ttreal a \ia\itt of reftisliiig damp, 

tatblns ma) be ru^iirly ditp.-i»pdiviUi,iihcreiier itb uaedaii wall plaiier; 

andptnittons formed of il, aucttnliii^ tn the plan of the paleiit'*e. uuly Iwu 

tldaa IB thickocfi, pn'Rrtit a much llrmcr budi. mA nmri.' rlTrctusl deaf- 

••■r. r -ii-n 'Se Ij iaclt double lalh parltikiii} at pri-nenE in use; besidea 

■ -, — iind thai no Tcrntin of any dctcrJptiiNi cao peue<r*le or 

. . It or padilianj itiiDa nilh it. That (bit crnieiit oQert a per- 

. ' -.i^v url of imilHtuip; marMc, which, tntiouieably unitci] to the tar- 

:t ' :' paiidiiaiiB, aqit >.ii;lil} polished, will bear ripoaiire lo any wvathrr. 

' ' :- ufaiKirut uroMmeutal fluoUn; c»a be imiUied lu pHrfe<:lioii at 

:t. Thalil forais ao tiiiuirly ueii afimnil either for luufal, or 

i iiiog: tbe tulabcd piaiuiiuj;! piMtcaaiug all ih« vdvaotaKei of 

1 tuEicaUrileplbaod brilluocy, aaJ tavalcalably Kraateraio 

Ibat ni a ground fi>r gildiag, it haa recuixd tbt bigliMt 



■pprotaliAB of practltal n»eo t aad U rvady fat tht gold ia 31 Imufa a(Wr 
laonlding or nodd 

AcicuuMT oi KKPtKinMTi on Et-wnio-CiiLteiiB. — By Asmkit pTfE, 
M,D.. t-Mt.A,E., Profrnorof MeilniuBand uf Cbfaiitlry, Ugivaraliy anS 
Kins'a Uun<-K«, Abcnleco. 

In Ihifl paper the reatilta of trial* nn ibe npplleatiaa of rleclrieily to 
veKelatirin, u mommendBd by Dr. Fosler, i\e*r fin.i niatfii, tiie yttm. 
being applied to cabbngea, itc. In llirw e»perimeijt« Ur, t^fetii^ oM 
find the alitihlcit bencflt to imTue. At ilw lime thiit Ibe Iriir* »•«« iaA 
prugreM, eipL-iiiucBl* «ot<- bIm> InViiu'ird «ilh tlic ti«w of aicftrtajadigii 
whelher then! wai no vliielric rurreut aloni- the wire, ivhlcb was diino by 
tbe uii> of thn Rold leat'elFeironiMeT, aad liy delicate K*l>iia>iii>«trr», In 
all i*{ Ihiiie. llii're <rra* m<< the allifblesl indienlion el Hrctrie cunrat. 

Dr. Kjfp'i pat>r'rnnriwni'la gave tb<> reiulia uf trials on the applicalien 
of KalTouii; clccliiuiy, thia aj^nt beiuc applied in u rarj^it of way«, Ifr' 
poa>,b«aDB, onions, polBioea. Inaumeof Ibese ibc (calvanitniiraaapplteA^ 
by ainhiag iDMallic pUte» iu Ibe gnniad, and coddcc1(b){ them Milh wtrti, 
aomctinea ionic In ibe eojlh.at olber timet l*n aboix il. dikI ineoUact 
nith the pliiBls. In other irjala Ibe f;aliani«ni mmji ap{ilied by tbe u»o arf 
hanerleSi Willi which naltaiiDindL-Tt nemuM(ioi.-lv'l ; the t rial r, in aou* 
cam, bdnK eenlinued furiereral wcika. In all.Dul itieBlittbt»ttl.tTvfen<« 
could b« ubatrrcd betwcrn tUe products of tbe mlTuniscil and iiun.Kaho-. 
niaad teicatsble. Iu the case vf lli« putalarj (b* pniducla wetr, to ooa 
trial, as 37j for the gattaniwd lo 3S for Ihe ■va-Kalraaiacd, lu anollicrti 
il mi aa 4411 forth* galvaniicd toulj f..r tlie no<>.Ka1vniii$ril THLIoglli*' 
aTerageofall the triala, Ibo raulu ttem ai 101) for the galvasiacd li> I W 
fur the Don-smUiuiiacd. 

From Ibe renalU of hit nvmeroua trUls. Dr. Fyfe conrlodtd that tu> 
benefit wliateverwuobtcrrtd 10 follovr the appliral inn of clcclririly, either 
by tbB mode reconinjcurled by Dr. KuiUr, or by |;bI>buIc flrviritity^at ' 
tb.- »<in»e time, he luiod, th»l lliougb in tlieie triali no t>en»lli roul'ud, Ii«^ 
was far frani oiserlinii thiit eli^clririiy would aat be fouad bmcllctsl ; (he 
aubjact WBi laorltiy oi protrcutiou. and be hoped that others would be »• 
durcd (0 prwccut* it, and lo give it the scrattny to vibleh It uoa eatllled. 



k 



ATMOSPHERIC TKACTIOX. 

T^ power tmflvji'd n t.tliamilmt the Main Pi/it eom/mrt^ irilb tir favtr- 
txrrhdtjf (At Trata PiUvnt FaicriOM utd L«AK&ua ieitig dmr-^anUd 
n ioli anet. 

I pteiuiuc that Mr. Ilaydon'a foraiulx* sre neneriil noes, !. r. iiidep^nrlent 
of the dlrneotioui of ibc lubea and pumps, at likewiie of the lenEtb uf tbe 
tliulie i>f the pump anil tlie iiumlwr of the •troL<!*( and that contriiiiLjaitj' | 
may SMUioe, /or tAe pnrpa— vf estilamaliin, aay diBimMOiii, Kc. Hliictt I 
CmI niatt eaiy la ileil nilh, howaver ettiava^anl Hicb di.TiuiiiMi may 
otharirlt* app^r. 

Th« pretiiniiiarsr exhamtian 1 irill sitpnu' tn iMcffeeleil liy means of a 
piiWn ptai-cd within tbe main pips itartf. To prodn.ia t!i« tiniitw of n. 
lieui(<»ci aunaifd >'y Mr. lliydnn. tIi; onelliii'l of tbeatBi«tpl*rri«|irr>t(ire, 
or Mb. |iet iijuaie inch, auch pieton niiDi oliviouily be mifvcil along Imo- 
lliirda of (he leagih of the laaia; iii i&iiinn uiiiiitiaiiitg at tbe toi iipt>u(ito 
t« IhU f'nm which the Imlii yiilon i> to il'rt. 

Thj. iHtwer, iKVrtury m In nuvn this piiton, May W riiiinated at foDowi, 
(latir^ <3ch tile uparsldjsni eoiiil>i<ihng oo)y the «ffett ujioo oao iquarft ' 
Inch). 

Call lh« length of tha main a. call j of it* tcn|tb 6. and ^ of it> length r, 
VtemamtJre. 

Oppoatil to t1>« motioa tit tbla plttoo. ihiough t, there wotdd ba the 
COMiant atiDuapliericprraaurc of l!ilb=lj t, 

Asiisling ila inotlaii ihtougliaul i, there wualii )ie a prfHiiia iiU)!ng ftma 
IMh nl the coutmencanMnt, to iUt, at tbc Icioiiiiatiuii : if ne tall lb««e(r«fr 
uf lUti iiiryiiig protaure 4", than tlia autttiug force would ht ^ i, ami tfaa 
gAiMra] exprettion of the mittanco i* )S t — « 6, or (la — j-] A, la be oter- 
coinelu effecting tbe preliminary eibanttioB down lo &lb pretaura |ter square 
Iscfa. 

TIte train pialon being now readj' to alttt. ihe next object it to luainlaiu 
til from of it, while il travail, the degree of exlitiitlionjiut ipeulied, tic. : 
Slbporiaoh; aod for this parpoac, I mil siiiipoic a SROoad pirion lo Iki 
pluL-cd alto within the main pipe, at b point tome IJItla In aJrance of tht 
trnlu pttloa. and thai the power by which It [the acoouil |ilaluir) ii to b( 
moved aloii^ the mmn, il to rcfulaied as to draw it akn; exactly at thi 
ume rile is iliat at which Ihe Iroiii pltlon itielf Irartli, where l,y 1b< aiMe* 
beiwiien the two, mny nnt hr^nme larger at imaller, at that. If It o^ntnd 
woulil clun je the rte^rtc of exbauslion in fmnt of th« Iraia piiton. 

Tbe power tieceiiary to moie tlih eiAdiuffvii umiaraiKui? pittua iniy In 
Citiualcd aa followi : 

It must moicltiroUKhtf.Ohcliriigtb of the main): oppoud to its ntniiOQ 
Ihcre w^iild lie a pmiurE at the outlet of Ci\b, but by the laine tbe piston 
had laoTcd thruugli ^ of itie lengtb of the main (or t) ttia picMiire would 
have invreaicd to 15!'i. Tiii* variing prcHurc bein;; prcciiely njaal ia 
eoatinuincc and inteatity lo the aaaitting prtaanrc of tlu- picliiDitiaiy ci< 
hansliofl, its arfroft may like tbtt be called x, and it« i^tl x i, 

• rot «S pt|e IM. 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[jAKtJAKTf 



This ptftoi mnt bo hither ibotc4 ftfongb the remdaliif J of Ac Icnsth 
^llMBaiD(or<)iaiflttaB gpjwtinf prcHBtB of 15lb>l&r, Ibt rnai e( 
4kM Bwwin fane h liUnttn j:itli e. 

T» iMiu itt iMlin llwn <>mU ba • prwmn «f Ub tbinstmt tbe 

ItBiib of tb< »«in am-i a. Ibe Mnerftl ex(nMi«B of tbo N»iat«K> of thU 

-oittM U ibercion # i-t-lS «— So; ud iv beth pittou (IS — «) b-f 

.(^A-t-lSc— S«)or U(i>«>— lo: But <ft4 r) balBg oqul U «, ibcrafore 

1$ (i4.r)_ea*ia« — a'a-ioo. 

Tba power operatiuf open ths tnin piiton le (t3^^)eKl0a: ibtndare, 
pttifif ond fiiciion ciccptcd,) no power ii l<>*t> 

Ii nCT brtboosbl mccmut W coqulrt. nbcUicr, If u kir^punp U oMd, 
tkm mMoiiiB ilUl eppIiH. 

To take ibe Mcaadu; tibtution lint, 1 tbisk tbat Ut. UajAos't Cormute 
ia jvM u ■ppUcAbU to tbe sujifioud put««i, u ll t« to tbiat of tbo olr- 
fxiiBp i *■ «*fb itr»be af iba pomp would be tDerelf 4 ifiMtnJebri Mfraeo- 
tat*M of tbe an* loag etroJu of tbe wppoMd piHoo. 

U fMpeet of ttao icafiniBary nhaaolioa, ii U taast eo*]P to Utm a ladga* 

«mM bj nakias a nlealaiioa ef tho eAet of OM or «ore etrakei af a pomp 

•of dlaaaotiona uaiuiwd «tili refnoKo to iooaraaleaee of calcslatioa ool;. 

For tauaiica: we niij uaunM tbat the ponp bai tviee tbe capadir of tb« 

fluJD, [a which caM it ntmii effeO Iha pfellaiaan' nbaaeHoa by ewe fmard 

■ •rrolr. Tbo powu ncOMMi; to eflM tUi itioko bm; be crtisieM a* 

foltowfl: Tbooppoiiiigpvwer lataxl^. Tb« nt<^m*rj pow«f UtbereCora 

(3axU) — (2a«)-'TbeaiMriii^paw*t Zof, (IS jr).1a. Awl >i a* 

y- tbe powwb (» — *). *i^ii'-(U — *). 34. 

Kow u upon ibe olbor Mppesttion llie prcliminarr eibaiutian of ibemaio 

wu fauod l« rcijuireapootr— (IS— ^) J, tbefc wculd be a Iom in lulng Iho 

.ytuspof (Ii— f) 2 ii bill tbu auouAl Topnautti osocIIt tbe powtrooo- 

anncd m eibtueting Ibe ea*il;> of th« pueip Ka^ whlcb by Ibeeoppoeitioa 

' (I twioc tbe liu of tbe neln. 

lo sijr la«t cosuBonieaiioD I ilaled thatthaealrloM^ditrepnUagletkago 
and frtctMMi) WM Ibu of the power eaplojod in exhaotlDg the pursfie aod 
Imacb pipe* : ui the abort nuotdnf coaflniu Ibal view of the eitii^r. 

I laaf obierre lastly ibet. witb laall pninpa and brmiich piiii^*, Ibii lutt 
■M bear nore tjiui as iiuigwiftoaiit preponloa to tbe wbole power 



It bat bets arfvtd tbal attaoepbericlractEoa iilibe Iraclioii It Qieaaiof a 

-fcigblj elaUie r»pc, wbicb re^iiea lo b« ilrdcfacd, at the ttpcnic of mucb 

.|iMNf, beCareit beeomee ti^i enoiagb to orcieonie tbe reiitt«neeof Ibeiokd, 

I -aadwbleh being to ttrctchod, la luaoMd lo afford no adruia^ own an 

■ordiaary rope. 

Kow it would be c»y in tbU caie t« adoft am arraDgempot wfaicfa woald 
m«m all tbe power naplorrtl in tirrUlittm the roperf. And in tbo case of 
la wiybcttc trectiofl a mrrt (lance at the eubjecl »liaw> that >ncb a raooroy 
ofpowwrntni take place i for oibcrwue, the picltialnary eibauation beiof 
analogoua to the tti«li:hii)g of tbe mpr, the tiibtrquent cxbaaotiaoa> to 
coupleto the ai>«logf, miut trquire at mucb power a* would be lafldcot to 
drac aleag tbe train puloii hj nit«na ol a rigid tntdiitid ; t. e. a pow«e e^uil 
lotutoftbeirala-plMooltaetfl apiDp4iUiMaUI>iiii«!f-tiidMitlyerrone««i. 
Tbt fOwer aoUaj upoe Ibe tnin^ietoo aa fvevioialy tbowa beinf coneiBnlly 
'IS— &~I0; while Ibe miitiocc to tbe flii-pump pitloa N 10 through one 
third on)]r of tti iiiokc, with m aieng« of atmH 3 Atrtay the Trtntlittnf two 
thirdi nf lU Btrohe, nabtDi; a total [ceiiUoce eqiul lo oiout mp kaffat ttie 
pmrcf acting upon tbe traiu-pitten. 

E. H. 

[We hava to thank ear correipondent for tihiag great paina to ineeitigale 

Ibe aubjecU of cettaln [lappit in Ihii journal, and for conimanieating hi* 

«baanraiiono m a nKM obliging mannor. Wo uiinol, howcTrr. Mrrr our 

• caiirtnf vn far n to >»c-nl to hii concluiloni. Ut> irrangemeM of a 

viitiliom " tihanttioii mainlaiuiaf jiiiiDii," " mmc little ia adtaacc of 

MbotTaU-piiiatii" IK wlioUf dilTcrcnlfrotn inTthini ihii orcoro In praciicr. 

'It doc* not appear bow thia nhauitioD iDalnlalalag plilon tt Itwlf to be 

■moved— not by itatianArr; air-pucnpi, for tite degree of vacuum in front 

■ 4)f It (• 'oppitafil to roniiantl* diminiah, until the kir actually r^'toven ita 

oMunldcottlf : md thii cotiM ont;r itak^ place on the uippDiiiion thai the 

oii-pavp craMtwwMi^ Jiri.'ctly the train atarta. 

iM BBCM oonalderaiton, tlui ia the air-pimp the air ia aHerastely dilated, 
■■I eendeued. oa^t ot Kaelfto shew thai aoenepowet ia tort.indepeod- 
«atlT of leakage ainJ fnction. If tbe partidea of air be at eometant fotervala 



t •Dpp«Ma«l|bli*a*lHnlHdfni*(lMbaUaiB Branll |M ftrtdfw, by aMoa 
' -Of aaeiaMic rope leO ftrt kt. p m lBaorw a puUv al Ute up of tb« mO. aad Mdk 
' 4caani alaaf txiHaOBlallf Itj a aun. SuppoH lb* oiaa UxioA t^ rofw to tlMteh Ut 

- doable llB buHfa I I.e. la M« favl, br ibt tliae It IWnD to»n Il>cirr!|l1t. Brlniw 
•almchnl. Wl M apver aad nlM tto ftM Ifmb itw «tU hnt) U utmn* apon thecnund, 

iVr aplMaa v ntbia W taa J i aaa Iti iba naa tbtn laM tiale at Um f«v( iloea la ita mil 
tvail 1 tbr itlghual lam *p[iIIh) (bttv wllJ inalia tb* w*l|hl bagta In Haci twcauaa tb« 
■HU l»* lu bti btour ibtrvadba vf lbs balf of ih< rope arblrb Hn Ixhlnil hlto, bm >• 
tbr aeWM 'laM. llili hWt nflha'aiie Ml tbarwo. and 11a fMcUon «tn itlaintoh <aai«iDtI r 
(illUnuaiuiiHlicaUt manhaaaioradM taM Irvat (he v«U tMJ. nUtna Ui* niahi 

In Ulaciieniloa bnmnr aDeliaire<d)apa»«f,arttlMUT«iplo^ In «lrtt(Un| tli« 

- i«M, wlU hurt Imn rcvvnia*. 

In Ilka niauuri Irt Ui* mtn matrfai apaa ihvcteaed ibc paitof ihc mp* <aMcb k* 
Dbv huldi ,— (o back tu lli< vdl bml. aixl dnw (b* rvpc rvrward £1 IMta nUaf Ibe 

- wrlcbl M ran i ami hr will fuiUio tri btdi aiir quarttt ot Um add pomr. 

Bcnir rtfala \ -(^ Jgla.at Iaivaabc|«nea) nbeieb}bt nsrrrtalaaBb 
-^ :iiAslte«l««l (nctioD. 



4 



novod doeer locetber, aal brfbcr apart, lliaa tbcy an fo tbefa- 1 
itatc, it b clear that^cc lauM be abaorbed fur the purpoMu For i 
poaa thai an rlaitic fluid bw the power af contracting and lUaling { 
to hidae iaert ratitrr with an inbeicBt power of enotloo. 

Tbe priactpliv uinmcl in Ur. HaTdon'i pap«r ware eo SBtbely [nth* 
ordhiaty rM/fne nurse of natbenatteH ln*caiigaih», thai no -""(T^al- 
das woald dream of dii]iutieg the Mfaew of the loM axUbtlad ( tH ttiit 
can ponibly be done ia to qneation the amowtt. It our eomopoodaK 
wi^ to do thii. be maft do It aol at bne, tndirecilr, bot b j direetljr riwfc 
iag aoBte enwr ia Mr. Haydon't paper. He matt make no loiUNiJIIw 
arrange ueatB of pnnpc and pittoui birt moat foUaw IbeBetbod of n 
in ipcttigii. b^ taking Ibe dlmaBllMB of tbo fuof and tabc, 
nnmbcr of tbroktt to b« tjroHtf wlaf tHry err in prwUet. 

The fllnetraHoa of Ibe man drawing a wdigbt ftdin a well b 
enough.axeeptlhat tbe man'ijnnmeyt would be leu an<l kuea«htliB8.< 
the atroke of the alr^tnp U atwap «f tba Miw letigth : |the eoiiM^a 
would be tbat in the fonner eaaa tbe lean itf power Bi|ht be made mack I 
than H eoatd paaably ba m tbe latter. Oor eonaapoadaat htaaeU 
that there woobl be aeair lais in the femtr «M. llul Ibe power 
applied wotiLd tmer exactly equal the power npended ; tbe qneelioa tintii^ 
fare i>, t« we Mid, not obo of prindylc, but b tnotion of mart Mwul.] 




TBE PROPOSED EXPOSITION OF MAXtFACTUBES 
ISDLSTHUL ABT. 




AND 




TliR preparaUon for the propoaed cipoiiiion nf Mannbctiwei ud Indow 
trial An, lo conaeetloB with tbe Uancbeator ScImoI of Deaiga. nader tto 
iiieclioa tS our takoled lowaaaMOt Ur. George Jaiiaooi are ia a forward 
itala, aad the exUbitno «ill be ready far the Otnttnaai boUdayi. Kb 
JicWiOB aad hk coUeagoo are geotleaica fully csupclcnt to Uie taak Umw 
ha*« oadertakea, aad their kuMCt* lo far ku even exMcded tbeir aaittdv 
pallona. It la now eipected that «very nook aad conker of the fioyal !»• 
ttitotioB will be requirod for tb« duplay of tha article*, ao nammon will 
Ihcy bt. From the. anawen already received, il U exnoctad tbat Ibe eoBtd> 
btkUaoi froia the I'otiuin will be rtdi. bideed magiiflbceot a e v a ral booHi 
of cniticncc in tbe chiaa trade tiai^ng promitej conLribuliona of the bl^lMel' 
cinai, and of rnmiilcniliU aiunnnt. Prom Stniirhridge and BItwiiM ' 
luvc proiiiitci of aa citcn>ivc collcctiou In glott, comprltinK diand 
articica uf general utility; aod from tbn Utter place there will bvi 
derablc quantity of jajianntJ goodt, bravswQtkt, and naoufaclurea i 
deecriptiriBi peculiar to tbe loani. There will alto be aotoe lery 1 
ipedneni, both in geld aai) lilver. ot the rlflotro-deiioail. I^on Cove 
iplendid ipecLmeni of rlbhoni and gaucet wUI be foribcoiniiBg, and ' 
e<|ua1 1(1 injrlhtng of foreign pioJii<:^ion. From l.«iceater a diipla)' of ho> 
>>ery : and from dilTcreiit placet in Nottingham a iplmdirl oolleerhM of ladi 
are nromliici). ShclScU b to contrihutc ipccimcut of lla tied aad otlia 
(ood*. Mniprblag gtaica, fenden, dre-iroea, cuileiy, die. <ila>|ow b BMlar 
roniributian fur caipelt, and Mine magnilioeat Mticlea af large dimenaiooa 
woven b one piece are amongat the apeduBeni. Freai Paltley. aUairiia 
icarfi, tod other woven fabric* pecultar to the dlattiet arc bevpoken. Fran 
IrcUnd apeeiaiaaa of liMB are to be exhibited, aiatiflCactured frocu Itbb* 
grown flax. London ia lo tend aitvenmitlti' gnada, iodudiag apleadid ap^ 
dmrni of plati^ 1 and (ume ma^nificvrnt callfciion* of iMilmonial plate are 
on their way lo Minr!i»ter from Ihcnrr. Amonn ihr minuraclurei of our 
town an rnbrl is mikiiig, anil the contribiitloo will mrtude a large coUee* 
lidD of printrd coiinni, de laincB, and rilks. The txposiiion of the latter 
dncriptloa of good* vill alio kdiidc nillit htun Macrtcaflcid, Spiiatfidd^ 
and oiiicr placta. The Council, wc Icorn, have not mtrictctt the eipoil* 
lion to artivln of borne manufactnr* only, but have lodueed aevcrnl fordgB 
liaiM«a lo cthiUt aad forvrard ipceineat of their KaBufkeitiML A* a Aiveur- 
able uiuplc of the tptrit in which thry have hres aaet on thia point, w« 
m)> Dentloii tbat one beuie ia London doelinrd answering the appliealioB 
till a partBer in Paiia bad been conaulleil. llii reply aat not very favovN 
able, bill he added, that in bit opimon the Council had adopted " a prin- 
ciple with rrgtid to thit rtpniiiinn that oucbt long ago to have been adopM 
an tbe cootiaenl, in allowing ihc foicigittr to exhibit Is mmprtilittn. i 
that tbe exfotiiiona oo the conliiient i<uu!d never be aucccwfiil tiO i 
adopted Iha tame principle." The Council, howevv, conflnc the i 
tioa to tbe piodoctioii iitcif, and do boI eonleaplito exliihiting, aa i 
ParltUnaxpMilion, |}ie nirtni of prodii'^.in. With regard I o tbaf 
of D taiga iticlf, it II e.ip«c(«d that on ibia occitlon It will (ally I 
the entiripatJotta which the public halt l>een led tu draw, and tbat) 
cioaeni will ttiow the ulilitj of tueli inititui'oat like tbii, where tbey canl 
properly caaducted. Wo are alto alad to find tbat the priut uiTtied by i 
Council, la atimulate deMgnera uT Uic town generally, have had _ 
effect 1 and tbat the (Iraninsi tent in for coopctilioa afe litiHUDl%1 
imaay of tlicn taltBted.— JkfewcAcrfer rime*. 



1 



p=" 



1840,3 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



3l 



■ utit Ufttn« BtMMiaa, IJJ ■!. 

■nil Loir«il, 36 m. 

Nad Fravidrnc, 41 m. 

•od Waranxor, 41 a, 
BMtiUn; Zln. 
Ctii 111 i« » II tnnclt. 
BHMnwJM nu 

VtOmtMi LovmI, U) m. 

Sew Bcdhrd a^d Taanton, 20 to. 

■totkUBptea nd Sprfaflkld. 

Monrteh ind Worecttcr, SB n. 

OUColmijt. 

Bmm^uob Imscb. 4 in. 

t tai l BQ taoch, 11 n. 

Tkhom i^d MuuehiDctU. 

W«l SlocUiridgc 3 nt. 

Wcttera (117 niln in Mai>.) Ufi m. 

W«r«Mt«t brweh to Uilbory. 

BoiMBlriB. (t« mbUm,) 14 ■. 

C ammt ieul. 
Rartford ud N«« H*mi. 38 m. 
fartlDfd ttd Sprtartald, 25^ n. 
StotiagtM (^reading 8epl. 1)48 n. 

At^B Md DdOUo, 31 ID. 
Ubvu ud Rocbctm, 78 ■. 
flahwi II aad ^i«ciu«. 26 m. 
■uAlA ud T&ffBi, 22 m. 
Iria (44« nOn). 
Inf. opanad, ft3 ■. 
lUtWahM n. 
nutMia and B eit a hk a, SI m. 
Iaa( Uud, 9ft m. 
IfahOTk aad Badtoa, 17 n. 
Isitop and SdmBCtadfi 33 la. 
ItlMaactadr ■"<! Tr»]r. 2i>t to. 
ffnetnt and I'liM, U n. 
TOEMlraBda. -13 d. 
tWy and nrsfnlioiii, 6 m. 
Ikvj^ and Santoga. 23 n. 
GUa aal «d8naaiady. 78 m. 

Ckadn bdJ Aaibo^. Al m. 
Kalialbloin aad SginenlDa, 2ft m. 
Knr Senej, 34 aw 
n(anoB| Ifi tn. 



BAILVATS XOW AT WORK IX TirE UNTTED STATES, 
(T«get]i«r with Ibe length of cadt railwaf ia lailet.} 

JVrv MnqMltrr. PkiiiMpkl^. 

UamaehmHU. FltaT«T Meadow, 2ft ■■ 

l,Saco.andPotttBioaUi,Mai. Curabsrlaad Talie^r. 44 m. 

Uanittivra and LaBcaUcr, S6 m. 

HmIsIob tfanch, IS ■, 

Utile 3«tiartkiII,E9B. 

BlMibort and Condag, M aa. 

Much Chnak, 9 au 

MiaebUI aad Sebuylldll IlavaD, IS at. 

NotrtUovn, 20 m. 

Ptiiladclpbli and Trniton, 30 m. 

PuiuiiUe ud DaoTille, 29^ ai. 

Reading, )4 n. 

Scbuf IkiU VkU«7. 10 ai: 

WilUaaHport aad nab*, U m. 

PUMalpUa and BalUoMW, 93 m. 

Frtnciitowa, 16 m. 

Jtraryfaad. 
Balliiume aod Ohio (Oct. t), 188 n. 
RHllimare aad SaamctMiieat W ■, 
Dallimore and WaaUaclMr 38 m. 

OrccBaiiBa aaA Kaaaolca, 17) n. 
P a»M afc af g aad Roaiirita^ 60 at. 
PortaoBBA aad a aaaak a , 7M ■. 

RiehBund, Fredaridnbiaf, anil Pol»> 

macv 76f ta. 
Riclimaiid aad Prttnhirrg. 22 n. 
WhMteMar aad Potonac, 32f m, 

lYurM Camlma. 
Raleifh and Gaitos. 64 m. 
Wilmiogloii and lUlckh, ISl m. 

Soaili Caroliu, 13G m, 
CalwnU^ 66 m. 

C«Btral, 190) n. 

Georf la. 147 m. 

lIoatsoDiNT and Woi Poial, 89 n. 

LexlagMn and Ohio, 10 la. 

OKh. 
Lttlle ftliaoii, 10 m. 
Uad riTor, 40 m. 

MiiIiwB tad ladlknipati*, 36 lo. 

Catiada. 
Cbampliia and 3t. Lawicnea, 15 m. 



nrZWtLLIAU MUSEUU. 

Ths lrii£cat< appoinled lo repoit on (lie tlal« in wkicb the deaitiu fi» 
llw bunding arc Idt, ami ai tbe Rngatnnieitli made viUi tlw ooDtracUin far 
fltsoacirtiin of the work, hire ctjiorud at folloin :— 

■■ Tba S;ndiutG fiad b^ an eumUatMin of the drawing left bjr Mr. Bateti 
{aUcb baia beeo *rnt for Uuai ieqwetiirii bj bis brother, Ur. V. Baseri), 
tat tba daal|a« for ibe fraatar p«it of tha nrork remaining la ba (unMad 
m ia ■ forward itaW, bol Ihirjr cone«iTc thai Ihun dMlgm net baiiag b(«i 
IBfectcd, rvqnirt, for llic coitipletioa of tli« work, tba ataiaUnee of an 
arcbitect o( the laioe order ai Mr. Baic^ b profntinnnl ciDinrncc and ikllt. 

" Tlta Syndieale tlUak U blgblr dariitUa lltat ibe Uiulding thouM bo ram- 
fJrlod witb a d»*e idlierf km to Ur. BucrriiBl*ntioa*,*0 far U tbcf appear 
is a aettkd form ia bli dcilgai. 

" T^ Syndicate baTB abo aacertafncd, by Inqnlrr of Mr. K. Batetl and 
lb. lakar, the lUU of paikdlng nfagamcnci »tth Mr. Baker, tad tbe r«aiill> 
•f lUa \ntpaii irill b< laid apon tba rogittrat'* Ubia. 

'*TW »nidkaia> ocaddnlag tb< hisb profcatknul chancier of Ur. 
Cech«r«tl, ttA llw eMUvea already tepoaed In hlan by Iba UnannU;, bog 
liBN to r»caoiiB«B4 Umi Mi. OckercU be appoioUd Hr. hmeit't w cwa f 



H arcUicct of tba aaw riUwilliam Muaeim, «ilb laUneUoua to adbMe aa 
dOMlf aa anjr be to Mr. Baieri'* dMlgu in earjw^ oa Uw work to it» 
completion." 
la^aocordaott w^b that report a greet paiwd the Seaete to appoiat 
I Mr. CockMcU arcbitect of tba ritawill>amMnnaB),ia thareon of tbe let* 
Haunted Hr. Bawri. 



Nnct^di Pkih*ojtliiralSotiHy.-~\a exMlIent p»p»r hna be»n read by 
Mr. Armttniag(tba lutealoroftbB bjilrxi-cleclric marliinr,) on ibaappU- 
caltQO of «al*r prtasore aa a moltTe i>owm-. lo ha nupnlinl friita etr»*t 
naia^ TL. Ifotnrwr illaatratcd hie (vaiarfc* br a mndcTof a eraDefer 
llftiog heavy weighti, and he bad tbe conplele eooltol of ibc »oti»cpoirar, 
aad speed for ralstog. lonmnp, or lorniag ronad vartabi* load*. It* 
■afemd U a paper in lb* Mechanie'* Hi^aaiaa of Aprfl, l»40, oa lh» 
«alt|ect, aBd w wlicd hli ekln of priority of applleaiioa of ihi> power to *» 
coRltnucd. The nMvbnatcal amociffaeat wa> iwrr 
paifetL The lecturer eibibiUid alau a Darhioe for 
drcahr oMtioa i a a corr^ |)ipe, wiib water pr«a- 
aor* bmeatb; ( a cirtuUr <lu«, or pmlMt, wjlk 
etbara limiliir to it, a>raug«<l at ec|ual ditla»«Fi la 
Iba periphery, aad ihoy are, like Ibe reoBag paddlea. 
nadf to rnter »d)trwa)-t laio the rnrTed pipe, aaift 
lo lura irantvcrae hi act aa pialooi ; each laccrs- 
airc ptstaa roterbig before tbe prcceiliai; leatea (bo 

curved pip«. Tbe aiiKUIae i* applicable li> copper- 

mUl la l b ei. <rfa«re a m*ti*e po«*r of aiMoal ia required a( ialrr>ala, aad 
the coet of power i( ckliamtad at only oao-lliird ibc coal of nanaal labe«ir. 




MISOSL XtAin: A. 



AmoxoMickL Obsebtatioki.— A parliamwifary iluemiwrl hat Jiiit Iienr 

prloiHl. lu HinM •* • niiro «t Hr. Buoi*, hr ■ cvpf uT Indmciii-nt ta •■tninuam* of 

Uie mtir^ o ti w r r m aUm at Borne lad aMaul taHMjaaTiiWAKiiiiUMDOwtifttf *a> 

li»Mi»»t««»icana rt«a lo li »« w UB—Bi«d»ia««h Btiiwaturj ■!«■ tliM j—r. Iifpw». 
Umi 00 IpHnKiaaiH vtn ann Vj *>>* Bmrd it AaaAaJif lo tbe Aiuennmet Rmt I& 
IBB-A. Ob* volune nl uifoaaatlcal obeamnloM U pHoud la ueb )««r bj lb* n»jml 
ObarrtiMry. A repan le ioaiuaT maee In ihi ■•su otJnn* u> ih* Boara of VWlm 
fee Uw jutmnnour Korileatfeeaaiaaf tiM >tv(Mt«n>aBdeonBiaMleaiee Mill* B«ard 
afAdorir^T- It t>addr4,(hal ■lltw Bojal OlfftrraWir at [1h C«pi of OvmI Ua|i« a» 
aMraumletl obiimUoea ban Nen prtntad Mn« IM T—f I^W. tlit aonanmi and Ma 
ainlBliul* tuTlng Inta rhMf »I>lu)rnl In Ihc iiH«nm«itar nn arc sT Ite uht1A<b. 
■Uonomlou ab^crraili 



Dlflmnl VDlumca it uUonon 



atKemUaQi walk ai Orinrttb amt eltw turn bate 



bawa ^rinUd tl-iH ISJ?. DDilcr Ibe f iipirlntcedtace of the Slatfoiiary-aSn. 

.St. MAav'sC'tcki'ii »n llKvni.Et.— A lucatpaper say* thai ih* rutorariona 

of tlita Bn* adUta ai* p' «(im«i«| »ttl.^..M»«l-, .i.a |ba vortc alimdr <»eut*<l laitsui lo 
a meaiaeilM aimttrr. a baml aialn irf (naricni (noMndoiu In* bna laid el m cixiri. 
daiabl* aipa roond (ha draieli, Wbldi ptovM mj •Sdwt In bMplni ut anli ib* flooi 
otiki Mraaodebaaul. iiBi (be aliola Inllilliie fttlrtuj ilnr. TtM BanfO am ind 
yoMM wall. iDd Iba aypreartiM to the Bt* (iilranc**, *r* ftnlibai. Tba niiailatlaiu of 
Ur labrtc bwe bt*a tarcTully namldvl, and Iht bamnfiiu oribr biWIfiiiw, tbe walla, 
aud llulr Taepccllr* malbir nnuMlof*, lapalmd and muwad lu ■ (aint'ldU le iMtabl j 
•o that llw ■uMllty of Ihff alruirtur* tntirmQ tn aav bfl Kintb1«r*J at .wuro ■• whrn Otvt 
•nclMl. Tbe Interlur cf Iti* rrfjil I* beine proranled wltb, and stiai tiai (ur afvannncil 
enly a jlf ehla lauWag catUr, ebahcd up *ltii urumulatliuu oT acdl, aad booM and 
dabrla af eaeiy Uad.alnadi aiwuua > IiiiiilBini* aiiprBiaim. 
f Buei«r 0* Maoiarai. AimannsBtoiuB Bamsii Mi wn.— We undciaiaml 
Ui.i l.oreKra4bor.Mial«Mlbr Iha toraiaUaa^ la fcwt— I, nf ■p-tM»MMaoJ ta l li i aiH 
IB LiiitDaUaa of auMM aattqoiaeeh aad pMaaiea that tbe fliKlib Miaewn It Aa baaa 
a(i4D«*ial«ii>I**lT>*allililtpl*r«o'd*poeH Ibrnub icatlcriion.hM nBitt «n*flM-oa 
aatAtttl* lltt ArcbwakwIcBl iMItnUt, wh*ai auUMrltr In audi inaltrn he dolitAo 
raeeeedsa and i«*ma. UapTapoaM.tnbaU>*e. la pTMcniut tba Mumuib. ilinioeh tea 
■mdlam of tb* Initio'*. >n<< ■• ■ mull ivT tbt cnrrtlnv *t Wluchntn, Ma (oUKlioaw 
vaaiaiaabla aniiiiuiii" nbichvcn nbibittd in i&eHinemt on tCiai oentkm.'^oD na- 
dniiin tbat lb* iruiUn .ball nnilrfiflk* lo irl aj,ana praim plaiedw (olktilaoa of ((•• 
btad. Sueb li at nran la uiuiiuwtan tbekai ud ■« bin nani to bdleie dad Ae 
•■•npla ef teni Prndbat ttaaalr**,!) bnofniUliil in othir oBrr« uf ■ alnllar Mad,le Aa- 
ercainrtbeamnpniFni vtikb t* lu mndlihin ukinr cITici . Weban til(l*eeaMIJMt« 
laijawl ar tba fcliid irtU d* Mrnttne an anaaimaui fw ■ (a^uBia nwtnblife Md wbM 
tlon, lu our pw* nalhnwl laailtutlan, of tb« miln of Brtlub and JitallarTiO An ; and >b« 
IsOonicaae tb* loilllDtavlU Uali Iiiin barn tatlr 'alt. In (ha fannitloa. ttiivuab I 
iBvafra aad aitlhurlty, *rT a rieparlakrDl •■htuh baa been aa Ion* tall I* L« a nacte 
faaluie ul turli ui laiabllatjinDnl. AI tba MOia liiat Ut liiulluu hie bo InMiulan. 
wfella iDinULiAxf ti> ihtit Ihtjict 9lJ*ct. U abaodun Iha f'Tinatlan ofiloinartolWlTdn* fW- 
ItMir. CauiniJBiiuiki u LU iibrBrrart, ir**>( find w hoi, raptdl j eemlnf In i aodaaa 
aTlla fn^aeta !• I>> lakr idTiniairof (ba oppamirllM ■ekrdHl by K* eitmded t niaea. 
poodaocc. Id Ib* tulliviiou of BaMrial* lot lutsl bMonr. A laif* Buailier of Icp t ild l U a 
ban ■nuiIcbialbikiBHbaniltobifainerblad: andtaaSotlaWpiiiTiaaM, weiN" 
l^fiB, u pv«a(b[a. ft fOApUl* ivtll«'IJou cf ihrtt neiBOflala. Ibr Ibe aabe ui IbHr i 
iMUmooT i>n tubjnu ci coatuiu.iaiDar blitoiy. httabUT.aad oU«r aBUqiMiUa i 
|tcU. — ' AtliafUDicm.' 

It li rrp^rird Ihal as npattetntal aquadaon at aWam raaarla aHIl pml la aaa la trf 
tbtli rHiin.-i.lTr raua of Billing and tttamlaa. aod 0<b*r^**iDrc^ Meffldmi aMI*vn1«a. 
aM* «Marl> ur oai, nilf la lAa oMulne *pnna> and ttel gumarrf aiaiclM wHI b* a I 
lae h<m in uiiii trioi, la order ID an >i lain wbldi anaanenc U bnt vltpled lot i 
aflheireUaa. Th* (8iapetln(i " - ' 



r<M«t. 
TatlbiB .. 
Bevlb^itlm .. 
Avtnffr 
eudjaur ,. 
aanpaoa {MiMe} 
Ardrai (ttaop) 
HaiiMriuna^ 
i u e iup 
Blatk S*(U .. 



Tani. 
l.eU7 
l,e4i 

1.M4 

l^<7 



1>1M 



Iletae Vaes^ 

toe 

m 

■«. 
4». 
esa 
M* 



St 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[Januai 



Eav.< pAiwrFB DnrfflUTiox*.— Somr curtflw r«iMlii««f tb^ nr\y »rt of 
MlmlBr.MpnicUHid la KoclaDil. Iww Ivrn l*Uly Ijmurhl » iVw, ■■ tlaatD*npi. in 
nimmii IiIiIk Tlirtlmcal *{tl>> puttib ihvrrh, or i>ir Auifn-Msinin «n. rni'ilrbij 
RMafMlf*n, en m**n*4Di llm tn'mtBlMAl cutiJd^'t iflt ttUiiBwtAU ttftn Uiv imUi, It ■»« 
^|ittj«.. ' 4 1 W«rh kio4«tl«** * p«i<fic( timiUrfot FfTtptanJ mtA*thtr tufi^nAVt 

OIK I r.< > nB. (rnm ll» t«jf la in« tU>m. havl"! iwn IrA uniKlAmirit. tlMl of 

Xir-r J ovr* tan la *iWui«*il In d*«y tt k* itwiphtrfd i but lli( Ntlltttr. 

naAniiijiiLi r>, »[»lih* ll«n»iUllii* of M. Johr iIh llqiilil. art Mid njilMRnl, and 

^4nr thni lU rrf-.iitr tniitriml itnlfnm yttmml Bli Ihtn known M art. ai mllu 
U tht i«rhl>i«<^r E'-r lloif- A rvinartaCIa 4fVtn for lb# df^QTiiU^ii vf a tacrr-l^dldiLT 
*iaaln< In (Miro' ilii>i'.**i< rrcriati ef ili* laiirrt liiiiifil wlniitiini It It Uw Uitnixifa 
^^h, lu a rv4 i4]"le,4liaatl*gna »rvn Ma rfl w^u^rrvJ In a bH|tlii f^llovlr**, Iha bon 
4ld IB IhcO.'lii ha-iil, TrwciHinn-rorihU fintirr Hrir--* la itiika Ibc date •ummlitit 
front th* >n>^i« o^ Ibi fi]ufi«*iiib c#iLli3ry-'fiv« li>«u!f*4l ff«n*lnc*, 

VAUTAStK DuriiviKv.— A i''i>~[trli m>r)innic lumu*] (li> iiIpd ibnl Ly mli. 

cCog Iroit 4rn«a Ui Ofv *Uir jx^nf jinh'*** wlUrh la ^n^wn to pwdairv ■ t«ta] tkan^ 

1 Iht naiun ol jUit. * Mil and aarrol aixt^fi "f MDiic mlabC l«aliTiluiliuidas1nni> 

nMt, nn\' u Ihf Ltrf # fiinatH fUl>l, l« a v^4tll' nwl^a auTHtanf . Ihf anhmnrf^l nac- 

rH(ui i«uTi ur Lt> p'larmliif sMp^pu nnrol bal t« maun ol trMt Inlcmt. msr* 

•fUdillT It llw rrnrnt Cloif. 'tlipn Hit tnr^lUiif rvnurn ol XiiDlanil an In a Uthwio 

ukuimii ii.it Q< iiiMiv. 'r'lc oliltc. irtiirti Uw I'rtncbman aaafbt la >iiviniil1>ii wu, 

o Imc^arl to jrsin ttn>ta ivt ('4]rii[iar-iir«t artri hard naaa uf gran 11^. and at Lli* tania rl^f tii 

avr tii< t^** and UNvor nhkh ihv h* iiliif of tha mal alana r^nlta*. Tu thU «uj h^ 

^onirtWd tn It! t^t Iron itluN^ iitilK in ■ AnlH alau. run Inw Inm fiamia. wliUh trrrt 

pn*\tfiUlj hvn^hi tn « rKJ luat b^ bring placv>d a4 aa E^ tfcwtfv tha tiirf Ijau-a flana 

WbliJi liaoci IroiD ll>t itinuiti o( flic FariMi*! ami tn crdn lo ininT I'm- •Iiw luulloir, 

thnt (irm tt prcridf^ wiib dnoLla ildM, btlHMA nhlcli land li iniraUufVd. •*Wftt U 

wtll If'nrn Id t« a bid (onilacUr of iMaii tba whcila la lt>*a bmiigtil afsln iv a kIuv> 

lMU,iDdlni-tf muinrrataln MoWd of. Bv tUa procmluiv. It tt •uMian, iba lap. 

fllvai f la<nn»« liaa ap n *< U ad lolbialap |iavlii|f alonrat flagi. lar^ bnlWIlnf bt^K^ aii4 

Wta pliwt. <i' any ilnm form, nf a Ja f rra of haAnm and poltab, agiul. If iMI anpttla*, 

ia lll^ b—t liawa nalunl (null*, lad at Iba ma»t IrtRlDf ««i*Inbt< oaat. 

Th* Iroh Tkiix tH AuKkKA. — Hf kn tnitftl fftiin Naw York, on Man- 
iIiT. urcbaTf Iba lallKnlDit Inlcrtalinf |nnIcnM« iclaiWr to lh« dnrloptntnil of Iba Irvn 
tFHi« llkvrc:— ^Tli* firuJuf tiriiT' itl Ifkko in r<iife«;|tr««i* In ih-IM ttaaalioul SOD.OW Iowa 
•DdH laratiiniicail UiM tbla jrai Itu'ill amoiini la ilj.Hit3M,UC«Ba4W,Wn Uu. It !■■ 
Alio nlimaldi ffon ooad rtata thai tht total prfdactlnn ol In Iht L'nltfit MUtra ibia y»t 
will KMlall iliert •rl4Vl/JXfV (ani, and that lti« toiiiumfFUun will oinounl Id about fOO,000 
torn, t«a*liifl ■ dnSdoncf, to brtntiplird bj Impmlallon. n<al»iii lii'i.llriu Mni. U> (orm 
■ labia lahltiltinii tlia qiiaiititf oiirl value of Iran and •ml of al] kinila loiparwd Into tlM 
Ualtrd Blalaa lor the bit MtlMn jrran. 

Awn"" *i—»*l*T *>^ ValoeM InM and SImI tai;wt(d lulo Um UbIM fltalM. 



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a.iM(i.iW 
1710.19) 

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it.om.i-M 

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' Tbii bUa tbMra that, naCiiltliaun^li^tj th* linmrnb* 1nfrr**c In tlia ronivnt|filnR of Iron 
Id Ibi* «ntn Ut, Ifatra tiaa aol tmri t<iyn-ri fietX lucicuf m tt>r ImpittXIon, *Tid Itial 
9h« auitfllltt (nui nur »irn Bi.-;iit'ii-t<irtr« hna ithirly bfi-i|>ar* iMtli th* InfrMiKl d*. 
nudd lurcuuiumfViuu.— Tbmcitixtfiiil'o ire(M In tlili fDUnirr or* llioM vf IM Uonnl 
Knnf* ComitiiJii < ] llir.luuil. It> imwal nrliil ta I.AM.tHN' dnllaia, nllliiKiirtr to In. 
vniarillo:> i't». lis iwck !< uimaJ Hrlndjiallrln Kurupi, Tlirtt ai* tbi 

■lulf woika III I ^ :n onrtF nllnarl Iron la manufWanHl u aiiT tilnt. and 11 

(a caJcalnltti ■ ^ < t,* exn b^ mnJ* Inajr^vr. Rnmrof Ihvaaal'ra ndlraait* no? 

fr^lldlQM arrau|JiijLrLl ^kb.l* i4ll* by VAt rimpariirt Tl]« minaacir cfit IHiiikiI noraff Com* 
ptof, and In farlall ihalron nilaM at ILirfUnd, arr •iiiiiIhI ii> tn* [:uin()rrliiid ami r*- 
(!(•, irUcb,IVHUisiDaiiiilaClun«ri(wi. laanld U lit •upurlut loanrelbar." 



LIST OF TlEVtr PATcnrs. 

OSAWTEB !.■> ENGLAND FHOU XOVEUUBa 27, 10 VKCEUDBH 2-1, IBISi 

At Monitt* alittrd /or ^Hrtilmtnl, uutrti ullirrmin tsprttud. 
JofMUlklla. of Siiront. I^txaiur. annlnaor, (or "criBin liB[>nTrnifi>U In aOflOM, 
mniAlnnr ** ai'iuraiva lur nltti's au>il turdnit «•!•(."— arvJrd Noiambti IT. 

P«tai S]>toc». of Harjti, CunilndaiiJ, Juf " Inijirurrmerl* In ibo Biaou'Kiuifof cop- 
imaaaU alum."— t<utriiiliri V7. 

Uoaca Pool*, of Scaili-'iUnl, MTiIiIlin'i. f[tot.. Air "crrtain Icn pmrrincnU U Mailer 
Uueir-lailou ul .run in ill iii rirloni ilawaui iml ncltl, %Ur\. niallrilili' lti>ii, and nlio 
to rrvi irr uialUablc Iri'ii utntt bard uifU liii'abJ?." ^A louimoultatluii ^— r«uT(Uii>e' ^. 

L^u Tli4ji«* Jiki.va, 4\t Arltiol, nn>iu/aiHLn'Inf ^liaiidx. Ivr " Iiiipftiv*in«uL* In Iba 
aiPpuEiUu imd In thvcooivntraUDn of FUE^iiiunr aijil."— r^Dv<niti«r 1^. 

Wlniiin >f Au;tipin. vf Nvirporbalrifi, Hu-n-i.t^ntj-iltln^-cIipiQlft, anil Archlbali) Dun" 
lop, th* rnuii^pr. <if UiLfi^r 'ntifitra-atra^l, jivnE-, fur *' liti[]F«vrni#iiLala Ilia uiaoufadiuo 
of ala, patl<v, 4 1] J DEh*i f4rqi#fl]t«d Llc^ujn.'*— Kotaicibff 37- 

Sdiraffl Uill,cif Woolwlilk. *la*.in>rclianl, lor "tonain tn|inT«inenU la opiuntua 
iot lt«atln(aud wanniuc,"— l>n«uilxi t, 

llobctt 11*111*. drtl TDtlixir, of liimran, tor " *n tmi'unK) aiTtlii»1 ol itrnalnlTia, or 
tvltsmphJiiff <7n aiq ur land. prrrniUn^cvlilaltnai a*4. ukI frtrLnv •IgnaU of diaim* \ty 
tmprowl bU'DSTk milh 0lfUaa« culouiwl. 4li*l alfnal C4rda, nf.) bcnbk luiallwaj* In 4^ th# 
Tartooi driinrtinrnla, t> arlt at prrranllni vf ■•''■ iil'"i> nliru ilir train la ai full aiwcl. 
ahowthp Ih* vIaU of tha tida lu harbaura, al*d tJi* illwrr.il lai rultwaya, UAnt. *iIL&f ta. 
•ic.'*— i)*tTdibtr<. 

WUIluu O'Miae*. of Nnlh. mHalJutflM. (or ■' Jiritioymvrnia lii obialulng iiioduiia 
frDM irriain DmBndii1l>*rci>a>|wuuUaa( intiln Diftala.*'— liMvnbtrd, 

Juhn Unl\e. at CundulLaiiKh Kauoicr-Bitiutic, tailor, lor " ImptaTcniaDH la tbt cnoi. 
bnUlon ofca*."— U'ct^llJrr4■ 
Ha)aI^lal>.of Serlr-■lrM^ UMAliKt, gtaU, toi "tnproiwtnralBlalorli*.'' (A ma. 
nui^k'vllvfl.J — Ilctvixbpr t. 

Jawfa Ufac4<'L-. of KisirMan, Jtnaln, eurcbant, far " lnp««*«ntnl» la (alpine, 
ih(HlD(, and fpfViii cofftt. — DmnMt t. 



AnUhald Donlopk >an., nf 7tam« -Mmt, Le^oB,gnil., for " Ira p tora u nnU lo t 
BanBrtdnneracnud irum."— l>emB<«r 4. 

Htarr Bn*f mrfi "I ititirr lloinr, OM tl. Paatiu-roid, lltddliMS, anfia 
"mtalk latjirvtvniFttl* In ■lipoiii'idlc fnoinlOon, uod In aptMraliiitanEartadt.-.. 
•ailhipwl, or ||>tt* at irlitcV lt>|iIQma<nu a>c a^ipllntllo lO tbt BiBBHlhlUn «( CMllMBaa^ 
111 pas ami tiiliri, anil oilirr pan* arr i pptka^is to Ui« axlwiiulax »>d ilB|ieliiji( •< alt uf 
Bth«v Al^^* t«niral/jr."— [W^mt'tr a. 

Jnbr Rdftart Jotlnion, Alfml.plir*, Ulackfr'an, dirntal, (nr ■' ]n)p»M*nrnti la _ 
DiitfilBlt cuplo^ In voBitnittltigand worklnr atinaaplifrlc mit«»p."— »(e*tQfc*r C ■ 

llrnif RfaihMiI* RuaHll, of UlUtiaBli.Un**, Wnlmtiiklir, iltU anrinnr, tor "I 
|iroTtniKil> In ixiiuliiKiliiK*lt<pTni)i'il tilldKCsaiid tindulla."— DrcFinbtr d. 

J^aTUi W*Hjfo»(»n, t)( l.irmib't liin EirlL)t.]fc£bi.. fo*"<*»ialn Im^iravta^ait^ In Alli 
nalat and olhtr Sulila." lA tunioiiiilriiluiL)— Uctrmtirc a, 

Hrnrjr Auriiitu* Hoi, o( UrMI Tllclid* 1 l-<lm<. .M. Warylftiour, ilccoialM, for ''J 
fi0W mrtliDfLof paU'blti^, dftlTif. rnd coiftnHnf (narbrr.tl^n*, arid cpTtHlnolharntta ' 
lucd Id Ihatonalruclluii or dtoetaUvB of tuium and aihrr balldlBfa."— I'rctitibir 10. ' 

Edward OrHn. -f ^t'■ll eneld, Vn-k, onginrci, fur" A nan- mtlhud af icsiniinlatnf fa 
add certain hnptoTtinciiii lu Rlalitlnt bmI ap(il)1iij[ bnl (gr cdirralliiH atcam and I 
ln( iralrr,*'— Uerrmlitt 10. 

TluiTni) Vrilllamo. of NoRrnr-ilmt. Ml<ti11ri*ti r*nl., tot "acarUIn ImpMTVtBMU « 
loi|>r4rpmrnta In wrrnrhpa at tpanjtrr*.'*— P"CriiiW' 10. 

Wluiain nini*. ofOldibin. Har llartncaih, Urron, Kai]., for ■■ licipRneurata I* lb* 
ntVlUK BBd axlcf niuddW ftaM."— Ir«c*uia*r IV, 

Oiorg* Uefdr)' U&wlirof, n( l>aIrri«4t«r.iDw, Lundon, oliolculf 'nigK'*l« *** "'b In- 
prond Diclbod n( (Oninianliailaa baiimn ih« prnimui iwracna bMliif Hit cIiaT|*ara 
rallwaf fraln and Iba mntmllcr of lUiuullirt pawc-r."' — l>*>c«inbcr 19. 

ICobtrl U'llllnm Tliqmiiin, n( Arlam.ilT**!. Adelphl. iM\ anilrirrr, for "aa tnpr***- 
iB*tit In cBTflfl^ whfvit. whkti li nliupi'i'lii.tblc W uitirr rvllJuif bodle**"— Doctnliar 1$ 

Hmry LoHTnitv. of Wijtnorc-aiFf*!^ raTaiicI!a1*.«duarr, ^uvlajnan, for •■ an fatfirorcd 
A n(bl(, HiliabI* fur bnuMa aiul olbtt iiurpOBn."— UamaMr IS. 

Grerit l^icli Ailiworthh M KoihilaUi Lancattor, catun tplirarr, and WttMU CnwMiT* 
orihr iain«plac*. cnnnafcr. for "certain linpnmmrDU In raviblnvFT or ipparitua nr 
firfirijrf •tni «iilnnlfiir toiton and otbrrObroui auttftanna." — I'tcauiticr |o. 

JdCataOarfarlh, nl lYiifaklndvld. L*h4V(«r. cii^lucar, for "c*rUln lofp^orrmfnta In Ma* 
clilBcriaT sppaiaiui lor Cifiia^cUnK of bullcft. and nllier puipotu."— UnTiiilKi 10. 

Atftad VlHral Kcirtsn. ol Cbaniciy.laiH, nipilunlcal d(au|lLlauiaB, fur "laprot*. 
mml la printing ■ii'ldidniTariom fabrln."' (A Tomontinlcalloii.— Urcantwr W. 

Cbrltiapli cr Dtinfclb Hafi, uf BrrindiiiJarT. niaitrr Diarlnrt. hir " Imjiroraticati tnOia 
canal riirti.:>n and Bd(j>tall.4i vf IgipUulaB (or piBjitlllutf aad lUMrlun «(*]* on wtlcr." — 
I'tcvnbtr 1". 

Char;cBr«ia«*,«f Caoidea-iovo, gonllfiBBBifai •■ an loprvrcd paptr or maMiW.**— 
Det«iDlMi ID. 

William Illijib«t and Robert Uuabcl. Iran tauaden, nri>allidlb, fcoUand, far " Is. 
j'nntntnla in mauldinf lion."— U*(««b<r 10. 

Tliitini* Vlcloi Allltr, ol Uoil Sntnl lllchrl, raMa. emtlaniBn. fat" Ifflpronnitala la 
brtalia ot ntvhinrry (br itopptaf or rtt-idinf; ca'ilagc."— UtivmbH 1B> 

Vrfdarlpk OTo.Jun, of Soutb I.amh*th, fnr " tmptori'iBpiiu In prapartnt aiiitil 
HBltrt, wid In (vaaala to aoslalo atraltd tad mUicrBl vratfU."— UiMUliir 10. 

Uo«F* Pdul*, of Stt^-alrtvl. llldiftaaox, fmlltiriBn, ftjF " lm|]fovnDtsM Is apffltatna 
tabcuBcd fuc ilrawliti and narhliir." (A cmicnuoli^llun.)— Iifmnbtr 10. 

U'UIUm Wh IfauKhi. «ril«bBit*oii-ttrC<l, 4jla*^»<, cu^otvr, fM " Dtnaltt Urpma- 
miniila tbettoun onulna."— Utnmbar 10. 

luiBc Haitkirr Bislfiinl, of Ulrnilnfhiin. for " ImprorrmmCs In tbt aianitlhclnre of 
wTinloWBBil fiihti- glan," (A coinmKnlr4llon.J— I'toewh*' 13. 

lloaei Piiul*. ur Aflo^IfOft. UlLldlrata. KO'>'l"n*b. fir " InipmnfMMa te Ciliif 
AulLlet and othpr ta..n1a. and alan hi tvrtiiag. atopplnj, -or arvitriiig lic|uida aia4 oUiar 
laalUiB In iMllIri iiid otbtr aauflt." (A c(i'iiii>iuiilnlluii.>— Un'caibtr 11. 

Saniii«ICunnit« Llaur. of HnnrlntliBni. Yo'l:. Hciulunnn, for " latprarviBcnlt la cirt- 
Idf , cODiblBf and aplniilitf mol-"'— iliictf intrar II*. 

Thucnu ftitOWe. ol YUnt, nlllrr, lor " I roprottnitpta In tb* rcrulrvcUan and Ofiafb- 
Cinn of carlain v&'t* ol Hliit-giliidinf mllla, and other filoillnf inlili ur auacblAirf' i' 
(tlndlDB."— UnrmbtrlCi. 

John RolHrt Jshutaa, nf Ndton-iiiiun. iLemlal, [or " laiproTnocDIa In partfylDf | 
am] In tli* Imtaiaul iiT pnidnt'U ul latwurlii "— UrcrmlicF 29. 

Henry Mandollla Mrail', of Near Vuili, A mc rlra. iiciillrman, for " crrtiln Imf 
mtntaln lb* maDuruLui* uf bnod." lA cnRiMuDliiilnn,^ — Ufc*ait>rrU(>, 

fltorf!* fHinaina Wlliati. or Ilplmont. Vauiliill. aenllenun, CtorRa Owjaow,* 
f^'-.l vTft^l, f#<il[miLri, and Jafnirt PilUiiv U'll.v^, ..I Hclrit'jibl, ■l-rrra.lit, f:«iU]rmaB, I 
" liutirutnnrnti In (r«aUnf cf ilala InAimniibtc matieri, and lu lb* aianuiaulW Ot ' 
ilJf .."— Il.frinbfr a». 

WlllUm Kaniilt Tiilar, of Firrailllly, |n>nllianiin. end Fnnc'a Ruiiblllac Condar.ot 
BInnln|;Lain, clirQ anf lii*«r, for "ivriaJn iBipiikwrnvnta hnpropvUIni:,"— D*r*abc* S#. 

Jabfi Uniirfh. of L~dlch<iB!ar. gBtaiifrlixar. for " linpioTrmDnt* in Ibt naciiluetura af 
cokr, 4iii| in Cic uitna luf prodimlri^ rlic HitiT.'''.-l}t(Tni Drr Kiy 

Jolin JtlytS.nl Llri.vliiiii.*, r-jtvliicrr, ftrt -' (-^rUjEi Irnpnjveincnt* In dimlnltblag Uw 
ilak ol B(Mrtd4iitaJ KploBloni ol (uniioi^Irt and uClitt tubiuiii'ta wblcb an Ualit* to «B. 
pi'-clr, or ignit* by nnUd witb >lr*."— IWnnlirr 'JH. 

WIlliaiB M'Haiflf, a[ )ialford, ^r "ivrttbt Iniinitvnanu In mofhliwrT orapjwnaM 
api'lk'4blt I" 111* pr«)i'nii<in aod aplaalDi a-l totioa, «iwl, tlUi, Itu, and oiher Aluvua 
tuliB(Bnt-ra."^I>pi4nibvr ??, 

Alfrad 1fluRnt>'cwlQa, ol CtatncaT l*nr, dtatiftitacDikD, (or" IinpTOiraifiita In toiafc. 
■Dg n-fiol." (A D9Ak]nuihlul!i>n-J^ D4cda1l.fr 'Ji. 

iljinqet Kndtlnr.J'in.ol llroralry. WldiTlMaa. rftll *inln«f, for " tmnroramvnla In 
BiarMntr/orappiritiii loidirHliiK ituun fui (ilndliig Riiu,enlii,auiJolb(r4uli*4aiiiBa.~ 
(A com inunlcallonj— Uiwinbif Zl. 

Philip Smllb.of lllfb-tirtri, l.t(al)tlh, lacK-imltb, for" tnjij-dTtaxQli In Ulclu,] 
Bad o41iri •ImllBf laaWnkiBB-"— UfCtmbir XI. 



C O [tlLESPO K DE NTH . 

^tI. Hcnr? Cirr, raginter of the Croyilon Adooiplieric Rdlsijr, la i 

tcqucncs of DUOKtoiu inquiiici, ii anxioui to iiatE iliat tlic autboreliipt 
Ctrlain papcra, wlikli haic tpiifAfCil in tbii jourail, witli cbe iaitU]* '' B. ~ 
ApjwndiMJ, i< not In hv MrHmitd la tiiniBelt. 

Dr. Staoklili, Ltmtiurg, Auitrii. Oa »xainining the inrention, it ipp 
lo UI 10 t«ry linpraeiicadle, lUiil ne luvi; not ihought it worth while to j 
au actxrant of it. 

Htu moDlfa, " PmbyUhu Cbufch, DabUa," ud " Ktilnr K«7,( 




THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



38 







ON UMF.8, MOBTAItS. AND CEMENTS. 

Fnm tk* Ucfitil U Hi€ CJUntcr o/ DqiMlia ^ Iht Comm\tii»% vf- 
M la (satiifT the frvpritli iif granting a f>m)f«N/or ll/e U M. Vm'AT* 
•tr in fkitf, anil Supfrimlttdr*! o/ lirutgtt taut Ifigkieuyt. 
By 31. AsACu.* 
{TrdutUiUi /nm ihr Frmch/tt tbuJwimMi.') 
Your Comrollttr, from the liitx! ur lltrir irai ^itluiE, kavc fatly umied 
IB tlie aatlTp wblcb faggnled Urn |irapuiilian on wliicb jmi an callHl bi 
AaUber*Ui. T%tj f<U coavinced thai in ••brailtiiif[ the grml iiteeterita 
of ourcoutL|j)a»ea (o Ui< ajppracMlMii of the tbrr« coaililalMib*] ptiwen 
oTltM IXn-doro, tti>t In bnvbif moane la nil Ihc toltfliBillnortke law 
la nf Hlatin^ tbr rriBBncntioiu itbici) imrnior* may baie (lF»enRl. ih«; 
Mimlate lA ibe blgbrd d«t;rH. and In Ilia niMl^lwnrilclal manoer the c««l, 
■riloar, Ui« pt(MreraD<« of men of grnlu*. 
Wa >pc«li, wIoIt of fvoJ ilMcotvrMj. Bctpcctinc cxteauTv Horkc, 
mvftf MliBinUe la ifaasiaelTfa, a« ibU cbaracter [luas eat letti- 
alalf bcloDf tn Ibm, It iIms not apprar our duly to loviU Ifcs atlan- 
||«« of Ibr tf X'l^IXiT^ ChABbtn. 

Tbcao ciHiaiJcrstioiu mark out JivlJaclIj Ibe courte wUchira 1m«v to 
take. U'p bai* tocuvine whnlitrM. Vkal Is to be pbccd UMWg the 
:*ile(nl nivn wbotn pMteritjr will bold ib rawmbrum: nbetberbb 
(vb«, wbrn tbv; eamf b^^cTv Ibe pablk, ImiI the iodUpo table ohancler 
Mi*«ll; ; nhrtbcr titf'j pox'U (cocrat intoreslj ikhMher, In fiB», lb* 
Its ariitns frvm llirni ought (a lake tksir niik Maosg tta brlUiul iu- 
for wkkh uar oMBtrj Juttlj daloia bgaoMr. 
Tfcb brief pmainble will Jnttif; Ibn ilttailed uhirrtalious wblcli jrixi 
u« abcMl to bcftr. We cuaiiilereil tlial In MtmlUiDK ici aaalftti ihe 
■trM«9( Bad nMa1 minBte a aicril, ao well recAgniwd u« tbut of M. Vkul. 
w» alionlil iaipife a •ftlular] dittmit in lbo«c Hlelli»crili^s nho 
wanld bam ihrtr dudki frtnnnri in ibin jiluco. If the Cuuiniitwiun liaie 
V"'"— * tfaii end, they irill, wiibuut doubt, fcavo auikfieO tieroKltaad «im 
of Hie oltieela of Ike Chamber. 

MAiicrACTDKKor Hymadui; Likei. 

line, wfeMbef in a alale of puritjr, or, ai it man uvuA, niiieil 

^ miHt tth*t (ubiaanM-*, U tbe natennl ateil fran IL« remoteal tii»ea la 

Bktfeiad tB(ctb«r *toati and all Ibv vuoBlitiirnl |Hiift vf buildmito. If lioM 

^B^ not found io aa} patt of tbe ^abe pure, ibc loeha 6o« «bich it naj 

be ntractcd — tbe uilcarcoiu ni«ki>-H]xiitiiInii)Mevu(jwlMiia. No inin«- 

iBl M ao widrlf ilixribnted by naliire. 

Il ia mre that ctUcueou* BtoocB nre ealireljr pure, at exc1uii«elr com- 

|iM«d of line aad carboaie acid. Tlieir aubaUaGe U uiaatty made ap of 

ailcXi alunlnnin, maKnejU, oxyde oT irooi ■onganeae, fiic. ThenGi> tli« 

iKina adopted hj miaerakigUlauf BtgillK«<i«>i niacDCjiw. fcrraf kooua, or 

■angarwiiian lineiitaDei. 

^^B Tbe*e ImeelMea ruralih by roiuting *ery ililTorRit Unea. Buitder* 

^^HiatiagiiUh autay kinds of Ihitai— ricti lin»>-poar line— fajdmri lie lim^, 

^HlSich liioe tsimaca lirratly i<i bulk wb*a »Uked \ it* wiiigbl ia t)icii luor* 

^Kiftao doatilrd. Tbi» |>ru)i(rlj ifMild be \cry vatsablc in rtipccl of ecu. 

^^ Bany iIkI not rich tiniee («niiiii i lan{ time nilliuut liBnlmiitg, Mprclully iu 

Ikeeeatreof naMinry, andpunicuUrlj' where ibuy Aretept fnini lli« tciloa 

•f Ike ur; ritb limei, moreoeer, are diuoltod to tlidr lui jutiiclM is 

water frctiucnlly renevietl ; tkia lolubllity of lb« lime Ib Unie converU aia- 

aouj iuu mere bcupi of fetonc* : qnai'MaUai for iatlance, wlticb bare 

teea niipaaed to butc been built of aLnxiE aiaMurr, wid wtUi Iba crealcat 

It It acceMar; to cite eianple^ to *bcw tbnt tk* ricb line* will tuA 
len -wiibuiil the acttol of the air.' W« siay point t« lb« lacl Ikal 

.TrtuiMn baviaj bed to rtcaostnicl in \»it, at SLratbwf, tbe fouu- 
idBtiaaiof a bailJon built io laOS.foaDdlbcre tbcniaflaratficab u If tbe 
■aBou kad laid it BOGoe few Ixian before. A atMilar etrcuiiHtHiice wa* 
ebeerred at Bvrlin by tko arehiiecta wko took diMro one nf Ike pillon of 
lb( tower tifSt. I'etcr, boill ab«al W yenr» ajo. 

Are me reqmred li> sktw Ibat tbe coatliint action of water diMoIica 
litli liiuet in maeuary F We ckouse anivofi a iliouwuid esanple* ikc dc- 
Mlitiao of (be rcin<<ii» uf Ihc ancient *taici» of ibe Vilaliw. DaiinK IbU 
•yerativB, it m** found ibal, by lie dittolTia^ of tbe rick linu, lliore re- 
aaJBBd beliind tbp rrvetemtal wulla uithlDig litil mauea without cobeaion, 
DMili) hrsfM of U«in Iliac*. 

Poor ot tbin 1.311 l ' .CA ilio defccU ttf rtdt liiao, and nioreotrr, ai lU 
aimc iB>llc;iirn. : .i.areat«« in bulk, Tlw ute of it la Uienfuro, 

•enucb aa p»fj'i<. I. 




• Katbval If, Vloi'i ^rrlni^lr Hat. fee naltlln| U* Ktlon of «al«>,«llU be fooad 
la itae km tsIuic at liJi ii-atn'*, g. 4> aad Io tdI. Vl., p. By> 

H9. 101.— Vot. I.\.— FMttuuy, IU6. 



Hullden vka deilr* to nuk* their work* laatiag, nnti eaiplaj excln- 
tiTfly hydrxolle linea.eepocially furftxiioilaliMcrettiag on a daenp MO. 

Hydraulic linei are tfawte wbwh readdy bajilao naitcr water. ThK 
ppoprrt) due4 nut deretop itself alwaj* in ibe name ilrpee. Tli« imnC 
laluablr lijdntulia limea bc^a l« Mt ibc aecoad Ui tbe fourtb day aAcr 
imiMrvuii ; at lU end of a nootk tkoy are hard and quite usotnble i ha tha i 
(Ixtk notttk ibey aa<aaie Ike natara of cerlain timtttwHtt, n blow brtsk* 
tbem with a «b«rp Mupd, and tbefraolarc data lanioaird appcaraac«. 

The natural Uaiealnnee are not dlattnaui^ked in general fnini uefc oike. 
by any pailiculnr pbyt>>t4l «har»r(er uf their leimro, haidneM. apaolla 
K'a'ity, i>r colour, wkich will enable bs ID predia what kind of lliaa IkeT 
Will ri>rt»Bb. 'iV rick, ilttpvuT, and the bydratitir lIuM-i arc Imperreclly 
Willie, KTtjr, fawa-coUinMl, red, tu. It ia iu iIm inlernal cMa|H>»IUoo oCj 
riKk». ID tbe nature and proporiion »f Ibeir ««netttueal peioeiplea tkat ' 
Ibe cbeniau baen anackt tbe real cauM* o( Iba power of hardenlnc ' 
urnlcr water (kyitrau/faiv]. 

Il hmi be«n Ions prnred tkat tbe ntoat pure limMlnoes, tke ilaliury 
■aurlili/. |>riailive«r Mcchaiuid, IheiaarMcAof Vuvs Uid Camra, al* 
waj* glue by calciaalJoQ Ibe neb lime ; it I* aUo well Invwn tkal the pro- 
perly of baeilrniog under water it coununiealed to lime by partieolac 
aulMtoDcei conUinod In the malerial of Ika ealeareoea mck fniaa wbick] 
the line u tnado. Hot nkat are Umm anhdancea, and m what proyoTw 
liDo oeght they to exist in tke lineitone. In produce tbe requUltn pr»> 
perty in a tufltclant digrce! On tbU poiol oploboai baee lone been 
diiided. 

Uerpiannn (for tke gr^aleil cbcEiiit* have occopM tkemelfei wilk tka 
que«Uu(i,) aitribated Iba obaracteritlie properiie* of kydraolic line* Iq 
Uie presanm in ibem of a Btoall pro|iarliAii nf Ibe otyde of laansaDeM. 

(iuyioD-Murvcau adoiried Ike iden ol bi» lltuBiritniB friend. Il was 
evident. iiofrtheleM, lliat Ihe liypolheM did not nffunl a ^aeral eoJo* 
tion: ibereervkaowu lociiM mUgml hydrHollu liutei In whitli tliere ia 
u(i Irate of tbe oiyde of tDanganete. It baa even been glsled tkal tbia 
nsyde dor* aot poMetd the properly aaaiiincd Io it. A »>ui<« conalructed 
In Sweilpn, areordiag Io ibe noliona of Bergniaoa, with « aiorlar com* 
poeeil of fiTh line and nanganeae. wu foand lo defective IbalUwaa 
nvcevtary to de«tn>y it a rery iboft lima after it wna conttracled. 

Tic railiesi iatesUcBtiimx wbicb nc ere aojuiinlcd nllb on Ibe comp^] 
silion »f tiydraolic limei, dale fnini the yeu 1760, lliat h. fruio the epochl 
mtif.a Rnieal«n propo*ed fur bold task of buildiuK the EddyMonvi 
llphlboaM. Thia grealcngineer lliAfi eiHiiiin''d will) lki> mntl acrupuloni ( 
care Uie natural bjdraullc liitif of Abtrlknu; Glamur^audilre. Tbit linan 
boil Id t:iii;NiTid a crrtain crlebrily. Treated by add*, it len a reeidnftj 
*■ wkicli uffcand to be a bluUb clay, wripbine about ^th of Ibe lotaLJ 
weight ef tlie rioae." The reddi»h oalour which ibia reiidue acqaircd.) 
by reeettag, induced Smealen lo Ibluk ibe ruicaraoui rook of AbertbafT ^ 
(It WM alreadj railed tuu) eantaioed iren. 

SaiNiure pubtiebed in ITH6, In the «ec«nd volume of kia eelebrated^ 
traveli. eunie utwarTniiun* (rndinjc to attribute tbe bydriTdic propeely i 
Ihe linuofSt. Gingoulph. in Savoy.to tbe eunitiluFfI JaSuence urmaoci 
neaet quarla, and etea cUy, contaiued iu the r.ilcnrcuu* rock* of tbal' 
lorably. It mutt be added, for die sake uf acentac) , tkal tbe illaetTioaa 
BBliirilljt Icnvci Wii opinioex la Ibe ft-rm vfaiioplc ooujtcturee, 

Oeemvre eilaiion, aad we sball have guae over Ihs wbole of ther»- 
■eareliea whirh jiTTceded ikoM of M. \'icat. 

M. Collrt-Deumtll*, Engineer of ninei, baring, in ISU. ditcotend a 
irmatkabieqnandiy ofiilicluai natlerin airr> tliiided iiate ia Ik* Una 
ufScauuohca, altribulad to the pteMnoo of silex, Ike bydrauUo prnperty, 
whi<h i* e» cuertetie, and well known in tkia liiae. 

Whul wa« wauling in (tie oenjecluce* of SnM«ton, of Saueeurv, of De«- 
GOiliUf Tboy wanted that whicb (rBntform atmple eoaj ee lure into la- 
conirilibln principles ; they wanted Ibe preelaion aail elparnris, tbe aenr* 
fadiBK nidrkt of eaiabUibcd truth*; they wanted to be rewdted and aim. 
pitlled'— lo pBM, in a word, by the impniaa of a powerful baud, fnioi ibe 
v^u« (Joody rcgloa of revtrlta ieto Ibe place of peasfical trsth*. 

In bli tlrM catayi M. VIcat made use of lymbcib : eiery one who haA.! 
rcaiarkird bow muck the cryBinlline nr nolcculiir Douditlun modillcd tka 
pliyeic*! pro]>erli«> of certaia boJiee ronld not albcb, but a limited conQ- 
driire in Ilia adTantagea Io arckilecture likely I'' |>n>eopd froni Ibe ehe< 
lulcal analysis of Unei. Tbe etperimenis of M. Vlcal wef« ditacted 
ttrmiebi lo the ohiect in view. 

Ylie miliira] limes of Heaunckes were lli« l)peuf perfeclian. M. Vicat 
cnnifioscd nu tirliflcint lime, luperior to thai of SeoouehcJ. He obiainedJ 
tbi« creui reault by caleinatinx, in proper prepoitivui, tkalk or puraa 
liMe, iiiiwd with clay. By Ihia ciperintenl ligbt tuceevdud to «bic«irtty,J 
certui*iiy lo doubl ; tbe art of building bad received the accessun of ULi 
odMiraAlriliiMirrrif. 

We do not auppDM tbst ibis merit can be c»nletted. We cannot be- 
liere Ihitt the ilenire, nnfurluaatety ton oaoiuioD, of robbiBK a coaleaipo-n 
mry of bnnor to the proSi of the dead, will iuflaence any one to eai 
ccniic liic valne o( Uie eeeaya, bypolheaes, aad conjecture, pre*iDi» lo I 
Ubifurn of tbo rnsiiieer of tbe bridgv of Souillac. It may be proved la 
r^fintc'tibly that M. Vkul i» not leo really tbe diacoverer in the Bub|e«Cl 
of lijdraulic limes lliau Newlon wni witen be pablished ibe I'Jieory orthaj] 
ConijintitMO uf White lisfal, or tban Franklin wa* wbeo lie pr 
IlKbtninii ooodurlur* lo Ike cittlised world. Tke gun: Stueaiuu 
frallleesly lo rcnJer ihe ridi Uae hydraulic by the iidditi<.u of day wilb 
out prvpafrnttni teMhm nabtakivK, alter repeated inoU, the oemaslt 



^ 



34 



THE CIVIL ENGIXEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[FKRSVi 



of «Mj(iiif the cUy, tlimrtti, motto* et, more eteatlf tluo all rewoninjt 
ocmM da, tlie ImmmM diaiancc ntiicb wpanlcs tiupte appevttDoes 
froB mliietl unci complele dbOKerirs. 

M. Vknt ba« Mrncd out hi* Mkiloai) inTt^ligvlioNS r« all n^p**^'* 
nitons 1° 'li* "*" '" "''■^'i ''"*' ** appled ill muMry ; Ibearl tiri>nra> 
»{ liMv, of ditjvNuiii, III Ihe nM*l ctTpciiHl and ««aaa«iie muintr, (he 
ckrbMiie add, on* at t^" Mn*lUiieiii« of calcarcotn rock*, in itiditiUd for 
iMporianl ranirkt to iha labon of our cHFbMed rscio'''r» i aft" <li» 
pfwiM ttiKcljMis whkh ihcno UImud e\]iUii>, tbcrr rau br no hr^ltalloii 
U lo tbc HolboJi ID li« adopted lo fvrcoec at «bgc nhiil nil) uliimalflj 
belbo qiwltliu» ot may fi<>*a aanipti!* uf time. To ■itJrr*t>ii>d lh« pro- 
OcMMwIiich ravri li' followed to lUke liiiir* of ililTrrtiii »orM. we «iu]i 
Vonliilt Vilh iDiich proBI the mutt »f Ihu etpprinimU of M. Virat ; Ibn 
ehoJc« uf ibe mitieTiala whirh uctic niih lime* i>f all kinds in fotKt mor- 
larii will no looser be a mtltrr of blind rmitine. 

The neccMiiir uf being coaciae coiapeli ui lo mcDli'in niercl<i irader thi* 
bead tbe lolcrcMiug rrit(ivlM< of Jf. Vicat. We rui>pm*, fur the mua* 
nuoo, the anaijMB of Hit r*fiMd ttooretiEul conoid* toIiuok, l>y Ibe aid of 
wliick vur en/inevr explain* thn grailntl (tnd proloaicod adinti of Iibim 
oa (ke (tibtUucv* with wbicli lli*y are eoiabiiittl lo tb« niiiipit of m'>r> 
tor. U'c rr^mt alxi l» I>e compelletl lu refrain from ||» esrefibk lavk of 
ntultiiiiz full juiUcc lu llie ailmiratilB ri|M!TlnieuU of H. Uertblrrt oDe of 
ifct beet tlieniinii of wliont Vnato (an buait. 

CEUCItTC. 

If. Vital baa occuptctl ItimMlf wilb e^ual ■ucccw in iaTntiiating (he 
pro|wr(le> of lYtneaU. 

ArchilceUditlta^aitli cetnenia frpin iDorlsra b; rh?if natural appear- 
aftces. The Mod coetaieed in Nvrfar uiela Ibi-re ia tke lorm ul Esraiel 
mar* or l«*t coanc, and mura or leas appareot. Tlo cuaiputiiiou of ef 
wral apprnr* buoMgeueau. allbougb ll uglain* lloia. ailcK. and aluaioa. 

Mo eabManu Imm Raiucd man ceTcbrH; anvig txiildera than ibat 
kDonoat Ihe prescat da) aa /'vnaa C'enMnd Tbu ceaeat, <«1Ih1 oH- 
(ioalU «Y**'*' "lUMf, tva* Ba4« U Lh« jeor ITHK by Alewra. I'arLcr 
wd Wyati. 1< wiia (be mutt of sab^eviiog (■> tM«i wnain aoUuleaof 
liawtiMia <rf KB oeaid Ikirni fiinod ia great aliiiiiiJiiiK« nl toiee diaianee 
from Loodon. noman canwati Biittjl raiber ibick, Kilfdtfiea iu a few 
niniilei cilber in air or water. There are ccrlnm nt<iltMi the Tbainee 
Tvaaci fur iactence. whtrb emUi aol ba«a been Fte<uir-;1 Hilhoul Jto- 
■au c«>n«a(> libiier oibcr cireun»luno«i (hi* ropid •olxiUlntlion i« a 
tqal obKtMcle i aiitl ia inch eaten ii ii aecfruary loaubatilui* fa}dr»itlio 
linw, »r whldi tlio priec ia luubli )ei*. 

farker ami Wyait nnoufuturt^ ilieir centtnl. aud fbnad a lale for 
tt lliiititchoat Eucuiic ; huilitrra uied it, bul uu oiifl touk uuEica uf (br 
raal cnuMJ of iia aiitHuUr proiicttifN ibe ditfaivrj uf tbU cauie bt- 
ioajc* iucMitcM'bly lo U. Vica(. H'c Gud, ia fnct, llint wfler ha*inf: in- 
dieaied ibs pt»{ii>riiaa ofeUj which rendcra li*i« lijOrBulie, the akilftil 
•xperinentpr publiabed in lelT lliin categorical olMervalioii— 

"When era inimuo ihe ptoporiina (of da;) lu U ur 40 per cent., ire 
obtain a Itna «hicltdoM not atake; bnc it pultrruet tvailitj', asd pr^- 
dnpea, when wellcil ami nuxcd ap, a c«iii|io«iliau whick quickly scli 
vndar water," 

Tbe prapottiov «f cUy tvlicatMl is preeiaclf tkal of lb« aubatabco ai^- 
Wlfiieiaiva by Parker anil UyaiL ^1. Vicat tniulc, llirn, from 1hI7, 
«v*ry clad, not only of ityUraulie lime, but also of Itoinaa rciDenl. 

Tbe duty aMl,(3rit to jour Cotniuitlee doce not priinil ibe ciUtlnn uf 
facta pDiel) KieatiUc; iWy tbcrrlorc deiite lu remark liut ibr dixuvery 
oToor eaiciaeH icepeeiinic coin«at« Goesea, in a tirenl uira-^irv, uudcr the 
dtacripti')ii uf (iMclital appljcalivn*. Here, a* ia (ii« eatc uf liyjraulic 
UBM*iand aa >n ullier ratee to be capUincd bcrcafler, )[*uloi;y, rnl■(;l>^ 
•ud by M. Vicnl at to Lb* IndoBlriaJ taluo uf limes aiaiammg a large 
qOKntit) of clay, bu directed ila altealioo lu Ibese useful iureMiKaUoiis, 
ftad tbe h'rvucli builJcrt, not Iobjc slnoc dcpcadcat oa tanEland, ban dU- 
covered a Kruii ijiiijjijtr uf plocM vitiero iboy canprcparo ftanaa ocmect. 
M. Viuut iiioiiwif baa I'oiuted oat oiara ibaa -WO, This »ew brauGb uf 
lodastry a varnri uu n<lli luiitli »ucer«« in luaur depnrleiuriiU of Fmitcc, 

Iflbc limit* of Ibia R(<porl ptrmilled, are ronkl nx-ntina litre many per- 
•oDi whu kale (t<rHned ^rtat credit by tbe diwwary of quurries <if Ho- 
Ban ceuenl. and, amuei; others, a ebtlfcd ei)(iDe«r, wbotu tUe Cbiuiber uf 
DepuUea mkuos amuuK Ua onenbtrs, At. LauonUire. 

]'u7j(uiA>*a AINU Taklu, 

Tka aalarsl pouliIbdoi, In Ihr bouda of ancient urclillccUt torraa Is ibe 
bands of uiedidol muliitci-Ui buiv played tea iupurtant parte tdbuie 
eteaped lh« ailealiaa of M, VicaL, D«epi(c all the UiflicuKfe* vf ibe «ub- 
j»el, aur.cDU, as n^rds pncNeal retultJ, faai cantiplelMely cninaeij the 
palifnt and laborious InvevtigatidDs of lh« engineer. 

Thn nameofposieJaaa ia Kitrea (n a votoame aiilMlauce found in creal 
Bbondaaee In tka Dngbbaurfaixsl «[ PixDuiln, ami of Home. 

Tarrat ia m coaaJooKimle, alai> voicaiik, fuouil on Dae taiiLi of the 
KUoa, «im1 eajKcially In tbe eoeirooa of Aoiicruatb. 

To render nch lira* kydraulic, it H suUicicat lo o«t it ia pr^p^r proper- 
tiooa viilg poisolana or (arrai. Wbai oaure aiiuple or couveniiuit taodc 
eon Id be Imnxiaed f Ltui in many lucaliliea Ibe expeuieuf suoveyauce 
rtaderalt impoMibic to use either ponulaua or (nrrat. Masjr aUenpts 
bale been made to prciwre Biihsimicei wbicb posM-sn (he sonie propMties. 
Chaptal tbouKkt ba bad rcsiitxd Ihe probtcH by tcry much caloiaaling 
caiiaiii ockiata or ochrwui claj. But cveu auppgtifig tk« prvycftiea of 



tarra* and pounlaua to be reproduced in iLti nacner, tbe diSImltj i 
only shifted. Tlie aebists ciperiBeaied on by Glaaptal are not i 
ia France i and ibcre is, morroier, ia ibc operation tecannKodnl, a* 
oelir^oas clay be emjiloyed, a cirtumttnnce the very faigh temper 
reqaisile, mhicb ofipiuei so irremcdisble dilficatty. 

M. Vicat resolrcd (he qoestioes iniu ita claniesita. This aolaliM Is as 
Ibllami : — 

AmUcial poxzniana superior, or at l<«8l equal lo thn brst ItdUn po>io> 
lana may be ftbtainod by a etmple nMSitcr of tising clay of the pnml 
kiad. 'IlilauKtbtfl lonslats U liitktfy calciuaiiaf (bo clay, la mttdj 
driving olT (he water of eunitiinatinui and a|viay» fceepiaK Ibo lasapefV 
tare b^-lwren HtlO' nod T0</ c«iitiKra>l<i<l-llS'' lo 1 9U)2° F*hr). 

The nilnd retis wifh satiifacllnii on (he ROlulittns of prublera* of practlMl 
nrt nfcea they poasMa (his adnitrable fimpliottf. On the other liaad, one 
(s aslciniabnl lo ■«« ui o|Mra(iiiu au easy that Ibe wurkveo call it a laar 
d< asaia, earicb a klopluca, ur raiber (be wbolu wurlil vriib a sobstaaca 
cuiurully uaefuliaiiU wtiich app*nred a> if il niusliunitsbly rcuaiu the 
prifilrgcit proper! J of a corner ul tbe CHrtb wacc the acal of (ulcatiK: erap- 
lions. 

n>BlNiutd fail of Mir duly If. afteir hatinf etteil (he diacarerlas of H. 
Vicat in the tlillicuU subject of puaaulanas, ae o«iilt«d lo mcnliBa that U. 
le Gcucral Trtmtsrl. wbuae prcuiuturc loss tbe nbole amy depkui-s, has 
IcAi a Huilt i>a ibis subject tilled wilb utaful obsenulioiia sua raJiiiJila 
rcinnrksi 

Tbe paUieations of BI. Vicat hate long stocc suiisEed all Ibe oeceaailias 
of art, for (ho execution of work i in fresh water. In eaoali, rivers, aad 
streama. The sea water kbto rise In itraea diiiculiies whick nti una bad 
anticipated. M. Vicst has ibe double nieht of kaviot poialatl out Iks 
eril and indicalrd the rrraedy, 

According to QC1V and quiic rccmt researches of M. Vical, sea walef 
has Koine leiidcoo/ l« <lcc«iDposc ccuicols uf erery kind. Il attacks ia- 
discriDiibotcl; ili(MMWhi«h euniain rich limes oe hydraulic linirt, uahlral 
or nrhfictal pusuljnaa. This teodeooy resnlia freni Ika preseac* In the 
water ufcotuiin acids which have a ^raat aflinily for lime. M. Vicat has 
found ib« iB«ani of rc*istiu)[ this prejudkiul effect and nwueisx iL Ua 
in at th[* (iiDo preiHirliu; lu puiei out the liuiei, puuolanas. ouil cementa 
which, prepared uccuidioa to Uia old loeitiiHlat will resUt tb« d^atitictiea 
action «f Ibe *<« ; aod wilb reaped lo Other*, to sb«w ibc niodlBnilioaa (• 
wbieb they sna bs aabJMled, to aoquin (be *a«o power of raaiflaaee, 
Il will be sppr«beoiIed ibat lo so nice a question M. Tical wiii be Jneo 
histp to announce bia diKUteriea. We uay, buweter. itaiv itint Ibe 
public will lo a stiint time be put in pouession of Uirin. His Just to 
stale thai tliey alrendy (rod lu Ihe rejrcliuo of a cerlein kind of |iuCB>> 
lana profioreil for tbe port of Al{;jcrs, and the amploynioni «l which luw 
led ti> BBch dita^roiis cuntequenccs. Tbe rrserTc wisely Main Ui nod by 
M. Vicat gitra blm the opputtumty of anpporiiax his system hj_ 
site eiperimeoi : Uie artJifriaJ pi^iutiilnaiui employiij mil) so nii^chj 
at Calais by U. Nvbou, tn^iuevr iaCblFf,art! fiiiind tosfilisfy/et 
ilie CMidiliuu>, laid down by M. Vical in his oeu labcnrs, of j 
at; alas t ibe sea. 

Statmtww or Hvi>HAi;uo LiNta. 

The mntrrials far building reconnouded by M. Vioal did laU maiel ' 
(lie u»ual fate uf ijl>h iLiiijc*. The proofs uf supertuiily Mnra pal( 
and the uid sysluni at mice ackuonktlKcd iUclf eunqutsbed, Sc 
bad a few mootlu eljipecJ uhci iJic publiuititiu nf ibe inccBolr of II 
gioecr of the Souillic bri-l^? Iitfi;ite the ittijici>il bjdraulic lioie 
brought Into use at I'urii fur quAjt, nt Ibe UndiuEf of th« bridge uf Jees. 
for Ihe conilraclioa of four Urge abatMii, nod for the w,irks sn the C'saal 
St. llailiu. 

Siute liies tbe artilicial hydraulic lime has been lass osed ; for U is i 
uBiiiilly eulisLiiutcd for ibc natural Umc <if which Ibc price la loner, : 
which posierscA the ssnir qu.iti;irs. Uiit we Lustcu lu 'cpeal itjc rvuiark 
thai it IS priocipallj otvlD^ (u M. Vlcut, tlmt coonitvclurtt doily anul 
U)e«iteUes of new wealth in every part of ihe kinfl'x'i. 

Our engineer had loeniuck pmslration ta moid Iha conJ««liir* that i( 
accnrdittH lo his discoiery, linip biicuoe bydmulic by tke simple addltson 
of day, ihcii^ ututi be iDwunerablo fumtatiuui of argillaceous UuicAloBsa 
(hrouchout tbe ktUKduRi capable «f nllordiuji hydraulic lime by ruasliaf. 
The irlca having ukeo po»«»*(uu of M. Vicut, lir lnu fur iwche yrara 
explnml alnsMt every olio of our DepartemcDis. His pnbtications uisdcr 
the nodesi litlu Sfafistif* tf Hgtlrtivtic Lt'nics, Ua<« revealed Ibb iixaJu- 
able wealth >a numberleis lucAliOrs nhirv iLi cxiitcnee was not even tu*- 
pected. Tht Utiparieiaenu where luLurul b)dniulic liina ii fiMiud ioj 
firralett Btiiiiidauce lire L-:)!, tiol-el-linniniir. Tarn, Donlo(|D<'. tiiral, / 
dcchc. Drome, flcfs, CImreulc, Hi'miill, Chef, Allirr, Niirre, V« 
CAlc-d'Or, ,\io, laere, Jere, Dnubs Hani Rhin, ,\c. Of IweatyflK 
DrparteaieaU alieatly explored, ibetc arc an more than (U or SOTMj 
peimllive earths, where by drnu lie lime is entirrly naotini;. 

M'e proceed lo relate two fuels wliieb cahiliit In n itrikia^ mtanvr ' 
was Ibe ttnteof Iha koowledgo of praclical in>>n rei|iet'iiDg ibe wMhli'i 
ourcountry inbydraolic limes wb«n M. Vicat cuiucueuced bisizatti 
tiuns fur it. 

U'hen be vialtcd MartellloSt a new hasio was being dug. Thei 
(ractufs were u( Rreal enprntc lo grX nd of uu ifnucnti' <iiiaiitlty uf ' 
r»(ins refuse. On einminul^on M. \'lcn( found that Ibi) matter 
forehti tuScMat byilrauUc Itme for the coDslroclion of tbe whole bawiiu 



P&H] 



THK CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITJECT'S JOURNAL. 



35 



TV* fullovlaft U a tUll mota kmuIiaUv he*, mt>«ci*lly nlicii tM- 
Kal«() b; 111 ra«u«4B«iicM.— 

At tbe lime of oimtrueiint tlic t%tnH of Brtlagn thm «ru gre«t 
dittrvllT ia iMMtfiiftiii: iivEtriulic lima. M. Vicat undFrlojlt (lie niulun 
•^TiiiUaic Uic luralitira.nitil nlnotl imiDCilUIcI/ iliicuvrral in the qunirlFn 
•f ConpcHO, i>r.ar Iteaa**, lidwcfu tlic briU «f rirli liicc nlikli bad bcrn 
■vrkrtl Itfm time inaiCMwlal. a bcJ of crcrniah i»<ul kiMirii bjr tlic 
W iml* iiHirf-wr*, wbi«li the litae-miilii-f« n'jtcl^d, Tku rcJcdMl 
bnl. Lftir ihafinMinatioD of M- Vir«l tiippllvd oui onlj 4ll lh« work* of 
tb* Vdaicir, wid ilto caiuil of IfJe-el-R*n<*, hiii lias becuuw ilie M>i« r»- 
(oorgt of that pun »r Iha klngdon for «ll bjdrauIlD trucks. 

ECOMONKAL CoMtBKBxnon. 

Tlw ydM af line BlaKMl al'^Bya (fttmw a noBtidefatile Item (a the coal 
rfaUMvu^. LtiBca kava 'try illlTr/cal i>rt-i>i'<lic* nLteli (Jclermia* liM 
iaaatltM of wiitIii ■••! thtl uuiieul ezpeuUaj^ lUnni. Irt iMiunlriiw wtlMV 
Ilaia U abuailiinl and «f food i|u>lil;, Itio bukl-iin^ last Itt age* nttlioal 
Wtuw n-niiir«l xmt eipMMv (at ihak nr«iciltin. ta uidh tuiitrlcU ba- 
WlitlaM, craa r*f ibe pooml clauta, may be tfuili niih alrtot rcnnl lo 
}md\Llmtmtm aad pmcr'ailuD Innu acciilrulit bj Uri'. by tlic tialeuw of 
MmbSi «Dd Uw <i«ainictive vVnta vf iauB«l«liuM aaJ Kixal mint. It ii 
n ■— »M»4 of aucb vttSit\ aptilKaijovaaa Ucm Ibnl Ibo bbour* orcagi> 
Mcn aod cJi4Bi<ta iaeetitt the aru-nttoa of lb« public aulhot^tlea and tie 
bflrtatNMt L«l n* Mn^Mer fat a Bom^nl ihlii pbkM uf tb« iiuMliofi : Id 
B aaak la *alua iba namber of ibp serviCM mIiUIi, in ilii* reapect M. 
Vital )hu tnKlered la bia oexHilr^. 

It wai nl f^ara that the diacotrrin of M. Vint liral nmiTed a poner- 
hi iaipal*« ffiND tbeiafliKnMn of M. Hrnyerv, it i« at I'aiia tbit vreflixl 
■ >*lMtiBB of (be eeMvioy «lT<ccltil b; iKtm ilixairrKi. 

BaiM* IfiiS Ibe bydraulic worki of llie rapiUI wefo alnuMl all ct^• 
<ab4 la plaater or wilb ricb Itmi!. Tbcarr unu« ilia anoual «Kp«iae «f 
la— una aad coalljr repatra. Krnn IslS. th« date uf U. Vini'a firtf 
liiMlnrhwi. ircunrao t*aa bail to fajdraulio litne. Il ti bydraulic bme 
«IMiCl"C* b* Dew bullilHiK" *> almual iultute daraliilit). 

SWawa»aa<JMtl]r uiKbl ba*o I>em ol>I>in«l wilh llie lime of Scooii- 
Altof bol Ui*|iitn uf SqanMb** acuvefvil to I'aiii c-xU HO lo M fraaea 
■HTtrv, Hhilr Uia time from Ihaqaurrin fr<>iB which plaster ia 
, tbai liaia wliicb, brfor* iha ntcarahea of U. Viaai. waa rtjoclMl 
_^ fvfM*. «i«t( almat 4(1 (raaca. TbJi dilTrrenoe of cual rrckuopil for 
itMtm eohto nurirca ol liiu«i the iiuantity used in Pari* frain 1619 lo 
IMl to iliL- coavtraettvn of scvicra, rcawiolr*) canal*, &c. K>*'* * Iota] 

^Ml| of War* thui l^UU.O'W fraum.* 

<>■■ of llw naoibBra •rf )t»ir (,'oniniiHion anparint^nded part 'of tliA 
*«cka of tlia fiutifltaiKiaa ruinid Pann. Ha baa laid b*furc Uii cullcagues 
MiUmI titblef, frun whidi it is coDcTudoil hilit,Ucuin\j tbat at llvllr- 
rtfla aluotf durioic tbc $i-«ra l»ID l-X-$-4 aMKing of miiTc tbanliaira 
■ilhw [of ffaoca] bai btcii vhr cuiist'iiuroce of iitinj; certain liaie nliich 
VMbnod OS Ibo apoli t>ui nhicb wuuld lia>o beta coa«»<It[cd of no ta1u« 
WbMlba laariMil paMi<aliMia ol M. VicU. 

Wa MW pnoead lo oSar inota labl^a. in which lb« anring rMuIting 
Iba tabaura of iIm caMtMad englaevT ap[i«ar on Ibe gnaiUfei 

tfad tUrroft* maftnvf/d b FrusM/ III aeuriaut iciYA Iht foM 



MAVCS op CAKAL«. 
kHtaadRMaa .. 

i> I* •* f* *■ 

la. 

mmdt'iftmlMw" 

«aa 

M> 

Ai oecardiUKT rilh (Ar taipi 4^ Jafy 9, 

■uw anl hhlna 

■na(« (a ia» Oainaaa 

ImfTvrtmaitf (jA iftttr iVitnifflli«ii. 

'knMcb t< ifat Maroa 

tliRMa 

^^aaaiav 

7aa •. • 

lai .. .. 



daaAmof 
KialoM. 



1-1 

3» 
IVl 

4 

114 
)l> 

I* 

7 



M 



14 

10 

« 
c 
aa 



IVmnbcrar 
Banafaa* 



.W 



38 






las 



■AtMHiULOMLIUflMdL Tte neiie If mbtr son iban 3 *ei 9 ladua^Kd. 



laftot DKiDoi!! at HKWW vtont, kc 
To«itab)i»Ii a cnaipiihaon suSieicsily ««ftc) tIetHp«n the coat of brMga 
creeled on calMOhi and p!le», nod of Ihixe wbich. at ihe frMcat d*i, ara 
errcinl on n biiio'latjiia in voorrrte, i( will be otwttnrj to take f>tn« iiall 
of coaipiKJKni nliicb it incI«peDiteoi <if the number of artliea *im! Hitflr alia. 
'1 will <1ivuM ilie area of the (uifucc bdweeo the naraitru (or our pur* 
po•^. "^ 

I'lwwilirg th»*, it i* found for bridge), whtre il hai bc<B pcuIUe to 
aub«Iilo(p il>e aiiKlrre mittWI for Ilia aocient iLal Ihc Kqiifire malra ooab, ' 
on tha aitni|[e, 1,JIS fninca." 

Nq«r, fiir biidgaa rrtcitd under alln^her Mnitar circtunataarea, bvt 
00 roanilaiiuiii In coacrrtc, tlie Mjuare nicirr ha* ri»«t, on [be a»o. 
ragr CJ.S fniaci. The prupnnioa of the eipenn- of the old >jgletn (o that 
of Iha MM, it n» |(in i„ 47. Attcjding lo ihia calculaltua, ifa bndgo 
ereeted on fuuudHtion* like il.oae of Jena or of Sttrts co-r, oD the a»e- 
race Z,lsao.i>uo franrt [IG4,0ik)I.l a *>tnil<if bn<tit« bulli in ibe niod«ti« 
pJav would not coat tnoie fban I^».00() fr. [(ii,f<i«nf.] Ci>n<ci]<»!Olty Ihtf 
aarlog would be IJIT8,(I4D francs. Siai^e tlilH llixrti liavn been 10 gftat 
bridgca built oa fouailotintm iocoDcrsid, wblcb.tbereforv.maj' be reckoned 
a Mvlosof 20,I8a,iMO franca [l^*7.3«lf). 

Of bridjtra of ibe u>crn,(e eiice bav)OK a span of 16 of 10 aidrea Hor 
aacfc arch the nnaiber is abou! M. Tor rath, rrckoiiing in pioporljaa 
there would lie a n««iDgaf SU.ooo franne, or f>ir tbo SB thu Milng would 
be T.OW.QO" frauct raKtjOfHtL}. 

Ai tor biiil^e* of a iliiitle arcb of 1-t tiiSfl inMrei *{>««, there barn 
bern eo&iUuctr-i moie ilinn a lliouaand diirinjC lh« Interval of £(c aod 
Inml) jr«t. va rij>«l lii)(bwuy!i aod ilepitnriiiciil-raails. Ia racb of 
theie tbe Hc<>ra;;c uvls,; bf Ibe aoWliloHoa fur coffer dams of bewa 
alone wlitt e<>R<rc>e, in the fiiiio'Iatioas bua boco 95,004 franca, or for (be 
wbole 10.UO(),Wi> [1, 61X1 .(WW.]. 

SuBMiiiioH natDCia. 
Prior In J»lj. |$|S, U,e,« n«rc aalboriacd to bt coDStriKlcd SSTaaa* 
pniHKiu bridsaa of Mie, Iwoi tlirrc, or four a|>anf. If we calctilnte neb 
tohaienapan ct 10(1 mttret [Sii feet EnRliah), cacb cixlinj; lOtl.^M 
fiwioi ItfitML}. (kduotiof from (bii sum S0,UIM fmnca p.SnoJ], tli* 
oual of ilx plaifocm and maans of si)»p«npion, iherc rvaiaia 70.000 fr. 
f«r the (uitirJaiinns and ntaaoary. Eipericoci: batimi ahowcd ibat for 
bridge*, a* fvr IubI(b, tb« cspcaao ba« bnni reiluord inarv Ihaa one baU« 
tl>«t« would im. KTound* for rc«kwiai| bera a radaclioa alUl taora oooai* 
derabla;Mili, wc will eatiiaato il al »n« half, aad lb*a lb« aavtaa niU bo 
22>UU,IMIB fr. 



Weir. 

fiuiivri or ilalce ralaa 

l-Mki, *f 

latif biidcm 
Onamen hrfdcB .. 
tInalHH. Mi%n 
Snptnskci lulclpa 



ftaaca. 

a7jmi^oa 
IAM(L«W 

je.i.-c,o<>a 

7,tML0M 
».MO,0« 
SZMOfiOO 



Otber conslroctiniia ia which economy baa bMn ollecled but Wilkoat 
siilHi-ivut duuumvnla lo abevr the actual amount are, 

1 . U'oudra or Iron brtdxes. on foaodalMna of aiiuaotj. 

X. Bridge of a tingle arcb, of from C lo 10 iDclrrt spaa, 

9. MariiK quaji, dikes, baslaa, Ilc. 

4, Kuuudatioo of public aad private baJIdliiga in lowu. 

i. Miiir.iKr Wonna. 

It la iin;>nftjnl to remark, Ibat wo ha*" ncl Ukcn inloacennnt llic qties- 
thia «T time. Now, io iheae malters, tioia la mune)', and bvcomes, finin- 
Ctalti apeakiug, a cuiiiideraljua uf tlia higbeat i[iipnit.incv. The new 
>?Mem of foaadatioiie allvn^ the oiecutioQ uf woihJi lo be done in one oc 
1*0 years tbal forioctly Viuk five or six> Tbsrc la iLcrefuro iu tbis rea* 
peel aliHi a conaiilcraUa aa*Mij(. 

One couelasi4n springs out of all the preceding aiidraee— il is Ihal sop- 
posknf Ibe contilractivc arU aech lu they wfre b«fiir.' I^Ih. ibe prriiid of 
Die discoiBiiea of M. Viust, ibe Kreatrr part of Ibe iniimttaDt works ia 
foorae uf exocutiua would bat« siuppml by (he coat idcrsti una of tfraa 
and es pease. 

If we did nut calimalc, bow muck (be rrmuutcatioo demaodcil 
wid acquire ruliit fniia the inip«tiu( mnnoer i" whioh it ia j^ulcd, 
we should have oniiTied nil iboae luiui aad the accompanfLae w- 
Btarkt. Id a pnrrl; Qnancial (ininE of view, nhal are 6,000 friuica 
pension l>r»ide the cnlmtal econumita (ur ubich the ooualrj b In. 
debled to Ihe labour* of M. Vicatl 

Till WoaKt or M. VicaT conrokcn wrra vncmK or Tiia AsDitati 

Certain of Ihe lenmed prtifrs* an ndniiratioa. abiolute, pataioiiale, for 
Ibc aioaumcoti of anliijMity. Acrording to tbrint tli« firMka and Ro- ■ 
inaos bad discovered everyihtcx in Um CMtiructIre ana. Tbe tajidtty 
of ediOoM yet rcmainiag ahow that the modems are (be real ditctiriee. 
M. Vieat ha* umplj ra^ianearcrf the methudt practited In E)()pt, U 
Albaas, aC Rome, of wbicti iba ivnienibratice waa loal in Uie liioes of 
barbarlam. 

Allh>iu£h nc do not perceive any tqjan' Um> Uicae reflMtiooi will do 



• About 4L Oa. 1. per square Ibot 



K* 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[Fkbrvakv, 



to tlie Ubore »f M. Vtott— altbmigh Uie Aiteottry «f IvM truUi tmm* (o 
ns altogcllKr linilar to tb« <i>K«i«r) of « sew truth — yovr CovntMion 
liM dfvulcil iticir to u minute ^x^nilnatioo of ■)!« ureteuJiMl Buprnorlljr 
«f lh« MUianU over the taaietM ta lUe an bt bulldtng. Vl'c kure tXft- 

mlMd. monom, wlirllict tliii uaptrUarHy can be mKiultuoeil on Krentoce 
10 til* pTOffMi dor to the (liacoTcric* of u«r illuitrioDt cngiueer. 

"SoBie oTAe Romnn ninrtJin bitvc laMed elghUen ocolurk*. A ercftl 
number of tnixlcfo building* art in a deplorable cnnilitioo ! " 

Tliie coinparivoti i> c^icDlially mtmcvui. To giie it aaT *a)u« «« 
inMt draw dparalUI bctw««n none but Ibe gmiteil moon lu en I a of (be 
tvotpoebt. Tfii> r^tulti will Uiuo be terj tlid'«rciit to tbui« uu whicb 
tiM leanied sapport their pMiliua. 

Tke •runparie of tli* ftaKtille were of axlTcme lolitlit; rreo ia ibr 
ccRire of the luaMnrj. ll iru nttxxttnj to q»c gunpnwilcr lo dpalroy 
thsn. Caopowilcr wai alio found ncfcMar; ft few j«ari ago tu di.-«tio; 
at Acen Ibc mint of n biidge built about the jenr li!(ll>. M. Vieat 
kiMMlf iMflHatDcd ihnt tli« mortar of the bridge of Vnli'Stri^. built at 
Cahora In I too, eorpiiBWl in hardncM that of the anciviit iticuLrc, of 
erlileh the rule* are se<rn in Uiat town. 

Aiiclcal arcbiiecta, like raodrm, baill accotdlr<x lo the nalurr of the 
asleriftia at ibcir diipuMl, aud bIm atconlieu to Qa&acial cKlK^scicf, 
cHher ediCcc* nliidt wvra ladettiuellblc, or witli tJ>c ktinii: oxtciior 
fomi, traiplea, palaM»,ani] lioutr*, witSoal Mlidily. Tiic citnitrucliuDi 
oflbelatlfr claia rapidly di«np|mr«d. Tho oUi»r« Bl<ia" Iiuic mitifcl 
lb« ratages of time and the vlolt^c* of the trusoDt. The biiii'i aiiiDitrra 
of bjgoue ages, liave ibvy forjtotlen llie wordi of P]in>, " riic caunn 
frum ttbicli at Itonie le many buildings fall la tbr bid quality o( Ibc cc> 
naot'-t 

If, 81 II is prttend«>l, tb« Roisana knew certain nvthod* of nrcpnring 
good mortar, we ought lo Itnil ihlt uibiii>ne« in all thnir puUiciuoou' 
tnenls with qealitiMalmoft idnllcnl. Now iliis 1) not rtfii iLi> cat« in 
cuiDpuriiig dilfFrenl pitl* of Hie laiiir edlii^e. 'Itii! ConimiMion Uhtk cu- 
iiiBikfU ID inmiy puUIU'itiuiii ot M. Vical's I'liiFriiiiCLils nliidi lliiuvr crc-al 
liKliCon ihisButiJccti tbunc, fur inniaucc. made villi muiiar luktu (roui 
difltrciil poiatsvf tbe brid|{««f Gard; tlwac cxpcrincolaBiTC roaialanM* 
varying in Ibe propcrliuu of aii< Iv tkrtt. 

Tboee who dc*oW tbeoHelies lo tli«)« compariiona ahMld remrmber 
thai lim* acta uneeMlDKly tii fouudutiune on ttie bardnetsof ntofiar. Tli« 
mode of Bclion by wbicli thi* emtylomtraU kardtnit— acquires ndbrMvc> 
Hi^-4enill anallrr of ninlnnteny amonK tbe learned, liut iiu one can 
deny tliat there arc circuiufttanoee under wbich it ia iiuputaibic furtbij 
jvyrterioea action to conliuue for a long Mriee of ageei 

It wunld «*cni fari;olt#u, Ibat ia conaideriug Hie knowledge of et- 
nKitK in ihf< art of building, vrs are nol rediiced to limple eenjecjiureii. 
Vitnivinw, contpinpflrn-y and arcbilect of AnjpiatnR, baa leria iletaikil 
■cconot uf tlie prrcrpia in uw anian|[ tbo bulidera of Cre^v and Rontr. 
Tbear precepts are far fwai juatifyin]; oar iiDrcacrvcd adniirnitun of ili-c 
ude&t*. 

Tlic auciontf were not lu tioHeeaWa of any exact notion coocenilns tti« 
eh'inlciil vodincation Itipt oalcnrcaue otooe uadofgoci io tho kdn, a mo- 
diflcalinn by nhicti il* friability i« to much inceMaird. Neither did Ibey 
know anytijing of Ihn kind of action wliich rMtorea to tlis di»iulr|[[Blpd 
■noloculea of this atone conicrled loUi litns, ttit adhMlon and hardaesa of 
wlilcb they had bern deprived by Ih^iI. The cflTarta ot ViirntiuB to j[tve 
■ plaaaiblees)>laDal!i>n woie ine^cdual. Tbc aame iVRa tlie caaa until 
tlie chemical diMuveriea of Black retii'cIiDi; carbonic acid, willvlbv at- 
■anpta of llie mofi lllnslrinna »n«c«ai«re of Viimiiu*, S^anony, fbill- 
bMI Dolomie, Perraull, kv. 

Oae siuiile woid mill disabose all tboie who persuade llieniirlTps thai 
the theoretic errors of these rrtat >rclutecta are of uucoDKquence. Take 
Ibe Inatnocc of Phillhrrt Ddome: to arrWo at ft mnximum uf vulidiiy ia 
ediScet, he thought it necraiary Ibat Ibe lime abould be taken fruui the 
■an* beii of liniestona as lh« fliateriaU of tho masonryi Tin* dirtcliun, if 
It bad bi^en fulloned out, wovld bare involred an eDonnous increase of 
uMnae, 

buUdeia who regulated tlit choice of Ibeir lime by the cotoar of (he 
fockftooi which it i* obtained; who were out acqiiaimed with any ua- 
tiuftl liyilrAiiIic limr 1 who were laridi in niilog wiUi ilicic lime Woken 
I^Uiry and brick rubbinh, «anaol, wtlhont great injuelicc, be compared 
with tnodcin eonalructard. Potting aside the excellent obierintiona oa 
Ae properties of nalural petzalamai, on the possibility of luiog Ihi* mate- 
rial to make enonnuusariilicial bluek* Id be sunk in Uie tea. nc liod thai 
tbe Kotnaoa have luught ua nuthimg easentisl in the art of buildius. 

Tor the reel, erery aitcmptiaexoll OiB Bieiii of the ancient inUiecnii- 
■trvclire aria cmlj rediHinda to the merit uf M. \'ical. I'he beat mortar 
vXtraded from Roman moDumrnti Iiu), afler Iho ikonsaod year* of auli- 
fially. a hard ne*« precisely c<|unl to ihnt which M. Vieat obtained Milh 
(OMl limes ia the tWt period of a year or nigbleito monlha. lu applying 
ttie coniparisiHi lu average resistance*, th« advantage greatly prtpDDde> 
rale* fur ibe mudem mortar. 

OnxtsN* Of CHeMiST* amu Bviuiim «H Thb Laboom or M. Vicat. 

The iinpurtance of M. Vlcal'a dlacoTeriet la palpable. Fox abovi a 
quarter of a ceotary all builder* have taken adrantagc o( thew ; now, ia 
such matter, it oioal be readily undantood tbal It M«it ml wiih llieaelual 
praelitioBcr to proonunce n definitive Jndgtnnt. Ntrerttiiteta, nol to 
Kejleei any kind of infurmallun, Ibe CoamlaakB have thousbl li rij^ht to 
^her tbtt opiniuDf of cbemisu amleDgliiMraf wko are occujiied, with Die 



lustrKiui 
ihii M. 
earicb^H 



greatesl sacceas, In ibe application of aciefice to tbc arln. ]o ibtaetantioa- 
liun we bait met with the niusl flatlering lecnEiiiliuiii of tbc InbiMrs el* 
Ibe celebrated englneter; noon' appeacH to lime ii)«t*'*Ws1 Iteir novelt}. 

Is Ihe Arst meinotrcif M. Vieat on lh*pri>daelMa of aiiideial hydnaHe 
lime preaenled lu the Academy of ScieueetT Tknl levrued b>.(ly dedde 
oDlbutnotiou of ni>I.de I'runy. Girard. and Oay-LusiiBC, that the ma- 
molr shall appear iu the celtbratcil cutleciiou entitle J JTrcraifrffAecaala 
Srangert. To lltia mark of npprulinliun, tbc i(teaie.it iVal ooadenilc COB- 
ini«<iutt> etrr givr, wait aoan t,iiiti a proof of eit^cm >ough< f-r tbr»ii|;b- 
out Ihe world ; the AcAtleniy oamed )t. Viciit eoe of ils eaerrfliuudrals . 

Tlie CumiL'ilof Hndj-n and Highwaya, eali«d upun nt the eummi-nee. 
inect of l!4lH, 1(1 ilrcJaie ila opinion on the arlifieial forni^aliini of hydraDlic 
lime, declare, by ibrirorsan, the accurate and skilful M. Ilmyere, "lUai 
tbc adraatagca of llic new n>rlhud were innamemMiT, tUil they dispnucd 
with tho costly eciploynicnl of real poizalunns, loJ that of slanes of large 
dimrutioii*, lavishly nsed in modem building, ij tpiteuf all ibcrsandple* 
lu the cuulrnrj niliinled by the Roman* uti Goths." •' We may prediel," 
adds the aaganioiia Inspector- (icnrral, " that some year* bene*, an otfear 
nturtar will be allowed in public huiljioga. When >\. Vicntmade ktraani 
the fir»t part of hi* slaiistical taboiin on the hydriultc linie-a of Prvacc, 
tbc Academy decreed lo fain one nf the medab fk>iiaded by Moatyon. 

I^tustnke the opinion of M. Uerlhler, the uxwl co«np«<rni judge of 
the Ubanrsof M. Vlcal wbo enuld hm found in tba wliok world. ** The 
rMcnrches of 31. Vieal on hmei and mortar* ou)[hl !ob* placed in Ike rank 
of the best work* dun to mrmbersof ibe corpt of brids'* >nd bighwaya. 
Hi* diuovpry relative lo the iiiantifBcinre of arilAcul bydrauiic (imeala 

of the blKhrst importance In makiat II patiiic, M, Vrnal baa 

ftoled ibc more nobly, because be uigbl hni'e made a c(>n*idcn>ble fortnnt 
cither by aelliaj tlio limn or by eccurins a patent ofhi* in < cation." 

M. Ucna*,(«ewill qnoteoidy ihoM of the gr«ati«i e«lebrii* in aeieace) 
dcclmv* in biJ Ciiimir AppU^u/e (iii:r Ail*, that the Bnliiiiom nf tba loo^ 
debaiad qoMlion of bjdraulic times is due ratiniy m the tnbuun 
of M. VicBt. Id spenkittc of arllBcial punottnas, tlte lllustrkiui 
dumist obscrtta, ** II is, boitctcr, from labours iu the Uboralory that 
Vical hu becQ led to Ibe imporbiut dlteovery-with which he bat ea 
Ihe nils. Tbu nialc iu vtbich he found Ibe qaesliov rBiiLl«ra Ut« dtaeuve 
Ibo more rcmarkubie.'' 

Wq could borrow proofs eqoaily llatlerinK from a host of hi Hera, aad 
cspcicially from livo eieetleni urticteA by ill. Clievreull, laserted in the 
Journal draffurEial*. Tlie»e opiDious, uulwiLbslaadiii^ the ktsb aiilbueitiea 
from wbou tbcy cmuautc, ought uul, dtiubtleu, tu pre*eut the cumminion 
fium making t^c miiiule enquiry of which Ihe Chamber haa beard the 
rrsnlte, bat your commisiiaa, tince they have by Ikeiruien reaearehe* been 
led 10 Ihe opiniiin* profewM-il liy Ibe Aeidejnj nf Scieueet, and the Judg- 
lucnEi of fixy-LuKanr, of H^rihier, of Cbevrenil. of Domo*. uf Bruyew, 
duire to avail them*clvea of a ctrcnnislaoce which prove* Ibey bave no* 
erred. 

CoKCi.e>ion. 

To rc«ume ; 

M. Vieat tea* tho first lo denooslrate tbal tbc propertiM of i 

hydraulic limea depend on efiiy distributed ihrnughai)! tbair snbataaee, thaf 
i*. on a particular action which *ilei uulted wiili alumina eiorciio* on 
lime nbsn Ibeae Bubslaucea are broughl by heat to a popor stale. 

M. Viul has been Uie lint lo make hydraulic Imr uf all kind*, not oaly 
in smalt quaniilics in the laboratory, but in InrKc ijuiLiitici fi^ the (onada- 
tion* of bis bndg'T of 3[>uiIUc. The piers of Uii* anble bridge real on a 
fonnilahoo of eiiuereie formed tvilh arliScial hydraulic lime. Sine* the 
labour* of M. ^'icat, mean* bave been found of^ procunng, whenever itj 
occessnry, lime, Mbich readily »et* in water. 

I'^l. Vical has liberally giieu bi> diieavery to tbc publio. It i* cer 
Uialifliu bad secured tiy a paiciii liic pririlege of makiuj; llto arliilcial by 
diaulic lime. tbinciigiuRrr nmilil have acquirnl au imucntc furlnno. 

The ficut (litctiYery uf M. Vicat boa fadtd, if Iho (ipruision may b« fit' 
miti»d, beside the important rvtulu deduced from ll. Vr* bave aeaB tbli 
inde(ati)(able engine<Tr imvoning France *tup by aiep, seekingbedaof eal> 
carcoua mar), clay fornatiotiii in whicli wetn united nniurally In proper 
pnipurii'UiiH, tho condiintire clement* of hydraulic limcn; wc have followtd 
biiu during twelve ycara in this acarch wiiich ba« iiecouic s»a«icce**AI 
tliBl tlicre ate now koovrn oo French ground by the ^oln lul>i>urs of 
\ icat 000 i|iiarricH cajiablc of furoishiog hydraulic lime*, while 
there were rcckooed only •ightor tea. M. Vieat ha* so well appr 
Ibu honour iif having disooeortd and placed in the hands of cuortmc 
*uch araltb hidden lu Ibe bovrals of the earth, or been I^ecled at lb 
ftice, Hint in order lo complnle this work be has momMBtied ibo adi 
men! lo ivhicli his siandlag and mtili girc him ohinu flBMOtMlad 
iucouicMiblc.* 

1 be work* ofTil, Vical on jmsefanai have been e^ioally decisive. 
have proved Ihat the parent elny* aflord nrlibcial panutanas auperiur, 
al Irait dinal lo llio Italian; .ind as oaluro hu djtinbuled clay 
kind cf profusion oji ilia surface of Ibe Klobe, nolbing preventa us at I 
present day from easily ublaiuiu): excellent poExolatia in every regioa. 

France, whicli before ibc liuK of M. \)cat, was Itibulaiy to P — 
for ItumancvRieot, could now»up[)ly Ihe wiiula of Ibe whole of Ei 

The general Byalcin of f<>undalicnB,byu**ji* of eanceeie, dale* 



■i-».tii>e i 



litbl 



froa ' 



• U. Vlrit, ■ppnlntf-l dhlnlenkry Inapeelor und*T HI. Dufwifv, bu m|>iM(R] to r 
rliAhunnk gfcoilncei lo cMel 10 tnattnu* Uie InmtlgaUea nUcL lie Ml •» fcC ' 



comnimceil. 



I84Q.J 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



n 



ApravwiM trhkh (*• bnvp noalrMd, uid purtioolutr from Ui« Bdninbl* 
works of lh«tiriil|[eof ^mllBr. raEinccri. to thtlrhontnir, ncvrr rvfuw 
Ma»fpi a lance ihftrt lo M. Vi'^lof iLr tucccH wbich thcj obUin, crra 
i>k«B circttiiiaiaiKca iicriuii iliciu tu likio rKoureo escloilvely to n«tuml 
hydraulic lima, attJ ii*Iur*I |iotxolAD«j>. Tbn*, for «x«m(ilr, un the ttec»- 
SCO of Ui« antircif kuceruf^t eomplMJon af U« utr buin for r*{iamns 
v««wU Bl Toulon, fouiH^d 49 Itti aho** the hvsl a1 lh« sm, Ih* abl« 
dincioi of ibeM works, M. N'oi*l, nrole on lli« X4ih of April lut In lb* 
lf«d«r Secreur; tulfae Dcpsrtiuiial of Public Woitt; "AlatlBenbcn 
thclaw KSpecUnEM. YicstbabcNii Lo Indiicoued, It will not tw super- 
Aaim* to brioc lo joir kotfwItdK* « fsoi whicli ii\*e» » iww importnnc* (o 
tk4 UtMart of t^« iilaitriou* eogioeer who hai donaiomuch for tiM ail- 
VUMHMDI of our art." 

Thauks to iliH litioriatia and iiatlent raMtrvfaes of M, VIcat. worlt 
uace tlMn>r>) mpauiiie, urn «x«cuU<l at lli« pKMnl day aafeljr In eyvrj 
partuf Ui« kiasJom, auj wiiLoui T«i]airi&R enortaous ciiicnspe. 

Wc will not repeal lli« camericut cuuipuUtiuus uliciul)' Ki<":u re»i)ei:tiDg 
lb« ettMoKy elTircled la publii; w^>il(> bj M. VicalV lafcDtion. Tlii>8« 

Msputatioiw •hould be n.'Uiue(l in tttrf Blind, It would, io fact, b« dif- 
fealt la cita a diNCovetj mIiIoU, la llie akart iulcrral ef ta y*tn., baa fini- 
doeed ■acb culixual ud tMclul mulla. 

Tlw Caniniwlon are uaaaicnoualy of oplulon, Ibal in voliQe, wilbuut 
toaw nodtlicBlioB, llie Ian whidi baa be«a iitopoacd bjr (lie Miubtcr of 
Pablie U'orki ifae jiulic« rcuilvrad to M. Vioit nifuM Ml bo complete. 
TImj WMtld dvkirc ikui ilic pMuiao of 6,000 fmaai should l>e aooorded 
aoce «xplioiliy oadtr ih« litla of a Sationat liixoiujtaue. Thii U the only 
ckaniic i>f which llic (iuveriiaMl prapMitluii apjieara to ua Kitic«|itili1e. 
Wa trait tfant Uie Chaacetlur, aduiilin; uur v;)inii)ui irs[ii>cijae tliv- nerviL-ci 
rcvderrdlo ihr couotr; by M. Viciil, will asicni tii lliir anicnitmi^iil nhicli 
w« ba*e Ibe hvooar of aiiSK^)t>°li> *"'l "bich Iiu ulrciidj- rccciicd the 
ol lli« Miaiiter of I'tlUic Worhii. 



1^ 8t*- 



ATMOSPHEBIC TBACTION. 
8»-^iaec lh« atip«araDC« oTHr. Hajrdun'* paper in your Nornnbcr 
ftit,] lu>Fbe«a iscllned lo payaan* atlenlioc to Ui<! atmoipberio aja- 
1^, The fatonnble rfwifla acluallv obtained after to few aUeaipta Ird 
B* lo n pMt aoma arror iu tli« Dumericut namplc appaodad to Ibc fere- 
naatiuand paper, Mpeclally wbao tbf^ boiitb of Hip formoEa and the diOi- 
ealty of asbiiitutjon w«r« tak«n into account I mads fcvera] aitempli 
with Ihr funaul* b» it now tianda, but ia e*«ry cad« arriTcd at diOtrcnl 
nsulta, and each of tbeiu ftt variaac* *>ith that deduced from the wori 
itaaa eacb ttr«he. Oaa aourcv of error cccdi to haia arlaen from lakiuu 

lOOtDOO fi 

B.«0,iBal«adoriUexaet*alu«-i^;^y^^rurirB -j wc get a- III or 

n.Baarlj aceardioc as tlie former or tatur Isuied. I wat aurprited at th« 
dlicniic« In Iba raaMlta. but ii tcachi.-* ut how carvfti] we otigtit lo b« to 
foatlK afprmrtNuHoMi in nr mull*. In my applicalino lo tbe etaiaple 
at Dalkay, I (ball a>ippo»« the whole length uf the conntcling pipo (u b« 
■atd for propettiag ihc trata, aa local circumaiauoca comptlled iheiu ia 
Ibal Inataaoe, lo place the eugiue at aa incoarenlent aad exirara^nt dl»- 
laace froo) tha naia lubc. 
Let w, dcMio iha work dona during the alh itroLo of the air pump. 

Vi'n daaota tha work dona ai the end of the ntli itrokc. 

V' deBOl« tha nark dooG duriug the mation of ibo tcaio, their bar- 
ing beo n atrokc* of the nir puiop bcforv Ihp iraio i(artt>d. 

V, Ibo nacful rffi^ct euDmnaicated to tha tuba piiloa, 
Tbeo il b fuuud by Ur. llajdoo, Uiat 

», .IS. & B"-*{l-^^I W.H*^ '»«»-^} 
B + C 



Wh«re Ri 



r,aadA+B + C«S 



' AtUrC 

B + C A, S-A 



•u. 



k 



•Oh Oe fmfft mbiUlatloaa bare been nuulc. 



(A) 
(B) 






The corretittiaaa ofllH unplificatioa tnay be U«tad in tha following aian- 
oct: W, — W^—1= work dose at tha ntb alroko— thai doaa at Uictwlot 

-p^{l-B" + R"aloz^R-Cl-B''-* + ;^It"-^og,E)} 

=^*{b"-» -8% (_.(«"-'-R^ .H-' )k.S. b} 
-WatH— '{t+(i^— )io,.h} 

•lJflfcB"~' 1 1+ ('--"• V"!,^} »Wj^-"ork donnduriai Oie- 
Nlkstrake. Lot a bare aacltB value tbalB,i-iMUieii)i=8T oaarly, 

-\^{ »— (l-OWBia)] -Sa*^(>00IJ877l} 

-'TW8 "90135771 lb. raised ooo fool. 
Where S^vol. of ibe Inbi^ and nir-pump cyltndar Bipreawil in faal. 
W„ =720 « Itll)T»-74 1 -SOiSl JTl -a,9n,14!. 

W<=10x ir«^ '8S98- IS,t74,WiO. 
W.t tW,,-lS,2r4.!«e-woikdonf. 

W a 1 6.174.1»a - ntttal «Seot of work done. 

Subtractlne, AT,t)Tl>1uM. 
Henca tha loM ia about -^ of tha power given out by the cflgine. 
Lat B-HC=VMvel. of lube lobe axbauatadi ci- rot, of ait-pomp cylin- 
der; S = V-«-c. 

_,5.h^(l_H%B"(0f,B"} 

-.*IM<V*t3 fl-B" + E''hiB,R} 
WKere V and v are eipmscd io csbicol feel, 

w „=ji(m r" V log, *- - -Jieo a* v log, a"* 

W-SIMTd-R") 

«', + H"«=ai«o(i-B''+ai(»t (i-R''+R*i»«,"'') 

.-. Low-8lMKa ||-R" + b"1oj,R'*| 

For(ha]oailBtlieI>4lkoy liaa w« have -SlOOx 134 69 » } (-SOtSSnOx 
7>0 » 1U41 K •9013«77l-87,3a7 lb. raiaed on« foot bigb. 

This agrees very nearly widi tbe former rMiilti and (berefort wo n»f 
Buppiisa thai tlie necesiary luu Ih corrtclly dtiteraiued. 
This we ace varicaaa the lolnisc of tbe air-pump. If W^beai 

O-b"-! Ior^R (I* (^|-«) lof, B)-B""' iog^ B.orO-^-..^ 

n= -"^TBoetrty. 

A 

B" B^ nearly, which aRrtci wilb Mr. Slepfacuon'a nperiini!nli. 

Il may bo obaerved that the above formulai au-e tnie, fur poalllTe inte- 
gral vaJnca of a. By eiamining the din^aioa whieh acconipAiiy the l(c* 
port to tbo Dlrrctura uf Ibe CbeaUr and Hotyheed Railway, it trill ~ 
fouad Lbal Ibc preaaurc of tbo uf in the pump b«G8ne eqnal lo Ih* | 
anrc of tbo atmosphira aooaer Ihaa **• ahouU bata azpeciMl from ihtory. 
This wonld no dooM b« aaaaad in aome nnaura by tbo heat developed 
duri4ix compreaiwo, bul before Iho alruhc cofomeaced, the pretaore In the 
pump cyiiudara Etucrall j e»M*dijd that in Ibe branch pipe— ao Ibat pro- 
bably moro air ruaiied intg Uio pump caoh lijua lUaa waa auncivot to lo- 



«8 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURXAL. 



"^ 



[Fbbrvabt, 



■toretbccqulllbrhimwiih ibeuals isbo ud iMKIrntbeUgcatoirbr the 
^tirt. It «u «ipalled bjr the pUtm. 
1 fcioua, 

Vonr obrdieni Mrroat, 

P. B*fHroBTii. 
at, JahiUCMtgt.CimlriJri, Jo: li.lHt. 

{Tl nay be U <"*ll lu iururm tiM teadrr nlio U tiut «ri|UiLitil«i] with ma- 
touiiie*, th&t the Ol^tn «( Mr. Ituhfonh la ta\ lo oaulroveil lbs priaci' 
tl of Mr. llAyiJod'* paper, but lo rlTacI ■ilnplificaiioiiB bjr friilob lb* 
dlllMeltnltMniJiaUlioiiiinre trratly faciliuinl. We nrr, ne bciirvr, in- 
'dsbtwl to thne geBtlempn Torihr ualy ace urate mUlienuticiU inrrftigaikiitt 
«f a r«i7 iBforUbl ><)t(|«ct, hitherto publiabed.J— Bv. 



REVICWS. 



tttte M tlu Sttm B<ig"*- Ry Hie Artinn C3iib. Ten XVIII. 
Dec. 1, IMS 1 Lanemu, 4lo. pp. 16. 

TIiw wwk wtidi h«» *«t»«il linwt* b**ii th« (object «f««irK«lcw>b 

'noi* dravlti); lo ■ c)o«e. Of the tncctj-fotir laoiilMy paita in irhicb it Is 

to b« oonplciol, ihrti!-fuiictlii arr aow poblubed. It cannal beilMiiMl 

tbal a isM nus of itirannaiion i« collecWd la lliia work, Iboagh mhw por- 

Ijootnighl bav(> br«o nmilUd wilhoui bans. Of (be DMlbtanaliaU h>- 

InkUgattoni, part* urrol »itry d<iubiruld««arlptioii,CKl Ibm U ogt OHoh 

I Ihis tb«orBtical porlion of the work wklcb p<mmmm oriclnality. WMb 

•tpect to the praciicBJ «iew«. howerer. the oauic it irtj difftfrnt, Tbe 

kwrilera bare a ua; of lookhii riftbt at practical qaeationa whith it rt^tUj 

vniteil to the nature at (be lubjects; to thai «ieo wbto we ditpaic (kcir 

vieoa wc arc conpcllcd to ciDfet-* thul ihcy >rc fiurly t>ct before aa. 

Tlie present auinber La iltualratctl bj a large plnlr of 'Irliuli ot tbe West 

(llidia Blail Packcb Clyde. Tvtred. Tatr, aiid Trvini, eihibittni; ia a ver; 

car Haulier the forme of tbn cyluidcr a>idalKt««, the nieiHlllc (McLid^, jce. 

|Tbo nost ioleeealiag aubjeea treatod ot iu ibo letter pt*M » a tomfMrimw of 

imcrltaof tbc pntmi^KMm* o( dintt -letin ngiv* ^hltii mnilii'ded, 

Blalic clawee. 1. Tlie Corcon; i. the double cjlindcr; S. ibc ulcrplei 

I. (be ilaablc cfoia-bcwl ; S. (be oeciUaUat. We itill giic part of the ob- 

Mn'Stiuoi nade od each clau. 

I . Tht G«rx*a EMgiit** (thoee nbicb ban tha coaaectin^c rod between 
tbe plsloa rod and the crank). '*Tke objrciinn* to tbe Cofgoa plan of 
engine are aenieniut and w«ichty. la tbe linil place. odIj a eery ahott 
uke leaitatasble by Hiia plao itf roftinn; and althoaitb w« are not of (be 
■tunbcr vf tb«M who tnbKrihr to the ductrine, thai ospnoRiuu cau onljr 
I ptvdactive of lit prop«r elEcaejr ia a loDg eylicdcfi ;«t wf bdlcve that 
fH eB(iae of a itioJcr«tR *ltvke will work BKire KtoiuJil) *inl tmuolhl} tliMi 
when ihe ttrokn it sbon xid (ha rwiprocation rapid. Thivo », moreorcr, 
a great walte ofttvaoi at IhrraidsflrthecyllnihT wb?D Ihp atroke is thort; 
ud allhougb (he aniniint of tblt Ic4a cennnt be Rreat, yel it te luu great Iu 
< altoyeCttGr rtltreEardcrl. Wc da not attach tlie ImparUoce allribuitd b* 
Daie la llid (IriniijtiuK Influrucc ot a bliort couDCCdat'-rud upou tlie nliilc 
valve. Uul wi attach u gvitd ttral of irapurtAiiciii to llic iacreiueJ friction 
M>iiic<t»Fiil tipon thr lltrunl, whvn Ihr aujil* tha cuoiieirliDg-riKl innke* it 
f!Triil,~Dot on accotitit of tbe power ah«'>rbe(l, but itn ■ccoutil of tbe dtSl- 
cuily of ki-#pinit l!i» bearing* friitn heatlne. To titii abjrdioa it i* oo 
amurr ta »ay, Ihal Ilt« frielioii of a dlrtct-actiuii eoftioe U a* liille tir IrM 
thaii ibai <>f a beam rngiuc 1 (be tice Ueius, thai ibc frirliun i* tint faidj 
dietribiiicd, bm w> cunceDtraicd at particular poiiita as to be proiluctiic of 
injurf in eogioei of lht< coiDnitm proporlioo*. 

"Ther* bi, hoivettT, a far more lertom def«clof Ike Gorgon variol; «f 
DDgtnr than tiny vto bare yet nienliunt-it. It iavulvei tlie me of a Inrp 
[litddle-wliPrL by Ibc eioviiliua of Ihu aiiirt, ri'liiterpd necniiary to aObed 
nHini for tlir timko ; nnd (be Inrijenriu of tlie wber I civi^ too grrat a va- 
lloclty to ihr flciat board*, by wlilrb tncnnin corsidcrobtr prnportlou of the 
■CDKiae power ii dlMlpatcd. Tbcro le notbing better known, tboa that in 
all caicr* where Ihere U a great dieparily b,:twi:e(i (lie «prrd of tha nitoet 
and the iipi'cd nf the ihip,a larce amnutil <^f Ilif fdvier i« nmied in ihrnw- 
ieg tbe wuicr back from Ihe whml, instead of lieluK rmplojed In CoK\ttg 
lh« rruri fiirnardt ; and id the Gor|too plan of eoKme, aa applied la or- 
dinary MO-EoiDg iirnrDrr*, a Berioiie luaa fToio Ibia eourDe lauit be per- 
peluall; Koiaic oo, or elae ihe «B(iao mtiat be workioK under its proiKr 
epocd >»d power. Tbcec objecliuna apply la all abort coeuccting-rvd 
•nflna*, of whiub Ihe tlrvke ti araall ami Ibe altaft high ; nnd in our eye*, 
~ ejr carry auflicient weight to Jualif^ tbe condcmoutloaof tliia tpecie* of 
'^'Cnipne iti Iota." 

Sofcral rarietiet of tiDr|;oii ongiaea are Iben brongbl seder reriew.^ 
UoK by BowtloB aad Watt in Uie "Ccbtaur,' by Miller aad Ravenhtll la 
the " r^lalr," by Falrbaito aad Co. Iu the " Odia," &c. The lint Introduc. 
tinn of lh« Gorgon cIbm i> attributed to Mrsert. Seawanl, aod the aatae 
defeei u alle([»d agaloat tttrj one of the oofseroaa eariatie^— that of 
bariagUieibaJllvohiih, TbctieilcIaMce treated of an 



3, rv Sferpfe £ii<I«r. "which i* lU (aveotlon of Mr. Da.iJ Nar(ai« 
baa the omtIi ofbetDg very compact and elleetna], aad ia Ibacaee of river 
rc«Mil», ofTert advantage* which hare l»d to ita eateuded adoplian. Tin 
pnHrualon uf a larEe porlion of machinery abore Ihe dcrk li, huwever, 
nucb objected loin tbe ca*« of leaKoiiiit vcHcla. and Mrkirs. Tod aad 
llac{[reKor now gin the prefer«uoe lo the double ornia head caxlae* !■ 
lueh cue*. It ie a fault, we roncoive, to B>al» the nlr.punp with the aaaia 
urokeaeihe cylinder, nhera Ihe alr-puiDp bucket niurea with a great 
fckicity. the valtn xrike no forrllily &i lo wear ibcnuolreR oul vei^ wob. 
The injarj mitbl. however, br niltt|i«icd by the uae uf the Corniah eqaU 
librium nalre, birib for ihc delivery rulve aad tbo air*piiinp bucket." 

S. Tftu Double CyliniUr Engintt, ^'Oflbiiplia of cnsioewe ranootap* 
prore, aad we thtnl: MeMrt. Maadalay would net wiaely by Rivini: It tip 
in Itevourof aome leu freeariniii arraacenavai, Tbe ttiameee plan InralTW 
an tncrcaM-d teakewSi Incrvaaed friaUw, and ItKreuawl radiaiJDa, wM|« 
lliD KtdDd purpoM of direct aciiun— eatinf of room— la luily iBpnrfpelly 
fuldlkd. Should either of the pialon* Irak »team. nHirtarcr. or either of 
the *tiilI1ng boiei leak air, a twist nintt bcKltuulo l\m parb of the ailKlaa^ 
aucb aa w«uld ariae if there were mure pr*«tiiirv op'iu one half of a pfalN 
Ihfln on the other. Much a ilrain cknooL, in <»ir ju't^nienl, fail to be eooow 
or lalpf iojurloiia. The arraocemenl alan involrea the nie of a law aeo- 
druacr whiob ibe air>pump caanot iboenuclily druin, and the piidilaf of 
iho vcatd, by caaaiaE tbe water to ran frum oon end <if ibveandetMr 
lo the oilier, M>nl«liin«B ca«»ea Ibe air^trunp to make an inelTeclBal atroks 
while at dlber timet Ihe air.pn.ap liclivliod with water, w hick H Can MljT 
Wllh dilScalty deliver, and freclorea occur ia ooosequeiKe." 

A looji deecriplloQ la tlico given of Uie cngina of ibe EUvn Mac (iregor. 
A very decided prefcroace iagivui lo Ihe funrih nnd ffih cUftes above all 
the rest, and na Ihe trralmriit uf tb« <|iie,ilwo involvca pointt lonK ditpalod 
auioDg eagioeera, wc will at tbe ritk of jBabiog a mtbar long e«traol| glTC 
tbe dcciaioQ wiib ao«ae few omtaatnna, 

4, Tikr OraUr rni«(.bMd E^nrt. "Tbe nalure rf thn ■rrangnannl !■ 
the Ouuble cniai-kpad enftce wilt be made tnauifcst by a rrfrreaoe l« d*« 
rufciaea of Menarv. tlury ar Mean. Fawortl. Frutn the top of the pbloaa 
rud ■ croaa-htad and alde-roda proceed ua in aidelevor rnsiMt ', and fniB 
tbe lower euda of tbcae aide rode olbcr aide-nxla ascend to a croet.Ji«ad, 
aiti'oted above Ibe otl<rr ctutH-bvad, and whiob, by ra';ana of a sknet tria, 
communiCBlet with Thf crank. By Ihii eipedleiit, Ibc biMicdt ofa loac 
cunneeling-rod ia (Hiand wilhoni Ibe dt sad van Use* inridrnlal la Ibe plaM 
already iMatlan«d. Tbere la only one air.pump in M.^cra. Hury'a eogioa) 
but it ia tlenUa-acting, eu that, in elfrci, it ■■ vijual to two. A contnMa 
(ibjrctioD (o this deacri^itiun of iiump b, that lJi« air aecumultiea uuder> 
beulh (he piatooi bul ■( will be rcmoiknl, that a (iruviaiou ia oiaiie tn 
connternd Ihialendencj, the bulk of the air-pump pialDo beiogniade to 
travel |iitt ibe port, ao aa lo etpel nir a* nrll nt waler. U'e may |wr« 
renaerk. (bat It appears expedient io Ihli engine l.i avoid Injeelieg frofd 
thcbilso iota tbe lower cuudeoeer. aa ciuil.<lu»t and other forei);u mattera 
nislil be drawn into (be aif'pump chamber, which would rMlai the deeccM 
ttf Ibe pi)(DD, and probably occaMUii fraciarc. 

"In MrMra. Fnw<«ii'i ttigiae there aro two alr-ptimpg, whkh ara 
wrcni)[ht by indrprndembHI eraakauff a crank in Ibe lotermedlaie ahalL 
The inferior croit- bend i> iDHde in tbe form of a croM, from the eadl of 
Which two roda pfitcerd lo a croos bar n-orkilig TcrlicaDy la ituideautieaela 
aide ofthe cyiiDdor, ih# etrfct of this iirmhernirnl ii lo briui; ilw vvatrw 
of Iho rods on rach aide uf the cylinder in the namn plane, ivh«r«by Ih* 
twin iochfea'al to au (irertiao|;>ins pin it 4miclr(l, Mea;r8. Fnwrctt have, 
wc undcrtliuid, since Ibii dcwgn waa mnde, wore neatly epproiiJUatal (a 
Meters. Durj'a airan^nioiil ; ami wc briinc their rUKiura are likalj lo 
b«««me a type wMcb lonuy will follow and in«oy more apprwre.*' 

5, OniUoliiie Engittt*. "The moalpbiutihieabjrclkiototheoeodlaliilg 
enniuc ihftt we ere aware of is, that the cyliadcr and aiuflluic-bui will 
Ipeedily become oval, oai acoaanl of i!ip i.i^iaure nrcc-Mary to coiiiiiiuoicata 
raulinn to Ibe eyiluder. The eiiiteoce of a lendmet of thi> kind L-aDrM 
be diapiiled ; but ii ts en tnall in um»uoi oa m be imperc.ptible in prae* 
lien; amjaltbftucb.aflera ]ii|i<e of w-nrii, illuii becnfuanil that oecUlaliBg 
cylmdcrt Iretsiue eliKhlly oral, jct the iiriKiiiiiiaf tlllpiicity Is, for tbemoel 

Eiiiit.actunlly Irae tban ia funnd to cii«t in ihn cyltuder of commoD akl^ 
cier cokIuvv. ufier the aanc amoun of wear. Tbn, Indeed, if the qBL_ 
lion he contirlvreJ Allentivdy, ia by no iiieant. nurprif iii|( ; fur (be «oiDnca 
pnrallel niutioii, if in Ihe lru|t degree oul of aJjiialimitit, will exerciae m 
moat severe preadore upnu Ibe rylinifre; whereae tbe aiamaiMBi preaaura 
that can tieeierled on the oneiduiine plan ii only (hat retuiBlts to over- 
came tbe rrictji>auf ihepiinla on whicli the cylinder OMillalea, of whtcb 
Ilie ainuunl ia inaiKaificaiil. Vpnn tbe smffinc-bvi, lnik<ed. tbe lendeacy to 
wear iiviil ma; be mora operatl>c, but, to cotinlcric'l lliia tendency, it ii 
niii'tifl nf uimanal depth, nnd a very itnlMiuiiliu) hr-itH hiiib i> Atleil inlo jta 
IniiTlor piirlic*. The |ii»ton rod, more^iver, U madr of tnst steel ; and, 
wltlichtae piecautiona. (wcillaI>ti|^eoi(lnea are fitunillo Morh,for a nonilMF 
of yeara, nilbuutincvnu'oience (rota Uie cauceaaientioued. 

" Many naolic^l men, and lome eHKlneetf. have ubjecled In oaelllutlag 
FOxloee uo nctauni of tha oiovrnieDlof iho cjlmder, which, (hey imagiaa, 
would brciMie a formidable evil in Ibe t^aae of a veaael roUins heavily al 
ace. Ttieee objector* do not iceoi to hare remarked (bat the rulling ot ibfl 
cylinder ia oeithcr dependent upoa, notf propoitiouatc to, ibe ruUiu^ ef t^a 
ship, but ii regalated eicluaively by the nvreueiit of the piaton ; tad w* 



I 



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Mifl.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



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1 T*.- 



mllr do Boi itt vhy a mus of waller, la Ike totm of > rjlindn-, ibMM be 
mtn fomljable or Utnrtabl* ia Da tnovaacnta Ibaa a Mmilaf quulilr o( 
tmXUr in ttw Fona of a aida kvar, ar ia any oikcr iiliap« vibatever. 

■*Il has alao baca ottlMtiil ajniaal Die oKillaiiag «i>c>o«, lliat the 
ti—tiwa paMa|;*» atv aiuTH lortuuiit thau to i«it)inoaaDC«Bva,9«Uial tbo 
fMun grta Mil ^ Ihp <}liDdif ]m« Trcclj. U> do d<>1 t)«lk<c tu<h Iv b« 
tliefact, ir the fomparUoa b«in44« nllfe tbe romrooa riia of niuna« eagii^k; 
'■■tl in praiiLct. 110 dlmiauilim of fOlcacy ArtMi iliU cauit U Hjiiireeivble. 
Till! fad i>, all itc ubjfxiluiH ili«l havaticeii raiKd Ui UieMcillaiiaceagiaM 
ant nirtclr ItTputbnlicali llicy aro iuiUci|ratioiu uF tlvfocC* la be faunil <mi 
in larga cas<<"* "a Uie oMtlUtiDg pi»n, auO wuulil pratMl>!)r bt pUiitibte 
WtNtgb U> carrj man* wvit^dl, wcib it not tlic fiict, (but they luTf^ bccu 
eampklalr cciDtrot-«nc<l by ciiwrMnM. Tlia remark, ijt<itt<S, i> hmnl 
MneUn««T«D yrt. lhalUi#i>tClllaiiuf laelbod ntHy (Iotvitwi^II fir inatl 
Biflaea, bui ii oriloulMfa) cnkoacj Rjr Ufxe ok*. Itni (be dt-DDilvin u/ 
Imi|* mgluea tiaa btva eoellnuall; cbaapd, icieaca]i«ditoaulradicituEi kx> 
P«iaiw« ■flc.nJc'i. umI ihat mm w* in vrvrj ea*«, daciJed to lia lar^c, 
whkL ' ' - U tUo tiae of Uivtweillnting eogloe laat cuaitriictrJ. It la 
jlaiL .^ibegrouadauf ttiii»<«pll<4iiaareb«ingraitcunTrmciciti 

uil, I. :. ., ■. UUak It r*i)i)lreaa liltl« vonlruTenial JBlrfpidii] (u art 
4awu eii/:wr%iiria-iiuiiejlitxivn, wlitok » tlie aiznuf Ihcaeuf lh«*> Rlark 
Eagle," ai anuog tba aanber of aiaiill enf;]uf9. Auil if «a«ln«i of Uiia 
aJaakra A>and lo opnalc «r\i — aoil tbuse of tbe *" Black f^at>c" bmo bcrn 
Arand l« pfrdK-ia tucat lalufaciorUr—it tralljr a|>pcar> Uj u» iiiipaiiibU Ui 
•ap^«« Ihat rogiiKt «f ( or 10 loclKt oiorc <yUDd«r woiilj not b< louocl 
carre^pobilingly tl^<^cti».'' 

H« poiab hvrs diocaueU ar« raauy of Ifaen of dial comjilKBltd aatarr, 
that tadcptadtei rvaMnlug will duI iuAW for ttic decifilon ol ibtnii Thw 
aUiaalB vcniiot mutl dcpcml on a niach moTcrxlcaJcdeipericiKe ttian uc 
M ptcavnt poateaa. Hmrctor, oolice* mcii ai Ibe aboiv, in wlikh tngiapi 
•f web kind an riamiocd toftthiir and Ibelr defects compared, hate Uia 
Itpldaal oSacI ia raoiLivLug (irrjuditc*. 

Wab'i Qamrierlf paftn wm Etginvtrhig, Tart IX, qyartu, p. p, M. 
13 tsgra*l(igB. Wealr, tlifb llultiura. 

Tba pr^uot I'art of Mr. M'v^k's »«ioa of nagtiiSMnlljr priatMl and 
OlMlraied rolaniM. is Ibat {m Michn«lm«a ISU. but ibc pablkailoa of it 
baa bWD aonioMably pvalpoutd to January ISM. attiag, aa It U ataud, 
to"dw aoiaguDenU ID Kallvay nutitort or twoof tha Boailanien contri- 
iMan.' Thant txt foar plp«r« in tb« pnaral nnaibcr ; of which Iba llr»t 
lOidUiinl may bo coaiiderMl (osetbcr, a* both are chief y of a biatorkal 
MhiR j the aublMia of tbetu bcjng fe>ti«cUrcly "ibePrugtriuof Madiia«ry 
■ad Mannfaclum ta tirrat Briuin, from tbo cariirat limM to Mumn 
EBaabrtb," and f*! niemoir of llie Ttanet Taonvl. KecUoa II., by 
Hanry Lai*." Tho firalof lli««a papcra gi*«* a hifloncftl accoanl of Ifao 
progfwaaof llir att), year by year, In EsiiUiid; tbe prioctpal auacUnrola 
•fccttngnanufaiitaitd aoil laicntinsi.Uic iinportatlaD of forcifin Impmir- 
■cala, Jcc. 8oai« of ibe doiIco* are very corioin and iDterMtin|.— Ia 111)1 
w« And Ilmry IV. ordalniag *■ that n^na henc«fortb ahnll nao to muliiply 
gold ur «ilt«r, ugr um tb< craft of ntltifUiativn quder tho paiu of Idony." 
Tbe p«{i«r clinci nilh an account of tho dispuici belwcrn Bliiabctb aud 
bar PaTlUu»cat,reapec1iQg Ibe rajal, tunilly-ctierliilted, prhitegaofiraotiuf 
painla for lunoopolies. 

Mr. Laia'a papor i« alM> iiilpreatioi;, an'J kIH I>« very aeccplubU to Uioaa 
*\a UttA the voJde urUactDc ibe Aiflwry uf Cngiucvrioi:. Tliis braacb of 
kaftwlrilx? it luucli neKlcoted ai llic present day ; wa awoi conlent with 
aaartaiuinj iba at'luil aUte of £apQt«rlBji> ami car* but litlle to koaur 
bvar and by i«buia Ibo adraoeanipst nf praciteal acionea liaa b«cn rlEi>cl«d. 
n* paprr oa the Tbane* Tnau«l aupptic^a a rcry Imporlafll point in Ui« 
aaaaJa of p)r<lianlc9. Il delaila in diaiiocl aoti forcible Uiigua);u (lio 
MBtularful skill liud patience by wbkli iLe dilticuliir-i atieotliou ibac ^al 
wofit were a*ercoo«, *a4 doarrvra lo b« rr«d willi llin {r««l««t ntlrnliod, 

Tbe •euond paper i* eolitled " Pra<litat amd Exjt(rim<titnl Htiattthtf i% 
IfyifranJio, by It. tf. I'eaoucke, E. C.;" l1i<! oSJi-ct propused la to ausgrat 
r>nn>ul« for calcuUlioc Ibe diacbarge of nalar frciiii plpM, inc. Th« ftrat 
iBtcUjjabua Mbich tbc mitbor mak**, toiiila to atmiv thai the cartr which 
*ater aaiuHe* when diM-hargnl traat a pipe i* out a parabola. It BD>y be 
I* will to tviaark, in limiiu, ikat the fom of (be earn: ia whick water 
•atnallf bile i» never tdkcD to U> exactly n parabola; becantc il i» 
aainral to nracludo that tf a proJ«Dlile la air do aot datoribe a parabola 
•ahkar will railing wal». Mr. I'eatocke, luggeat* a foraala Ibr calcn- 
httag lb« curre orfallia^ nalcr ia the foltowins Icnna ; 

"Tliabydrttutic curfceunatMsof onlmatea of a panbda plna, (s9iDe> 
ton ninus) a oertaia waalaiH qaantlty which ipcraa a ea ■rMbnatieaUy 

I tbe currvapoadlug abaciaata ioe*<aaae.*' p< t. 

Il ia not icry eajj to ae« bonr K*'crnain conitaitt quantitj" can iacrext* 
icallj; aadweCtidoat aHerwarils lliat ihiaquaality la no /nf for 



at all, bnl aomeihiofc to be aitnply added lo, iMt malllplked bjTt tbe Ie«c1b 
oftheardlnato. IVe spprehond .Ur. Peaeorke'* Beanlnf to be— Ibit hlB 
curre la found by adding to, or anbatractin^ from, Iba ordieatf* of a 
parabola, quaaiitiea proponlooal lo Ike curiT*|ioailiug abwlaeas. For 
inilBOce.in hla &rat f ipcnncnl h« anbilrncU from racb ordinate thcdecttnal 
part .OT of neb cormpondinif atNtcinaa, in the ereond eipertnttnl h« 
aiibslraeia 'OQoreacli ahici»». tta. Butane ^al defect wblch leena 
fatal lo hia fatnraU ia, Ibat it Icavea i{Dile tindelcttniocd trW proportiona 
of Ike abaeltMi are Ui be auhttrai'ied. Tbeio declaial parta .Of, .H, be, 
ore wkully einplriral, and only aollable for ilio ptrtliuUr catea to whlvb 
(hey are mpeetirely apptl«d. He, blmsell aays, of his " faelora," as tbey 

are lermrd llirvajlioul, 

"In P.iperiFDcnl 1, Tbe fact«ir ia— .07. 

.. a. I>illo -M 

,1 S. I>i>lo — .anungtei]t)aitl)(ri>ota*c«r1ain«4 

„ 4. Ihlto *M 

„ 3. Uitio 

Da couDpntumi of those faction, and coniidvrali->nof (bcn> with r«fereaee 
to Ilia leuRibaatvl dianetert of the tutu^ and Ibe ainoniKa of " bead''— it 
ia not a6arrraAI( tkol ike/acUTi fMaie any itji»itt Iuif ,- tboaigb It la 
prubablfllbai a Krealer ouiubiT of fipcrnneala wuutd bars proved ihs oi* 
iMaaaaofadtdaile law. lint the farther proeecniloa of Ibe na^ect ia 
tbal waj,ibo«cb il would kuTc been InlereiUOiKi w«a twt ftcoeaMry ti> my 
proaeal purpoae," 

SoUiat wa really cmhmI tea in what way we are ilie wiiee ftir hia es- 
iwriaenta. In iwn oM of dfe ot tkeia be doea not delt-mlne any ** faolor" 
wbalever, and ia (be r«iMlnln)c three tbe facrlors apply oiily to tbe perlicnlar 
caaea aad laggeal no (-coefal law. 

It ta lapuriaDt to rvnark that Mr. Peacocko nercly o^Meevcd tbe fonm.-] 
of tlie currc near tbe oelOco. Mia eipcritncati fur tlui deteriainaliou 
tliH ciir>e do not exiead to a fall oT four feet Iwluw Ibe dlacbnri* pipe. 
Now It il eery pouible tke prapoeed formulae niaj repre«enl a curve, »• ^ 
•emliling thai of falling water ueat ita aourcr, bol widely direrftiagfroa 
alagrealdiatanc* faooa tbeaourcei for wilk abvrl leaglba of lb* cnrae 
orrorv wuttld aot bo caaUy dcteclcd. Il may readily be coacclred tkat bn 
Mr. PeMtocke'a ayatetn af " Cactora" (<lat«raiiiMd, It it h> be ul)ierie<l» ' 
wparalely foe eaeb eaw,) ha may get a formula which colooidea "Kb Ihe 
retult* of hia oxpetintenla aa far aa tbey exir-nd, t>iit ant wach farther ;— 
and we mnai be ascuatd for addiait ibal il b Uao poealUt to coaceire tbe 
nciatenceofafarnoln of entirely dj Sere nt abape, and InTnUing altaKctber 
dilTerenl fnaciioaa, which would rvprewol tke f^ino of ik« curve both naar^ 
and at n dlataata froa tka origin. 

Tbe experineata are followed by an esaiaiaalioo of forogala, prop 
by Mr.Smeaioa. M. fnvy.Ur. Young. CkeraliarUubout, U. tiytelwe 
\c. for Ibe diaobaiie of water. Tlic futkiwiBK eonclaaioua are ultuulelyi 
«adc. 

"1)11. How nearly tkecipertBieDU are i iBean of the two citreuie foruiulv, 
aanely. ikuae uf U. ]^iclwciu and "hi. Gvuieya. 

Sod. Iluw nearly the expeiiinenia are a nienn uf ihe two acit fenonte, 
aamely, lIiuHe uf kir. Smenion nnd Oicvalkr Dubuat. 

InL How tery acarly Ike eip«riini'aia are a menu of tb« two mMt as* 
eufitle fiirmtilie, saaiely, tbuae of Jl. Fruu} aod l>r. Vi>iiu|;. 

1 think ao acieotiGc man w ill, after aaiidfyinghtnitetfihiki ru; eatealili»nt 
are oorreeily made from .M. F.ylt;[weiii'i aud M. tivaieya' dif«clioi)i, make 
uae of either of tlieui i^enllonien'a fi)riiit]1;r.'' 

Haeidg lome curliuity la know on wliat da>a IIib condeninalioo of 
Eylelwtio'* furniolnr, which bm tMntiit'rable r^utAlian, wna fouBiled, wa 
tv<ni:d(oMr. foiKocke** vitnilnnliun uf that partkular futuulM, and 
found ibat be had by hiaonaahowing. t*kea the value uf one aynbol at 
one-fourth of that inletided by Ejtelwein. He aaya Ibnt Br. Yonag 
uudvniUDd« tbe Bjnibi:>! d in tke furmulw " to ilgiiify Uic dlaneter, (uf th* . 
dixcharKe pipe) while I undcrttaud it lo mraa thr bj J'aullc mean deplk,j 
or eiM'/vurfA of ibe diatnelet of the pipe," and tlien adda ia a note tkat be 
find) oa refer«ae« to Ibe original wt^k ia CemaD^ iknt Dr. Young ia 
right, tiut iLat ke biauclf naa taiaJed b] ibc LucjdopK^ii:! BritauuicA. 

*' [ kavi:,>i(igo tliu raiB) waa In type, rcfctredjio M- E) lel wuiu'a uritiMl 
WurkinGetniaai and ba<« found tbaldaijailir* /Ac ifMmeJer, cuUKV^eotif 
ibe writer in Ibe klncyclupcdia Briiaonica hue (uuioteutioually of cuurae) 
mli-aUted M. Eytclwciu'a ferniuU." 

Tk(- paper certainly e*incea Krtat kbonr, but aucb an erroe aa tbe ak«ee 
ia rulker n eoriuus one ; and tke writer mutt not be »«rptiacd lo ftad tkat 
la a aubjeel which hni baSlad t^ ■agadly of tbe ncuteat phltaiopliae*, the 
propoiitlon of new empirical fiaroiulw will be regarded with diatrait,BahM.^ 
Ihey be anpported by a wcltkt of tcstluaoy Ear eaceediug aaf 
eollected. 

The Uat paper ia a rcpan of tke lailitale ofPraace, on M> Jkraoletl'a 
ayatcnof Auikoepkeric Railway. Thia paper ia Iraoslalcd and ptrparad 



«> 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[FxbruakI 



tbrpnblteaUoiibjrMf.B. Uallat,AB. CE., «rbe proisM u iaUmliicilMt 
«3(pl«ifitag " the >ici*i and object*" <r*bicb iofluraocd him in psbliiUii|; 
thp report ia PnglUti. After uaiKniug variuus reuoii*, he briojtt tarynri 
Ike fotloirlDf; la a pcntKraph by iiself. 

"My prioeip*) induconrnt, k«wcrtr, hai bc«n lo iMk« rMdtljr KTail- 
nble lo lli« Kogliib eegioMt lh« maUKmnlical uaUv of M. Lam^, appBodvil 
lu Uie lef'orl uf the cotiiiiiiMJvii." 

Now wbca we find, u we prvnently aluU, ihai llirw " matheuUiMl 
-aotca" «re not only iDcarreel, bill lliul tliofe U sc^rcvly cue liae Tree from 

^grau cfTora, wo can scarvely be eijiMtod to fUv grcal rredil lo Mr. Multvl, 
far Itia Judgraenl in trivcllon. It I* iie«Mury In f.t«l« that M. Lain<>'* 
iaml^atioa* exclude the «u|>|iu*ilioD «f Italocc in tlie mata pipe ; the 
rtftaaa, Slated ia the body of ttit npnrtiit ikal "as ihia defect of the 

hi«piMratua aud tit lasa of pow«>r ubich ft occufilonB barn not i«t bcva 
nffioJMilly eoniideml, no aliall naglecl it la ooaiparing the tiro ay tiema." 
We take tba S»t doieQlia««ofUie''aotct"aa a tampk ef ibsir i^eaeral 
cliancler. The object ia tn calculate Iho power rr>|tiircd la tliQ^rcMguMry 
rxluiaition of a lube of Ibe leaglh A and secUoo S, from a deuilj U to a 
deoiity n. 

'* Wo will B*Btiiiic tbe tabe to ban a ftwd boilom, taVra for tlir oriftis 
of *, and tbai it it ctoied lowuds ila aHio- cod by a aiuTcable pirton, t', 
boToad whicb tb* lube ia iodeliailalf prolongji'd. 

Wa natlilf perceive tbal Iho power aoaghl la «<|ual to that which will be 
nquirvd to draw out tli« iiikton P, placed origiually at a didauM j- 

s^^tnm tha flxod boitoai to ili« dbUnoa A. H being the de nailr of tha 

«ir conlaiued ia Ibe (obe of Ibe kogth .^Id P belbeclaalic force of Ibie 

ait fur ajiy IcoKtb, ' i we iben liaio 

A 1 
p= or H ^f =H 



A fl 



-ud tbe power aoui^bl will bo gltea by tbe deGoil* iolegraL 

"u 

1b tbia calculalioa we fir*l of an obMTTe llial the allerQatioR aclioa of 
the air-puoipa, and the laflucacc of tbe eilcroal taItcs (tbono tlir«n|;h 
which the nir t* eipelled from ibe pump) are totally neglected. Bui die 
whole amoaat of error i> Dot perceived Lli we come lo tee to what tine this 
foemula (1) la applied- The enncloiiion from it \t. lliiia eiprei»ed,alp. 11. 
"" Uei>oe ire cooclodc that la tbe EnK'i'h eyelenii tlic available power ox- 
-peaded, bowerer the cegiao n-nrli, in eiactly ci|tial lo the work doae." 

N'ow (he full far«e of the reaioning aiaouota to tblt — the paaaagaqacted 
aboTCi aud conuotiadBg " we readily p<neii« ibal the power touKbl U, fco.*' 
aoiiiinci ihat tbe /owrr txptnde4 may \tp mcoaaml bj Ibc lae^ tffixtpro- 
dtitrtl: liavlDK rnado iIikaMiimptinii, .V. I.am^ gtU a forinula from il, 
■which lie eoodadcii Ibat Ihr pamtr t^jmdfd la equal to the lu^t f^tet 
prtudutcd, that i> — he atauinc) a propoiitioa in older lo pro<e (ho Ixulh 
of II. 

The mnthematioal reader will bavc no difficoltjt ia leeinE (bat tbia logic 

ia H« bad an example ufreaaooiag in a circle at can powibly be fuund. 

Bui we want, If jiouiLle, to canviDce the iniiiiftlheniatlcal reader — for it ii 

-be who i» mott likely tn bo injured by en-ore to groaa aa thia appearing id 

« work like ibo " Uuarlcrly paper*." M. Lnm^ totnll; oTerloaha the lae« 

wisiag from tba cmptoymeat of an elaatio agent for coaunuuicutine power. 

Tfcia tiaple oouliliratlon, aa weeaid tut nionlh, will ahew that ilte power 

•xpanded cacaot bo malhemntically F<iual lo tba pfTnct produced — tbe 

-klteraating action of tbe pump.pitloD allerualcly diliitca aud cnadeneea 

tbe air in tbe pump — dllatca it wliilo draiaicg it from the mala 

lube — cuodeuara it while eipelliag it into the esleruBl air. V.aa- 

aequiDtly all ilio comjiotieBt parllclei of ilie air In the pump are fr^t 

-draitu furiber uplift, and (ccondl J are broii^t closer toplher^ than Ihoy 

, ore in Ibeir natural atate. Now lo luppoto Ibat no force ia nspcDded id 

tbua coaliuuully altering tlie coaalltacnt arrangeiaeDl of tbe poniclea of air 

iarquiTntcat lu aaacriliig UiatlhecliaDge takea place apoutaueouMy, that 

(be inoleculra con nrihcroaeUca approach and recede fromeacli other— Ihat 

it, thul Lbuy haie a kind of titalit; in them, an laberfnt power of moring 

Ibeniaelicii, 

It nay aeom bold to attack opioioea aanctioned by aock hijii aotliorlty 
■a thai of M. Latn^ ; but philoiophy doea out recogoiae the weight of 
peraoiul tralinioiiy. Il ia UieobriaitadQty uf the rcriewer lo point out 
«nx>ra Mhctvitr he Giida then, aiid bia duty is oal^ ioereaaed iu impurtance 




where trrora aeem confirmed by the celebtlty tX their adtucate, 
propoaitiou of M. Latah, to aooiewhat vary ibc elew of 11. may be atati 
thua :— Tbe regnialir cKbaaatEon ai^f be produced in the tnba bj 
a plaion nithiu it ibruugh a ccnnln di tiance ; and beare the furee nqnind 
lalbeaamewlieiherihe effect be produced by this liypolbeiical arrange- 
mrni, irt by that reoUi( employed u practice. That ia, provided tbe reault 
be tbe aame, tbe Eacana of cdecling it are matters of IndifTercnce t Now 
lhia naaumption thai no mure force ia lutt by the uae of air-punipa (ban by 
an arrangement more direct, but eDilrrly imaginary', wbai is il 
aadumptlon of the very quealion in debate, namely, whether (h« 
eipcnded by tbe air-pump* Jtc„be equal tulbc gatrulcilect r It ia da 
that the mechanical mcaBB by nhicb tite cAcct Is produced csa&oti 
neglected in tiic calculaliun, for II wonld be eaiy to coutrive 
which would eOect the requbite csbausllon with a loaa of flO per i 
their power. 

It i* very true, that the iDToallftatioo of Mr. Uaahfortb, in aoolbcr 1 
of tbiRRnmher.iliewitlial thcloiauadcrcouaidertiltoii ia but smail; 
tlie malhiTtnaliciil iruili remalna indepetideiit of the actual amount oC 
toia. W lieiber Uiat atnuuut be I per cent, or 09 per cent., tbe fnci triBiaina* 
the lame, tbut inath«matit)« founded on the oiauoiptiua (bat tlie eflecl pro- 
duced is equal lu tbe power eapendrd muat be crroocoua. 

If any conArmalloD of tliia opialuo were tcquiaiie, tlie following extract 
fmni the ''Dales'' of M. Lam^, almoat immodlalely foUowIng tbe oa 
made above, is perfectly ooucluaire:— 

*' Tbua tbe poncr expended U> farm the vacuum in the tuba befora 
alarting of the train iaiu the vibule power aa (2 — loE. )) la to 2, OTSia 
tbe bypeibolic logsrithni of 3 ia •■ l.lKbOl — the time of working ul 
engine ia to the Lme of Iraoiit of the train ua S ia to 1 ,0D6i;l , that ia I 
•ay, a liUle more tlmu double, or more oxaelly, aai>: G." 

Mere il la aaicrtcd, tbal fur a vmrKiug preaaure uf 10 lb. to tlie 
iuch, the preliminary rxliBuallon will be aJm^i) of^ the whole power i 
peoded. Aud it it particularly to ha obaerved, that this conclnaloa la in 
peodcut of ibt length of the ui&ia lube, or the aise of lb* air puaf j 
wbercaa, iu truth, Ibe powvr cipeuded in the preliminary cxbAUation i 
pcnda moat materially oa the reluiiou between Ibe solid cohIcdI of l| 
pump and that of (bo lubv. Erer; tyro iu pofumnllca koows Ihul I 
diioily of air in an eihauatcd receivar dcpenda on a ronnula in which : 
eumberQf ench atrokc appean aa apoK'rr or iirfrjc. Tor ioataoco, if i 
capacity uf the pump nod recelter Ivgetlurr were lu the capacity at tho I 
cetrrr DJODcaa Zil : I'J, IhcdeoaiCy after ibc flrat alroko would boexpr 
by JJ : after (he tccuiid stroke by the t(|uiire of y ; after the third \tj 1 

cube of {J; after tlie fourth by the fourth power ofy afler 

baudreillli by the iiuudredlli poner of J}. Now IbcBO coaaideraltoi 
which are to be fouud ia crery clomcolary book on pneumaiie^, are toll 
neglected by M. Lntni), not only in tbe paatage hero quoted, but throe 
out hi* iuvcttigatiun. 

The •' mathemalical DOtea" nest d lie un ** M. Arnollefa ayatem,* 
which magaxiuca of power ate oblaiood by the exbautliua of large 
ticlii rcaentoirt. The miitbeiuatioa are bcre Tiuiidrd on the aaiDonm 
aa before — that ia, Ihc uliernnte aciiun of tbe pump and tbe proportion i 
lit size lu that of tbe tube are qoite loH out of algbl. ll wuuld bo 
than uieleaa to quote cancIuuoDaablained undor iheu u ntatlaf actor y i 
cumatancct. 

What add* greatly to (lio regret, excited by finding thcao calcnUtlMaJ 
a report by a coniaiiisloa of the Intlilule of France, is tba circaii 
Ibal Al. Arago't name ia atuclied to the report. 

Kagineering aeem* fnled to be particularly unfortunate, in beiag i 
tCBrad by luoorrect iDalheinalic*. Vere the cuufuMd hcaptof nta 
tical ayDibols which bcact the path of the engineering sludcat 
worthlMs. ne uould not any one word reapectiDg them. Tbejr 
Mfcly be conaiKucd to obli'ion. But, uufurlouotFly, tbeto errors ha 
most pciDtclous effect on those nho are leant nhln to discover 
MatbentaUva uf tha very wont kind are onattautly raceivmg the big 
MDction nhenapplltd to enginearing. in any oUier department of scie 
tbe aulbora would infalLI/ly meet vrilh coudctnoation. U'e can ealj . 
l^cncral advice lu the iiudcut who U likely to bo aJTected by (heao 
— ueier to lake on trusl atiy nialbcmallcal conclaalooa except Iboaa i 
tiuoed by time, aud embodied In work* uf accredited aulhohly : ret| 
all new invealigntiooa, we recomneud hiu lu rejeot them aliogi^tber 
be fcrla bia phyiicol liewa aufioieBtly BialDKil (« enable hint to ttn 
gate and cuuQdeuily decide for hinaMlf. 



[ 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



41 



RAISING TUB SPIUB OP A CHURCH. 

(Prau tbe AmcrictD franUta Journal.) 
ietoma t^ /Ar Ksmm; o/ Ih* Spir* o/tSt Katnitf/, te Spri^ GtrJ*», 
tMpHia emmtt-" 1!]' N. U BitrH, Arohilcct. 
Darifl town- on irhieh tliu flpire nw niMd. fiOM Ibo ant, aDd ji 90 
beigbti it u iirentHuncil aLlbeanglM bj four balirriMi. pioJBct> 
IhabaMfour t»i; ui» predion of these buiimtci ti UiuiiuUhed at 
■lafM is Iheir htighl. Tbe InWrtiH Ilsiirr of the tuner at the htuc ii 
■aiCi tral nid-oar it annisva the tSgore of u octifon bj ^ailiedni 
tbe brldnrork at thnanitlett tli« «hol« forming a coutttuctiuu ol iLe 
folid cbatact«i. Tbt octagonal ipire, which ««* fiaiilwil oomptetc ia 
•f ttio t««M prv'ioui to riling, i« 80 feet high, IscludiDg iti erawn- 
lU ( Ua vidlh at tbe baie te 13 fact 6 inchei. 




iS tfitt «aa raised bj ni«an* of two 'l^rricki lituiltd on the n«tl)i aod 
wall OD Ue lop of tbe loyiei, and pIiiM'l about 18 InctiM bebind th« 
y«tt4 af ibe (pirc, or iboat 3 fcei liui^k Troiti the frorrt of the lONer, 

ftn IS f«M, 6 iitthtt apart, alloniej; i)iout inthei uu pacli lide be- 
th«n) Bad tbeapre. tiit'u fc«t kcic mtdo conv» and fitted into 
•odiaf oa^tiei worked to Ihe oak ilcepcit nhlrh «tre Hcuirlf 
ilintB into tbe iflla of tbt ipirt, vhich till* ytrte theinaelKi tccurcU 
lower b;l| iacb roda 3li fret tongi and built ia tbaaaglwodbc 



tawcrwaOt. To aroid ill th« ■tratn being tbrom oa tbe topef tbe w*1U 
at th«M poinia, diagoaal brace* nere pUMd, cxtmdinjf 40 fc«tdowB(he 
loKet, and at a& additionil jirecauliou lo j'teintii tl>« drrrick* from ilip- 
ping it tbe beds, ibey were conntrtrd bj lailiinn fa»t«n«4l to irori Imlle 
patied tliroQsb xbem, — ibe hea'li ncre I'oaritdcd \if too tairkle blo«kt, 
■ Iiich were onljr oT uk to keep Ibcm in ibcir poiitinn till the tpire mt 
being railed. The gojra from each of Ihe derrick*. rxieodMl io tbrt« direc- 
lioni OTcr the ncijtbboiinng comnMiu. 

Tlie tpiie f*ai wuiiectcd »ltL ibc ilcrrtcka b; four doubia laihingi. (each 
end of nliich wa* fit(ea<d to one of the ipire po«l* at tbe fool,) and two 
eptui ; tb« bell, vhioh conneeted the apaat, wu 30 feet high above Ihe boae 
of Ihe «pirc, (bciag about & feet ab«*e the ^ntreof grantT) aad paaiad 
througli the drapi oftba pBtehatc blade*. The filli rr«ra the treble bloeki 
on Ihe derrtckt l« Che leading block*, were ia ibe Interior of Ibe toner, 
and the l»o npttani tucd, were .placed ia the main alor* of llie cbun:h. 
and were each nanned bj twenty mca. Attached to tbe tiwe of the )idre 
were three gujri, ind at about H feet from tbe bead were four mora gtiji, 
all »*curtd to guy poiti. 

All the arrangeineale baling hena maile nitb the grealMt ca:^e, on tlie 
lOlh of February, at iwo o'clock In the »f«*rnooB. the railing «u coin. 
ineneed, and it wu perforned with tbe grtatett eaic. 7'he *pife wu kept 

Clumb liy the maDagnBicnt of ihe gtiya atiichcd la it. At the darricki were 
ut4Sfe<t liigb, and tbe belt lo whitli the purtbase block* wa* futensd 
wu 30 feet from Ibe baae, (at which bright Ifae diitaoce from each dtr- 
lick bead lo ibe ijiire wou14 be atiout 3 ten.) there would be but C feet 
batiTMa the block* whtn the ipirc would be ralM^t— tbey would tbtu 
BOOtiiwily have laiu aluctt lioriMtilal, ind eauad • gnat itiaia an Ibcm ^ 
to avoid tlii) •iraiD, ai ll»e rai*ing wu progreatinr. the sorib and (outb 
dttrriek nja ware ilaokened to inaka tbe purcbau Slocki wotk more per> 
pendieuiariy. 

VCbim tbe ipire had boon raited to tta propter height in front of tbe l«wer, 
Ifae mo wotl (loriick guy* vne worked by two cridt lo draw over Ihe ikr* 
rick* and aaing tbe tpire la lia deitined pcniUon. It bad fi««ii deemed 
nioat prmlcaL tu wurk Ibcra id tbal raaDner, ea in Ihe hiuling in uf ibe 
hack guy* in the atotl manner, an OKilUtory motioD mtfht hiTc been com- 
tnQDiCHted to the apirc, which would hivvc rtadcrcJ it ttilEculi lo aianagt' at 
Uiii oiDit erilical momenL Tb« raitiug ligled an hour mad Ibiily cninuU*, 
and UiiHy minola* wm rt<]Dir(d lo lecure it firmly lo live till) on Ibe loner 
by th« trao tttapi g — tbui Ihe whole operation oecspied two boura. 



METHOD TO PROJECT CIRCLES ISOMETIIICALLY. 
ity Trouab pBOaisB, C.B., >'<w Yorl:. 
ng. I. Draw the two Iiomelrictl iHamciera ; (i. *. Ibe two eiLeoajugite 
diaaelera of ihe clllpia which ia to repreaent the eirele.) uniu their vet- 
titc* *o u t« foiu a tcctaagie with it* diaijooal* ; oircumeoribe the whole 
wiib a drcle psaainy tbrongb each angle of the parellelogtam, the aide* of 
whicli will thu* fortn chofdi lo iia *egioeDta; with the chord of half iba 
BTC of a letter legment a* radioi, deacribe another GODcentric circle cutting 
the diagooak of th« (etUagle, at a, a, a, a. 




Vrom tatb angia of Ibe »eUn|le aa nnlre*. and wttb jta largeal tide a* 
ndhia, deacribe area cnning neb otbci wilhia Ike teetaaglc ai tti.i. 



*» 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[FsBKL'AK 



Pmrn tlift un« ccntrei, tiid wiiti tha diif nail of the netugla h radini, 
docrttir am an the vrpoaiU ^da of Q» flgurc, a) tl c r. 

from oad) nf tlia pninia •. a. a. a. a> cenlm, dttcribe area pastia| 
Ihrangh Ihc vcrtiwt of t)ie ttoiDMriesl rlliiDctrn wlii«h art on the iav>e 
Uilr of tha conjurata uif I hul on the oppotilc tlda of tha iraaaitcrH o>«. 
Yioia ibe potaU i, K asil ?. C. ai ceniira, Jeacrlbc arc* In coatUuailM. 



I'dRT FBOM THE INSTITUTE OF THE FISE ARTS ON 
I'l'BLlC (JOMI'ETITIONS. 

■' Gciill^nm — Canf«llliuea Id nn ar« now m rrvqmM aoii ao fuUj r«- 
t|i«Bdt<l (o that, withoul souiiil principal In Ihrif ni*iia|t«t»«Dl, ihrj matl 
■^{■cffMrllt tw vrrjr InjiiriDUH ti> tttp artlils, howrirr ■iliiintaxcuua Ihor 
ami api^riir lo Ihr publir ; tar itikUoer, In Ih^ «ai- tufixe wa. If I^IMfJ. 
kia* 1i> br cnmprlei] fiir, aod (lltr sMlita rnk-r il>r lint* aii-l »fifo4 1,8001. of 
lUDQ^') aail all mnouut q( limi' eiiihl In tivrnty-nln? y*ar* of rinuaa life, ai 
lb>i lu-iiiLi) wilt ilrnionilral^, ihcj »<i(lei)il> Ii^p I NDOf. and Iha nhol« of 
)hal llmr, unl'ti Dit-re ia (.■oni|W'n«Minn hj rvpirtation, liy Bcqiiirr<l kaa«i< 
lnlS<- which B>T be lumH m aceouoi. ur In ilir aaleorihr cani[Ktitiaa 
plcitirra. If i>lial«vi>ino cvniliiiau \>{ (lablie UMr, good tttttm \a Oxr at- 
rapgcmcatft. and i>incl juitice id the awanj« il c<>iii[ir<iliuDa, wvuld, in 
■vnie incasur''. aToril Ih'Bi romprnvHliiin, but Ihv uiiisl aiodc* adopted id 
lh'«* trifilR of nkill afford n'lna : uo Ihp taotn'j, tli^y art attPodM vith 
miti\ eitTiiinMancrii ihat rntbttT^f ih» f««li(i|Ct, i|;Era«alB lb? ivflrrio^, 
and irijiiiv (he rv)iiiiatiim uf pnlbuttaailc cnniiictiiun. Such ■ couraeroaii 
Dltimil«t5 be injunoaa to llir public a* "(Il aa ti> llie artial. Tbv <jstcni 
liaaiodtril idikJi of ihc ticiiemnil and ImmunlitDdcaGiM afalodotj. 

In ordt r t« arri>« at a b«l'er priacipla. vrp haiF inquired iaio ibe r«9iills 
of *ari(iuii<tini|ieli'>nn4 ia dif«Knla^f.itD(1 id mt^fhI c<>unlri<!« ; ^vehare 
Mdfavonrrrl in Innv thie animini of conipi'lfiii'j la Iba Jud)■l^• and of tn^itj 
ia IbpflMi'li' nfarTaiif:riiiPuC.<jr uf Euuil fallli iii the ajpcrit)i«u<liu(t auUiori- 
tin, AiiiiiiiiC ihp aiideol lirfekt larioui pUni were nduptnJ. accoriltdK 
to th» mnn> or Im popular polilical iiuliiutiiHiaof thecnroiituuit;- Where 
UiP arts lion rlt bed moti, f <■<•'■« opimcD, in nfaatttvr fnimcipTMr'), nan 
Uie btgia of public |ialr'iri<i(i^. In uriav cu-m lit' fitniaiinilf, cuD»iii«riue 
tbe mnipvlinK ■rttxti moat inleTOSlrd in a fair d«cliioi), acluatl; Irft ih.it 
dMiaiMi to llH'in ; lu iiUicfri llie opIcl'iD uf llip pi:<i)il(' was pjramciunt : but 
ftm than aiixxvatinna frara tte aili&li ocir alliutlcd (u niili lirtrnace ami 
r«»|iM-I, and iiol [|ii>rrK«rilMl ur cundcmnrd aa is Uiu nflot dune nnmnK ui. 
Vhrn l'hlilia» and Atcaiocn^ competed fur n alalue lu bit placed i in a 
iMlunn ur other rkia'rd lilnitlinii, hi Uril «ight atl ufiiuiom wcc in faiour 
i>( Alcanii'nni, bal I'hidiaa drrnaodid Ihal buih Snart» ihouH be plae«I at 
IIm iiiti'itdi'd rlpvaliun, prrvhiuk lullie award b«lti|( luade. Tbii waadnii*, 
and aoch waa the coiuiilFrAtiifn of prrapectite effect b; tbc oae artiil and 
ita n^fkct iry Ibe nihrr. ihul llie peuple on aooncr aaw thrtn at their re- 
quired rtcTBiino, thin Ihr ii cbaogiad their opiaiun, aai) decided in furaur 
uf Pbldlat. In >hii initaaoe it ta clear that ibo Judaea, i,*. the public, 
vanv unl Tiilly Cuoipetenl Iri llirir tuik, but it i( alio obvidua thai such 
atttti* a* Alranienra would lia>e bt«u equally ucitit ure«.-n nurM; for, in 
all )>rwbabitit>, lelying uu llinr pfuriit« and ikill.thi-y wiiuld out ba«a 
taken iii« ItuiU'lf lu nitr the comprtmc statue* tu llie pntpoaril cIctNliiin, 
and in nil tikrlihwiil tlicy would tiaic been nioce leunciuuiofa firal npijiioii 
thaa 'tie p««pk were. 

Ill lit* ta*c ofthe eiiiacna of CaichooaiuK a tialiie of V««n> from iwu 
bf Praxilvllrt, ao ftir from d«l«galin|[ Iheir jii>lgii>eiil to arlisti, Ihry Kr- 
UmiIpiI. from a m.itiic of ilelieucjr, Ihul wbivli llie tcrlinical ouimoiMeuni 
de-nnuncvl a« infi-ri'ir. I'uiLeril; baa decreed thai in ttiii. t(<.)ud taaite 
triumpl'dl nvrr cnnvrnlt'iiltl ricrllclicr. 

Mucli liDf bcvn luid uf a moilc of drcidtntr totair campclitlona amonc 
nrtiita ill anti'-ai Uieccr, in which tli<^ c»mpctiti>ra were e*ch alloHcJ (iru 
«M*a, tiuiliT ihe notion Ihat in the ballot, nieh would ffirr uoe vote in favtnir 
uf Ms nwo pf rfariaancr, and the olhrr lo tha iieal of hu nials ; n* Ibunsh 
■II Ilia randldalaa, afler ni'lnlgitit; a artiiah ronceil, would, aa «iun ax Uul 
Uril impulafwa* cralilird. brcumr iierfccliji candid ; a> thuujtli Ibe act p«r- 
furintd tiy une baud, and ila niulite, »rrc uaknuwu to Ihc otticrr Uoioas 
tbrj <«er« alriclljr hoouUraUlc aod imparliul, il ia mure likely that llicy 
vrixild (■>• iMjIb vule* Iv lli^ir uwn work, nr thA aecunJ cule lu Uio niO't 
ual.kclj rital ; itioa mif;ht Iha U-iwt l«lenlt:>d ataod ai lh« hvad of the poll : 
ua bare Iwan informed of ncrurrKocrt which O'loQrni tLu opinion. Ou ucic 
iicoaMiin at oiic irf our illatinRuiihrd intlilullutia, a landidaie waa circled 
tn an linpnnant uftlec, lor which he waa an lulally uii jt, ibal ih4 ae1f-dc< 
Hiadrd elrvi'ira had tu requcit iheir own noniiinec lu re^igu ; ia anotbcT, aa 
■nditi'lual of coaidrralilir rrpulaiioa, aficr propuaiag aaJ iiiakii>)t a watui 
mlii|t) of a rrivnd'a (jnaljlicaiiiiai, wna pri»ecl, bj llie unjuiniiiy uf tlic 
«i>c»« tn ftivcmr of himself, tu have aaenQc«d Uial friend t't lii» own uituc4-il. 
If caxidtdatp* are huiiDiirable and Irufl, DUF*n1a ia aa iiuud a* iwo; aad to 
tl Hwuld III' if thi'y were all selbth and cunning. 

I^aiif la Ihc fiiurii^rikih cvninry, a eery iiD|iorianl competition lank place 
at Flwreuc, tietwri-n llmarli^xlH, Uonalrllu. (Jhtbrrti, miJ fijur uiher 
Cintlient tculptun ; for uotlvr goud and huoournbli rr(;i)Uliiic<i, Ihe ;rralril 
ne'O not luth lo cuiu|>eie. Suiijrcu, to be exreutrd ia bronrr, fi>r tho 
unianMit ut lh« K>'e* of Ihe BMptial'ry of St. John, were tonfided to th'ir 
cniuUitJoa, each bnai pruridetl, «i ibe public cijieBte, witb eTtry coa- 




tealencc of itudio, faraaea, aod other accoiii'nad4tion, thai could enannr 
auoccia. aad a luin for paraooal eipaoae*. (laritiK done so Diocb fi>r the 
COCnJOrl of the arliala durin[ ihe period of thrlr (lertiuix, a oninprleal irl 
huua) MXt rectiveil the canlidaralioa of Ihe FUrL-niineg ; Ihiriy.f.tar mri 
uf laale aad talent, lone arliataand aoneaniitaur*, w^ri< a^ip-iiiitrd judi^i 
to datermlni wfaich wai entitled loeapaelal adtuiint ou. iinil imlilir f-infila 
monl. Theif Totrt wrra dieideil. and no deeiainn obiaiiied tnmi Ufm ; bill 
tbe naKiMUIiDnDi candour of Bruneleaclii and DiKintellU', nhn hail aach^ 
Ike >ame ouiahrr of lolea na filiiberti, nt uncr aeiiled it ia bit fatoor, aad 
praacd the tribunal iBCompeteat ; ihuae Rvaervua n«ala ■■•« a'> nnioi ta 
doubt hit tuperiorily ia that timrvsl ; aod p<i>l«rity baa MnciiooeJ ibvlr 
spiaioo. Tho Ineompateney of Ihia tribunal wa». buneier, but ai'|aii*rly 
bad ; il allmeed Iba tenir* uf^uilKe lu reiuam lu rluublful Buapcuiun. but 
it did not ai-tually inTcrac iU tcodeacy. ami cloud Ih'- priupecli aud faiaa 
of a deiiTvitii; c«ndiitatr, A itmilarijiltldencc, ur inudiat unnrance, it 
retnarknhte wlira Lmnardn da Viaci, and Micbsel Aaiielo lluuaai 
n>ade tlieir ureal Irial of akill al lb« Cuuncil Cbamberj the •pleadour 
Ibe on* dtd oot rclipMi Ihe majeity of the i>tl>er, aa ihf ujccpia of oov maa' 
tflltnt laeariably aniothera Ihe fame uf every uiher in uur luadt rn <«ai, 
lioDa. 

Id France, during the prriod of rellzLouR animosity, from Ibr eelgn of 
FranrlR tha Fint lu ttiat uf Louia the I'otJrlevRtli, public cuiiijiriiiinnri w«i 
nricu productife of doe work*, as the beat purtious uf the ptiacc ot Pui 
lajnetilrau. and thn beauliful aquare of ihe Luuttb altrai. In tlioae ii__ 
•tanctt, natiio talent, bo<U Catholic uud I'rote^taul. iu wuilhy roiulHtioa,' 
ttanda triuiuphaol amidst the pTfurmacces nf fureicii ntaby, Tbc tane 
tjalem wa* roaorled la for Ihe ea»l fruut oftba Lou*re, and ihrHirard vf 
iBparior merit wai in fatinir uf L'lamU Prrraull, tbe pliyiicoa luid ua- 
Ihematirtan. but a corrupt court, where Ibe kpirit of iulelli^iiiiAl freetlom 
had not aurvircd that uf aiiarchi aod febeliiuo, could nol tv< aatiallBd 
wlih Ihe rcaiilt of oonipetillun aud public uiiiuion. Luuia the rourtc«oib 
coilea*i>urcd tu lel aaiile the doti;(ii uf I'erranll, and lu'iicil tleruiu). I 
fat h i ODD Ell r Iiflliaa arrhitect aad Kolplnr of <h« day, tu viail bit court a 
de«t|;a ■(inethio^ wurihy the magolQi^t^ca and splvuitnur uf thai piaipui 
monarch. Princely buiiijiiis alleniled on tli# fureiKu uriial in U-t \ttat 
tn ibf Frtnch rapilal. tint Cutbtrl fuuiiil it adTnablc tu If^an tiiwarda I 
popular opinion : ibe k|j>c relcniedi llvfuiui reli.retl with ihc iniiir aSer 

magniliccnco dial aecwufauied biaurrital, and tbe design of frrrauli, i 

miuterpirce of that era, t^fore whicb a'an Wlnii-liall <iiik« ia cuaipariaoa, 
tiai completed, at once a luununieDI to FieuoU la6le and a trophy Iv oabhc 
opialon. 

Und^r Napo1(>un, competition wa> far from pare. Tbe jary of aNIala 
for the Uaceuiial priK** adjudged ibe ureal prlie fur a aubject of attcv'at 
hlatoiy lo (iirudvl, for a acme of the Delude, The eiapi>rur naa diaap- 
puiolcd : he had oipcctod ibai prUr lu be ci'cn lo bia ftrsl painter, Daeid, 
fur ill* [nlrr««ialon of the Sabine woiucd beiw oeo iheir anraj(rd rclalikra 
aiid ilieir Kuruan liuaboiida. Tbn jud|;et could out indeed be in>luectl Hi 



in- 

■«l 

ta 
mir 

eiy 

hut 

riae 

!. WIJ^I 

arotdj^l 

our^H 
maallH 
•ifieaq 

of 



8ii«i-rri(n. Id tlie Doll trial, ihny cim-'errad tha prise fur a fuiHl.'rn •ubjr<|jH 
■III DaTi'l'a cnronalion, aad not ou tbe t'littu' of Jaffa, by 4;nH, (vi,i,li^' 
lliry inJitiiliially prefi-rrrd. A and rxamplc I'f ariiala. ertimeni fur lal*bt 
aod churaclcr, rendered dUboacit by the inlcrfereaccof a poiruiaie. 



eimeicl Ihemiel'M of incompatency in that deeiainn ; but, tu cv"ii|iate lb«J 

'bt 

Attljc prcient lime in France, where arilata cuntiiiute an iDSuenlta^H 
p'Urtioii nf llieinlellciilual arialucracy (ihe arinlDniity uf lalriii ai.d |)eiil^a^| 
eii>iii)^ vrbrre authority and inlri^iie arc Tarioualy uppurLioik-il. riu una 
eumpciiliiiD it of much inipurlance, fvr the cffVit t>fa.p«itMl •Jrclaiiin br 
the court part*, ia freijticiidy neuituluird by un e<imillj uii«i>uiiil .iward ia 
favuur of Cbe inJurL-d urtihl, by simiic iiiuii (Ftp. lily uf iippusition pulitivy, tv 
whine prpjuilieea no appeal is made, and who liaie to their )|iii a j.»...i- _, 
cial cairiiniatiuo. ^H 

Innur owa coui)lrr,comp«lili'>D) are very uti*allif<i£lury,an<l frrourallyS 
alike abaiitd and uiijuat : in Ihat fur ihc \clai-'> niciuvrial. ilie tacdlaiiua 
of Ihe (ommillev id nulling ui'le their Srit hnaiy award, aud wiveiUiiiiK a 
new ciiuleil niul ethibiliun. wilh IhHf liiinl cui> firm all i>ii of llul lir*I eeir 
(iLiiibtnil judcineoi, riiuiprutoiHFd ibediiinily of the coiuinilter *« iaiu<|| aa 
ila Uale. and uniieceaMirily iucr«a*rd by many ibiiiiaanda a( puanit* tW 
eipeoiie (lietidca trouble) of tlie arliaU- Th>il cntii|>c[iiiun irsi fatal utba 
cunltdeooe of arliiila id ■ tribunal of aninteor* of rnuh and fmiuiic, but that 
of ti.e Itoyal lCii:bani;r with a tribunal of iirli*ta waa tiill «ar*r : Ihe jury 
of ihrrr trmiiienl arcIiilecU. refused any preiiiiuin li> Ibe deri^o wbi«h ibey 
ackiiuwle diced lu b« Ihe brtl. under llie plea lliai tl could uol he built tur 
tbe sum •tiputal(-di uur wai ilial dttrre rcn'ned wheu conintctur* uf 
repuiatiou utTerid t» unilertakc it under iii:i;iirilie« ; but llie) Rsie llie pt) 
iiiiuina to Other oaiididat>->, whose deaiKU* Ibey dcclaii^l lu Lr quila in 
practicable. 'I'liey were urit m]uei<ir<l lu pfo|>arD ■ dr-iiitn llicniarlee. 
It ia uniternlood, ibat iwu oflhiwu three jud|{>^, after etumioiui; and eul 
demniuicall the dtniitn*, iKiu>illy cooamted In do an, but Ihe unaoei 
prucreijini! wui cbecked by public upiiiina. Thr ulllniale rampelllina i 
betwieii iivnartbili'Claur Gonaiderablc and ociwl] eijual iuflueticean 
III- i;i*ic aulhoTibe»- 

Tharecetitcumprtiiloo aihibitiunaai U'esiniintler Hall, fur Ihe (k<ror. 
lion of the I'arhamenl Houaet, were al first h>ai)«d as llie beKiuu at «! 
better tjsteui. mute lulellei'lual aud pure ; but ii]i lu tlie preariii iibk i 
raaulta have led uuly tu diaappuialnieol amonu ilie K'tat budv ijf ibr '■^r ,, 
i) a lea. aad crowinK iudifference iu the poblic. fuiiue arlilik. after beil 
rewarded the first year, faiul Ibcir work* ucitted aa unwi.rtt.) etru to I 
pubUd) •sbibUcd at tbe Msvad, wUat hitbcia bale bccu ap|Hiiii-tH) 



''^^ *^^ 



IMC] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND AIlClllTECTS JOURNAL. 



43 



......1 •-.;'Ltifvirnlara<we trial. or rrnWAkent piMlay diroash tba pre- 

' il (t ill. StitTti nho hftra afipearrtJ bowunbly ami nilli 

>r4balivD *l all >l'o •ihibitanot, h*rm bc»a uttorl; iwfU>el«lcir 

• UiE rojal <oisinlMl«it, altkoogb tba iMdlDf objMt of IM ip- 

.' tt Iba «Dcuurkftiuet)i of uatin Ul«ai la lh« bijchn nalL* of 

<-:.i r|.f oaaiMlHiM«n bad praa«uaccd the wDrktor luujr of.iboae 

I : "• •'likxhlj' creditabk loctwcovolTT" 

iha «>b4>to of tl>« c'Mmc* M coinp«4Uioas,l«Mlito|iTOnll)al)ar«*p«cl 
nf maltora af arl. a eanprlcot irlbuoal and rqnal Jnillec ban acarwlr ever 
U?(« ttbutanl. la qar«iioti* ttf ta*te, tker« U ladcad M nacli roota for 
ikmM. Umi iri-TB'Ii'ii'.MHi feuJ partiality nr* W* ubiiout and J<iKra««ful 
ikia ID alm^lt lo'-*'"'"" "f projirrlf, aoil y#t Ibn injury doav Is lli#aur> 
fftan ^ (»' K'"*"*' Mh^roprof-xalAotl raputailM aa wtll mt fmuioi U lit- 
TvIwmI. U by (htMiiil m-i arthia. whuaa faoM and mtaat nf hmuoo* ara 
al atah*, kat* a< ptKid proiecttao horn a cooiniHn) of laitc, aa perwna in 
tiwie a/r *arr ii> li"'' "> > d'ltn uf jnttkr ! M'hx are »ol cominlilrr*, ltk« 
farfRM a«)j<'"">r«*pv°'*''''*^ ^<^ Ihrir t>rooMdiag>,*llli<r(« abisUcrlri- 
Umal tif <u piil-'ic opiBtup' U'b; sr« thvy aol, io liko aianapr, ubliind to 
ctkiniitc a»l t-iic (liter tiotli fittca <if ili« (lotrMica t Oar Jarirs arr xlucted 
f-.* (liFir iinpn/lialitj. and rKry a(.-rlil«>i>t In thai mp«et l» rcclili'-il, hj 
oIIjhIU 'aeli e-'etPtUiti: piui; lu clialbtuna tba jurora: do Talw itrlu^c; 
k'ffkiils Jur)n>rn i> al<uHr<J to "elfli aRainsllbv wclfaraot Iha pattiaa Iw- 
Tire Uic T'lurt iiiit ItiF Mritt rvl's of justtcc. Tu Ma tlist ifcaT atMad to 
Ibrir i-rtTi riticd ilulif*, ■»•! tkal lb* cvtilrnra ii Tairlj placrd bafofa UbaB, 
wd svl lu I0^rf<^"- <"'<b th* lerJicI, n judga praMdra *h4, afl*r a luag 
rarrp* i'{tt<iAy aad ptpertrnrr. la plaml abova ordtaary tlralrr and coa- 
urii.-u. in (ircumdtirpftibat n>a<lFr cbaraTier. aajMrriallf fur iHpariialil) 
■I'l jnilcmrni. (u biai. alUtraiMirtaul. filioiild he, furiclful a( bit hiKb rr- 
*fwiT>[T iiiKlul)ttw una siJr and niaJiricttbajDrr.aa appeal Jiaa 

tnml nbcrebUarrorgratbinUtpiatatiaaU »uralab«HTrrclj 

diuvir ., -' - < '1 0*a* i* Dcadr «ul, iIm (rial iaacl awta ur lbs verdict U 
K^cn^, Aittu^ui Ihe Uaitt c<>ii>i.tu«ary fur hii aa<borilj aad frcliaita. 
nua U itw pruprrlf of ibr liunibleal trader pivl^cttd ; (bax Iba llfa or 
hW-rtj of ibr |uumi mraicb attuticl of rftm:. ■< bHd paraaouoL to all 
cAiatderalMiH ur raak niiil tlsl'^u. Id qurtliun* uf prupcrtTi CTcry paaal- 
bla dwruMiun bat loiit bi-ra aiTvrdeili nlintaava arc Piamiacd) aruM-r-x- 
anlMrll. ami rc-ci«n>ii>r>l, bj coalcttdioc ailfucaUa. Th> rama prulaalMa 
I... .y- >.i., -^.f^ Iwn i;ranied U )M-noat (riniaalljr Ivdirml.— Afiil wkjr 

■<>aie rr4|irG( fur niutaal rifcliu ba droiadiainra of MM- 
I . nalJHir* ur arliiU, who roiliu'k (aoia aad foituoa mi Ibn 

lAr nl puU>^ (>K»|wUUnn r ft hj iihould Ibwe ti> wbau Ihrj ruuuM all 
Mux l> pnciont Io Ibrir enlimaliou, Uiiak liebtly of tbtlr rapotiaibtlilr. 
SoiBrtlitae likt itr ijttrm efjadge •uJjut7,'>r aa nMUmUiiou U> tUe bc*t 
rfoor pi't^'s." i-' <'««in» p»o alwn* rTo<lrf c'lmprliliim* DisoDit ((liUtfair, 
l>wnar>Mr-, aixl .^AciMt, and gite lu iliCraiaualiOMof gvalua Ibcir (iropar 
ntueatuong e(. 

Inlli'' our iiuai«dia'rl]i before fli. Il ii pM^Maadlbat a pr4aaori,MKilt 
b« co^n I" ll'V adUl nlio.jn ir^Brral (ovipptiltijii. aball prudur* Ibebaa 
[^miln; I'J t-f 1% fee! w «i>.aiMl I« of IJIIir mhrt : Iba tuhjrcl i»d«. 
locd. . Ibr ptrcitc aiiair </ irraiiatc it. Witk to 

pfti ., nablB l<i iiu^uu»s thai niiiu> nil) oirrlooti 

li, I , . .it^iniiMiil, an<l Kiioii* iiic»c'tiiKarpa Ibal 

iniili , -'iioRtr raotlidarT ; il i* rpaxinahto to aaj-poi^ Ibal 

gn,..: <iufi-ri nbd n-putnllfla in Ibr alleiapt ttrFwIua- 

Mr>d tltai tbp EPniivnira «l)o prupuM Ibti (umpoliiwu. b*»nlF* the drurr 
buUain »* fiop a iHtluic a* poaiiMr, ara aiiiniui lo inaLr it woill) wliilr 
rn nfialrnt anil rhatnttcr 1(1 viv wttb racb tiAtt tu bDDuur*t>1c rmo- 
Thrj if.iiilil rviute urnrri-iis (Ji'licHcy ftj«ard(i llic l«si Hi':oPMful 
I niu an<''* T' ' '- ti i.Irnl in ihi- (onlt-il ; furltinir objrct il not 

iifHKir ■['. >.>ki> a II Uaia ilwti al the l.MOi , nur can 

..ill (ur a ^.' I : '<■ ■<••■» pltliirr. but (iiia wtirrem Ike tiibjrci 

I ennuilnvd. tirp diaiMlar ■•( vHibfliiUK^ in falllifully aludln] and 

kllj drliiiralrd :— i*ltF<p Itir mtiU'a of all » in due nrUtHin uuc 

•ibcr, aiiJ ihr <'i' ' into I rit'iuual and pirliirrM|ii« 

billaa. MirUar" '■ .(liafti die; are t.p<tl itllriMted 

-! rii„M— -. ' '•,.' .1. rialt. uKk a* iu*ulii! a iarerr 

[.•jH^Ptl'.ll In ihKt of iriiinity. Tb»t Oiaj lb« bitl rrMilis 

>> tiiiM! iiijiirj ■* i^M'ibla to tbn caiidulalr:i, a* all ilr* 
IbTM* anil r<* k'""* ■■'rn tut-at witb lo du 

U'a DOW priK.vHl to *iair tb« artUl'a F«aa in Ino waja:— Snt, u It 
■ III tiBiid if U>r i<l<(i!i»«l rrEulaliimi arc frartird uul; ami D«it, aa it 
•■.niiJIir. ifnrjr fii.:.-i'Hiiaai vrre atloptn), «uppur<iag in citbrrcaao iba 
■ ■ Lk- ilfty. 

:.., tarjlDi; fn>ai IS ft*i by IS to U kt* bj IS, 
„,_,... . .. :> 10 eipeaiaa latiual outUj) from SOf. Id -lUf. 

^rl< . ' t ><xal in muney. l,t*U»l 

It, 1. •d, atrntcr T uionib*; total SO yr^n; vrhkb, at die 

k* raiiDiaic "l not, B-}car nmuauia to tj}0{., inaLiiiK Ibe whole wiil- 
hy F-t'iKBtralioS.lfiOI. ; a poiili*e luai >a tbo agcraKiiie uf t.UOI. b«- 

atl of a pvrn aiibjact. peealUrly trMird, and 
. . ....: ttiiEnia uf dafrat, siand ink tbanre fur >al'>, but 

' a Ifixitilp and a niiliance lo >br arliatl^ we may luitly aay 

■ ziS'i-'iM- ihl* lo» i« whnllT aomili^iilMl, atid ihai l-ea audi 

tpioilHUir - - wvuld bp vqeivalrot Mr a lov« ■a>o<>); thrn of 

al/KKiJ, oi : . «r ia otbiT word», * Ivlal !«■> of two baudrrd 

■1(4 aiurl) jttirs "i nuuaA ^tt, aad 8,0lKlf. of th< afluis' uivcry. 




hj tbe node we would nufTKrit. tlir |ou rx llir prrai-al nncaMon may 
be rvOund ta about iiiiL ut nKiney nwl IT jeani nf ii<np ; in4i is tun- 
parrd with tbe abo>v, a aavini: of S3St in raMr;, and of urarl; 13 
yMn of Lne and rtrrtioD, whiUI fuur or ttic paiuliojt* and InicbUiiiI 
DaiDb«r of arUali would be lield up to diiliavtloo, inataad uf one, who la 
(be ordtaarj way, enxfuxu^ admtrailan. 

Ou a plan Mnewbai Bimilnr to the dauUa coai|iatiloa (rial, adoptnl %y 
tta Frenich idatitale at tba cicctwa Air audral* fur reaidcDCa al ItiNnc, 
w wosMbar* two aibibitloMi tbtM, auppuaiaj; ib« nuaiberof CtfUipc- 
tllors lo ba aa abo««, Bflj. The lir>i rkl.ibiii..» wuuld Iv uf &• ciar- 
tooot, balf lifr me. ud iO Mitdiea, of kail Gjurra. life aif. Vivm 
thaw, eiski ur Itu abuuld be rrwaidrd witb preliminary prixr*. To rich 
thr auni of dOt. or Ml. abuuM be paid, i. «. aa equal portmn of 4UU. 
TbrM dlatiaKuiabed candidaiira we ihen oaliited and intiird (o ci'<ii(>r-r 
nilb rack u(b«r fpr tb« uliiinaie Dbjc<t. The* tbe final (real aiiiiicu'r 
Miiulil br belwpen Uicae rishi ur leu, aod Ibp le^ood etliitiiiiuo itinisl 
cuaiiu ul Iheir tij^bt or Ira carloosi and KndJn fioei Ibcir brit cikibi- 
laud, anil rijtfat or ten Gsiatied picturi^i full aize. 

l-'bur ur liiF priXF* ibould li* awardrd in UiU compeliliuii acterdinii hi 
the Dumber vf guud proilutiiona, i. r. XVul. aaiuas (krn TIius fuurui U>a 
nuuld receiic iltLur Ml, rath, auil aa many wuuld liaie KOi'. ur lOUJ. 

Oflbaaatnke rewanled fuur or Sue, bj Ika Gaul dectiiun, aua viouM 
rrcctva Ibe great priM of tk« raumiaiDg IBOJ in addition lo bio prr*iaa( 
rvwarda, aniutintMig loijiciher to UiOI, or tOOl. Nur«1ji ibc liuuoui' luid ad- 
vantax** of tach a tieiDry. if properly awardeil. wuald aahafy an ambi- 
tiuua aailiuaiaulc ariiat. (^oulil any one, amulai Ibe licwuur* and cconfDrt 
oribc (luntius bannt, covy bis Icaa aacceaaful rivaU (Iw >n»U rclaru 
llirif glntoingi bad prvcurtJ ibeia ? 

It; ikit arraagtiMol iba outlay vt money aod line of the coaipclitara 
wnulri br. 

For i9 cartoaet, arara^r ISI aod 1 lowrlh* «acli Tu4d CeMaopil 13^ ytara. 
MatDdiaa.avrrafa Hi. and U daya ......&.., 400 — x 

Bar 10 (ant 0> )>«iiitU)|B, at :tH., utit 

iHMtb*' a(«n(a m — 91 



Gaiir/al Total £l^i —ni it»u. 

Lat n* BOW eeaaider the bra( anode of airardiiif lb* pr>ie9.aMl lfa<- 
way (oaecur* a ooMpetcsi Irlbiinal. arllbaut wfaKb no (o«d raaall <rau be 
depoadeduB. Macb of ilte difiiLjilty «oi»ra fion iba UDcpiiaiaiy uf altai 
Il ouniKlered eseellpDM Ul arti Kinic adtwdiiag hy iliedicUiesof co«i. 
Rion atute, uutaiured lo (be iccliciKal raleaof ari,oilicra xuidrd alnMat 
eDiirrly by coareaiMiiial Iccliiiitalilca. Ajtaia, pcrnunal or ptiofeiaiuaal 
prr-Judlroi bave OM breii aulGcirnllj nauollrd by priaciplaa ur b} ret> 
puntibility. 

The follnwintr retulationa apprar to d* inliilrd to conaldaralkMi mhI 
adoption, lix the judjra ahnnid r<inii»l of rArrr, rl««:lrd l>) llic par. Ira 
inlnvalrd in llio punhaaei and lArr* eli'ct"'t by ti.v nrtitt iMnpPtiii>r« -, in 
all ail peraoN*. Thry thould be circled by baIhA aficr oMniiHlinii ; al 
(rail, tklarnlaahouH baalrliUy obM^red in fe*pot lo Ibon wliu lepra- 
aeat tbe artUti. 

BachorttM<Jud^aUiould aeparately, from albcrs, ciaiaiMaMl crlli* 
oiao die prTfurmBiKts, and wrii^hi* upiakin nf each, and ofrtrrj «urk 
of an ( ai>d, nafBinic ttiaae whicb ha cuotidera caiitlod ludiaUauiivu. ^ne 
111* rraiMia br ikal opinion. 

Thrae wrlilen opiniMia lu be (fiita in praelont to tbe oprainit of ilir ei- 
fcibiUun la ihe public ; bat Ike rcwii iwt to ba c«a6nn«d «i«til a crrtain 
Humbrr of day* adrr Ha clutioi;. Tbcu tlie jud^a abauid, lur llir dnl 
llinr, aieet and diiriiia rnili uibcr'a opiuium, and the menta uf Uie ciini|ie> 
litor* i and, recvnjins llirir matarrd judgntnla, decide by ibe aiajiKiIy ; 
Ibr coniniryotiiBivas being al>* rvcvided. ia onter Uiat publm opiutoa bm 
nniaaiothtrad, aa K ouur MMially la, uuder nrapect fiir a auppuKd uaaui- 
Rioua ilrcialua. 

Gmtlf-nien —Your rtiuimitlM beg to obarrre that, io ibis inquiry. ih«>y 
bare conaidrreil li of the utn)u9l iniiHirtariir liidiicuta bolli *idri uf rvery 
qnealiuu, luidoo i^rrral uccaiioiii, iu ihriiibei* bale abanduaed old fa. 
■uurile «lFn-a, wlirn tbe r'nleoDr ur tbe arfiifliMil ualwelghed a bteur- 
itn iirrjtiditr; liii>y are (hprvfure ibe aiuTe caafldaal la Ibeir aati(ip»|lvu 
of ibia report raai UnK ariih faiourable aiiaMbm, and tarloua aouanlrrMiliM 
at your hanila, and Ihry itoi-rrel; bupe it may erralilally Icail lu tbanfta 
rqnally advnnta^roaa to arliali, aixl lu Uie putdlc; to Ihe ealabtialiiurtttiif 
rr^ulalion* morn viiiitiatent wiUi Ibe imwulablc priaclpira uf«|iiiiyaai 
it<rod KOH, ibnn lliuta which hate tiMuflni rendered cwaipeiilnwa lUa. 
ii*a Ka<I hurtful; aniJ they lru*t (bal aptiHranl dtSeallieB la the vprni- 
liun<<fa wholeaoo* aytlcm. axil out wai^h af awat tbe beal luicmu uf 
humanity, uiU lb« profreaa of tba Fiae Aria. 



PaaMCB lUt^WATt.— Ths ftmnal rfra t-'Ararfiv tfe Frr poblnbe* Iha 
rr^eijiliof ttie Krench radioad companin fat tb* ««ir 1X1^, by whirb It *p- 
pMi* ilial tbe railroads Iiare pttMliieeil luIileUKi to pay a d(«Mlt.-nd of li per 
crnt. on Ibe ainnunt of capital luliacritMtil, liiitdea a pfOipK-t of ^ctia«i<itr> 
able inccaot la fuid'o ycari. ** Thit ictult." udatcrr^ ibr juutnkl. " wiilioui 
being cilKnicly bttlliGnl, is infflcicnlly favuiirabU tn ciiciraiage iiiveiliMali 
In railroad apeculitiuiu i for aul only m the idi'irair ul tbe mrijili ccitatn, 
bm a toducliaa iilIIk ttiKHK u( ii,ff[kiii( Ihciu oia) be capcktut." 



3 



44 



THE CIVIL BNGI\BI::R AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[FaB»UA»»; 



MODKL OF THE PARTHKSOS. 
IV) priarlplH or pan luto arc b«*t UagM b; examplM. Oos dncto 

iprcioirii ofib* «a>>Iini« *pd bMulifitl *ill ailiibit Ihc lutdreiif il noro 
deulj Ikao wbulc fuliat ofdtKBanm Bboul tlie Kbalracl idc*. II i* for 
tliii mMD thai ne mu»i loolc ta (ke idaal mtoKUoa of oof ki of aschMil 
•rclkttMvn, lo Ibflr ariglaal purity utlk* priacip*! nwMor«1«*aiiBf tlM 
puhtto lAil«, Thai arcbiu^tur* hat mmAu mpid ndTancM dariag tb« t«>i 
few jrrar*, and hanaiuinftla higher poailioo tlianit (aniift\jh*li in p«pa- 
Ur rslimaliua, U uodnitable ; but il ia Xill far froiu Its Uuo place, aod i>o[ 
natil ihe workaaf ihc anhllcel bMont.W tfatjr oom warp, Kocktof na- 
iiimal imponaDM, not anill anhfUetoN hm restored to perlecl purilf and 
be IhorXM^hl; poriflcil of oil lalot of barborina and all the itains cun- 
Iraclrd dnrins ihc iltbasetncot of Uie arU, will tboae who labour now k 
aptlouair for Ibc Rrtttal of tba Ait. bare thoraaKhljf acconpliahtd tbcir 
grmt talk. 

The PartheiMii la unlrFmllT «»U«iii(d hy Ibo archiirclaral Hndrol a« 
tiM eteiaplar oi ooa or th« two itr«at aiodvs of arcbiledurc rccoguzcd 
amonpi at, TIm p«rfa«tina i>(ClBuie An— the oonpleU realisaUui of 
il* true prinripl*»— (te bat appeal of Br<bit«c(aral diactiMioa vuat b« 
Inoktil for ainuDgal the ralaa of ibc Acrnpulia — w liatertr diiputr* wc oiaj 
ha** rM|wc1lDK ib« Ina tpiril of dawk architectura ntiut be olUnaldj 
Uttled br rafeivDCB to ibi* gml aulhoni;. So tbal it la bipoailblc lo 
ottrrttia lb« Jnp«rta»» of aK«rtalaing eltailf tba prrdio nainn of the 
adgtiMl aicbimian! of ihe ranhtD«fi. It it Uia bitIi<KBrcbitcctural 
Pandect; ibe truB anil tiebt uodrreumlliiff of ihe oodr oflana which il 
MnbodlM moat be tb« tolP fourolaiinti of all inmlcra C^omtnrntarieau 

Iq eisivliiiiiK the malla of Mr. Lucu'a lakDl and labonra now de- 
iwfjled IB tba Britiih Muwum, we criticiaea wotk whkh la calculated to 
wotk aa Imporiant 'iTeet oa ibe pobtlc laatr. Tho amdrl pf ■ rraloratino 
ef tbe T'artbeniMi, plaeed wher« il h nninraallj acoewible, afliirda to (he 
propic a trpe of (hal of which tltoy poaaeaa ao aelaal ipeei[it«>n — pure 
(Jrecian arthi(«G(ore, Of Ihc tboiiaaiida who will La(p«cl ibia model, 
there will be icarcrljr onceTcn of duinml anncSned and notducaled, who 
will pot br led to adniu-e lh« wonderful beaut; of tha (eniple repreaenled— 
fer thi* )■ the diitiDjuiibliig f#alura (is it nol, rigltltf oonaid«r«<l, Ihv being 
criterion T) of fthti ■r<llilf4^lur«, that iu bMutiea are apprebcaded b; 
(be aimpleat BBdrrsUadins, ud JH for (heir full apprttialioo taalc Ibe 
cneripra of the moit erudite obarrrtr. It m&j well be iniaciuod thai maa j 
of thuae wlia look wilU admiration on the reprearntation of ihc tuasterpiece 
of Grecian art will eBijuin how il come* that we have aoibiDg to perreeltj 
beaattful io our coootry, aa we maf nrwonably hope Ibat th« e;<> b#comea 
more and aon familiar wHb the prio<i(il«4 eihihiled ia tlie Parthcoop, it 
will grow more and more dlisailtdrd with tboac of modem works in trbicli 
th*ie prlnctplea are moat OaK'"=>")' ^■"lated. 

We iakad (« cvofioe oer Bvlic« o( Mr. Lu-caa'a worka to the archilec- 
Ural corn Idera tie na. A critician of the elaborate Kulpture which the 
luodtla exhibit doea ool conic immediately within oar profioce, eioepi iu 
•o brna liie arraaganieQt of the acutpture aflccta tba archiloclnra of tba 
build iog. 

With re»p«ct to the aiiental archilrclure uf the rarthrDon there are 
happily bnt few opporluuitiei for coalrotetar. The remainR are in a luOl- 
clecUf perfect cand llion laethibit inaetear and indubiUbl* manner, all 
tb* sr^i fealurwa uf the cattrkir of the temple. With reapect to the ia- 
letMr, bowoTeri our kaowIed)(c ia uu( •o aattifaclorjt. Time and tioUace 
bava workod ao buMlj wiibtn ihia glurtnut faot, that now the beat e*i> 
dtaeaa of the original dealgn areotlen m belter than mere coujecliirea. We 
kttoer tbe iaterior of tba boilding wai divided Into two ([rral ehanbera, 
tbo Opiathudontvi or beaaurj to the weat, andthv chamber wbicb eoa- 
IkIbciI ihe Ktxat atatua of Mirerea, to Ibe es«l ; btil few Iracci rcnun of 
Ibe aichilBClureof tbeie iwo ^ttu dlriaiooa of the lempla. 

Jn tb« reaioratioo by Mr. Lncaa, the roof of the Opiiihodomna fa tap- 
parted iron ibe gtound b; lonio colomD*; tba roof of the priaoipal or 
Malm chamber ia aupponed bj a double oirder of calurnni. Ibe lower tier 
looie, the upper Conntb Ian, aiKt (or tbia arran^enieDt Mr. Lataa aaatttta 
Ibe following reBaon* in a email octaro volitme, entitled HtnurkM »n tkt 
ruriyicnea, tetnf '^ rcmU t/ ttuJitt md ia^Hirira rcapecfiajt that fioMf 
iaiUiar. 

■■ t a ibe reMorttioo of the ipteriar, I ban adopted Ibal riew of the eaaa 
which ia eet (urih In lb* ae'eolh lolune of tbr .Muimim arritlaga, pwb' 
liihcd bf UwTruateca. Mr. Cockercll hi«. in ibnt inriinie, nna arae- 
loraliou wbicb la malnlj baaed oa the diacoicry I liara •UtiM.In, of 



i 



Ibe Corinthbui capilal In tbe eatiero chanbar ; * and aoppoainf tbit 
beautiful caiaUiuitao costaliu Ibc reaali of all tli« iafornalioB m 
bnncb of tbe aqbjcct,! bad tMpliclUj adopted il; coflaMwKhle dlOtKaMf 
of opinioo, hawe««r, eiiil* aa to lb« propridr of {tlodaE Ibe Ocoo orte 
ovee the Carinihinn, na lilr. Coci^erell baa done, or aefn «aUg the Coein' 
thino at alt with proprietor. Thta otitectioD was arpd wiib peat force by 
tbe celctirjinl Sicilian anii<|aary. La Uoo dl Serradlfalco, ua Ui reeeal 
(litl Id Ibis coBOtry. Col. Leake'a obeerrathNta, hinreirer, appaar oDii- 
cluiiie IU to the Oortntliiaa order ; (be Doric <ntr It duea oot appeaiT to 
rpsi on any sard data, ai ia ttie \Valb>IU Uia caryatidea«(« nsodioctead 
of the Diieic. Aa thi* realoralioD ia purf.haied by the Irutlecaof tba 
Briiiili Muteum Iu illuttrale tba El^in Uitllery. I roeaider it needfblthi* 
worlt afaMild hare the adnBUga iri ail the rwent iaruraiatiun that baa 
reeuhed tmn Ibe escaralioaa aad diacneerie* of KIsg Olbo ; and by tbe 
kiadaeea of Col. Fot and Major Paikcr, I am plated ia oorreapoadeaM 
i*i(l> tile nr«h<teclii uf (l»e WalUalla, and alao Ibvea now cnplafed by tba 
King of Greece at Atbena, «» Ibal all tabrmalloA will tw oabauftod ia 
the realoralion of iho iotnrioi*. In lowood'a folio work, pubtiihHl in 
132T, II engraved plalo Ti, n portion of B Corinthian capital that waa 
brought by hini from lh« Parthenon, and whiob he ctnislJered a fragnwat 
of ana of ibo loner ticra of colamna of lite tulariur ; aud uf the fragncai, 
and bia rcelorBtion from tba aoDr, an etching Ia bvra prtiealrd. t 

In regard, howeesri Io Ibe roof of the cbaabar fMtug open o^r tbe 
aUtne of Iba gaddeaa, that queatiiM bae been naeh dlMuaed ; and it ap- 
pears probable thai the apeitnro over tbe alalue woa Blled wiih aoiM 
innapamit subetanoe, GODduclng alike to ibe double putpuM) of ihe pro- 
tadMn of M coatly a work, and reodering ita eUecl injiienuua. 

NoTs,~-Tlia fidlowiog oammttaicatiuua on the subject uf ilie interior of 
tbe Partbenoa kaiw been oblatutd fiow Alb«ai*i Ibrvuith tbe iofluenor «t 
Sir Mdmond Lyaaa,lh« Britlah lUlaialer at tkd Court, fr«oi Mr. PiUaila, 
(he prvaeot Camtne of Ibe Partbeoon ; and »ita tnm Ur. George f, 
wbo ia ealeemad a graat a)itborlt> on tUa nnaller. 



dlodfliM 

1 Par.^ 






Qauriaat nhmilUd (« <Vr. PiKaJlia ^y R. C Ltirar. 

tit. — la the capital of u Corintiiian rolumn which Col. I^ake all 
to ia ilia worh , OS hating lieea found in Ihc eoalern gbantber of ibe 
tbaann (and on wblcb Jiicoeery Mr. Cookerell has baaed bit reatorutos 
of lbs lower tier of columos in tlie Ulterior of tba Partbaaoa) ta Atbeaa ; 
or can any aoouniit be gl*e«i of il ( 

3d — C^B any data be given for tlie upper tier of colamBi or aupport 
to thtt roof of the *iiati:rv chamber? Mr. C<iDlicrcU hai naed tba ~ ~ 
placed over Ibe Curintbiso iu Lis rcelvrutiua. 

Mr, PitUkit't Antu^r U Mr, Luem't iH^airiit, 
In aoiwer Io ibe firal qucalfon, arounrl the alUr, nrliicli waa Ui« a» 
eient Hecatompedooi Ibc aoil of which ia loircr than Ibe re*t uf ib« ~ 
IbeooB. appear aigns of double coluinoa. The lirtt, wbitfa Mr. 
erell saw, are about Ibree feet in diumeter; and tho* It haa been 
poied, wnxiglyt I tUnb, that ihoMt ■mull cnlumnt lupported tbe f«of 
tJie templo ; bat when Ibe hiokiul-. whic!i aloM) on Itia aootb aids 
teniplct waa kuucknl duMta uuij elearcd away io 1814, traoaa Df 

of fivu feet ta diameter verv diouorered oa the doeringi Ud 

visible i Iheae coluuiaa. which, froai Ibeir aia«, were ablo Io auppocl 
weight of Ihe roof, were up to the half tbe height of Ibe Tempte of 
Dofic order; above Ihem was aDulber tier of columns of tba I> 
ordar; U ibat the lower lier was Ituric, asd the upper luoie. 
aama order of archilccluro prevailed in ihe Temple of M __. 
IniGca of (he Doric order appear in two placea, aod I bare al 

aame to several (raitllera, particnloTly to Mr, Urao•bridgl^ 

Btaiat in this oiplanalion if referred to. A* for the upper raoga 
colnmni, lliey wi^re vertalnty lunk. Tbia I have ascertaiacd fi . 
fragmenls of ihla order irliirh I have fouud in the dilTereot etcaeatiofla 
I have auperiliteiid«l iu the I'srlhciiua : ami 1 alio lielicie that (ha 
traces of (huae culumoa wtiirh Mr. Cvclierell gave were made in Ifw 
lime of the Itomana, when (ho Parthenon was roatorid ; and I hart 
foofld in eicavatiag up to tbe preaeni period four pivcn of the friatt«f 
the Itoman erB,aad ihey made uae uf ilie fame opp«r Iter of colomo— 
lliil h, loulc. Aa Iu the aecund <]uestiun, tii tmeei of Ihe atylobaiaa 
exlal Uiwards the aoolb of Ihe Parilienun. and four ud Ihe norlb akia ; 
but they are cf lbs Bootaa epoch, aa I said before. 

I do ool agrea with Mr, Cockerel] in phtciog the Doric otder oa tto 
Corlotbian ; and, if I may ba allowed Io offtr ny opinion, I aboald 

■ Nm(.~(Fn.in Col. I.hIif'i U'lirk. v«1. L figv Sit, Stnnil KillUoe.)- In Ite iMk 
ttca [liimli'r of tlic Tintitaoi', ■ CodaUilia eaptUI tmi bien l-noii ol laeti aiBaBAaa 
u Inrli Ki tHt ti«'l«f ihii iKt niiiwDi ww* of am &t<i*r. Tit >o»IIdth rf Itidr Ut 
miia iitni Utiit ilDukc itiii Llicrt vai la uiijirr ruiifr, u dMcrlbcd bj PaaaMMa St 
UiTinpii. in'^ ■» ttlil eirr^iiliflpl lu or« of tli* ura[il#i al Pvatew. In ihelaterleraf 
111* i4(nplf «r rhfKtlifl aft tvo ntw vK*it-ik* vr ilhr lofiifi "nltf, eoe of wt^to ta M 
bttVf^ 01111 EsaVH or acAnlhBi oidbI tjr copitOtma u titt orit.r aftenvanta^led C*la> 
lbt*ii. Il pfovt*. Ilfvn^ur*. Iltli tfrtttr %»t wni\ti,tyt,\ \m Iha timroi IVt|4ce , ^ t^tt 
rilmTlui fliM Ibe bunour of IU InvniUoD la CallLmMJJiu, nhu lived alMial Ibi* Una. 

■ Tl^* iMMraiiijo, Inrood bliaiBit xr*. )* nrcFlr Idtal. Up olMervM. Uim ibae* la a 
pKOUartlT 13 UiB Itntlnfc bclac dMTtrtni oa dlOtrRil Milel ef Ih* vvliit*. liiU tccal- 
■ilty (itii* nlMi, anw^loi la Ur. CoclHttll. Io the ftagiBniM af Corlulblau caolM to 
ibeTmihlaor AMlleKpteailiLi.al PliTi*U>, wbldi an bulUbrlMlDBai balttdbieaM 
■ppMF IM tbe hafetota «•» ■tnllir 1* iM^er i « B pw.u , wM, r**m IT (bey 4>d, ttHte b 
no u-ieiiHaa far a ranie of CortuiIil*D cDtimoi In Ih* ^rUwnon, Tm in Ui* MkW 
Implf llftil er Apollo. (I Phrfilla.: (ht (...jrlr.ihlkA n>li4irn hu • ruHUr-y iiqf. Ia 
"Ible^ca**, tbtrv )■ nodonbl irbkiocr thai iht n'luiDii irai ■ "iliiEla" «ai limI oaa it 
a raafei, and lU eOct wat m luf pun Va aobiti aud ol ib« ceUu. 



f. 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 




mj. that in ftncieat tiisei, nhcn good iMle prtTtlM la Gre«t«, Ibe 
Gndis mtvet mwle ■>*« of tl)« C««inibi>D ardar Ia Hpfiort weigbu, 
k«iBM tfci* vtdcr ■< <a'7 ^^ iiBiUliai) of flnt>«ra, and DaluMlly caaMl 
Mpfort Kaytkin; b«ftv]i ; the;, IbtrtfoK, used Tripodvn, or othvr BTchi- 
iMtusl orMment*; tuiil iumI tbe OonDthlon for UDall, (irvlijr. alvgut 
iMjUisfi, •■cb Bi lli« Tumb erf LjaicrUea; bnl Iho Koninn* Uwl this 
Cm idaa, bbiI niMle ttia Tampla of JnplMr Oljnpua of ibe Coriathiio 
oto', M ■Itotbe GaU of Adrian. 

From Mr, Fia/ny b» 5ir Kdaind Lyvu. 

U7 d«ftr Sir Edmund,— I barti rrad o<rr Mr. Lurai'i <|nntion«and 
nttekia'a repUM. uul vrbldi I now relnm. The queatlnn i* onn of 
■tUmcc, and I *■! sot awut lliat «imigb exitti l« drcido qu how 
A* Pkftfa«Ma WW roofed, or bnw U)«l roof wa« aojipartrj. There 
«■» OMteia cotwntu; but ib* ver? Tftgu«nAW of Ptttakii'n ronjMturta, 
dk««t whicb tn ib» RomiD mloralloDt, ftbnn bow much tiDctrUtinlT 
rdCM coM«nilllg Iba aubjrvL Th« Corlnlblan wa* jiitl a* much 
~ la> auppMl kU cDUblsture u aoj other onlft from ii* csrUctt cx- 
k nKj bo jiroved fruw rau; Attic exuo pica. 



1bl« anbjcet, tbw*for«, liu hMn dlaeasied, and il Bppcarinit prnbahlp 
thai IB lb* (MMit •scBTBliun* llie fouDdalioos of the old Tarth^noii, thai 
nut oa Iba *l<e <rf tbn prfwnt building, bft*e dUcloMd Imcrs of ttie 
Daria colaiiun that aapporlnl ibe former buildins; ; w Qre feci In dia- 
Bi^ |g too ptai ^r the rciiuired bsisht uf ibe luwcr lier of columns in 
telMnlOCI aad Ibo *fidciKe for tbo C-jnullilHii nrdrr appfariog coa- 
^ilu Ibrtfia «|ip«r tivr, aaUie fnigmaDtt tbal InwoodditcnvorMl ii th» 
P m fcyaoB, fnm Ihalr vtf, muKi haw briongtd In iba npiMr iirr, and 
At f*f of Iha iMiic according wilh tfaa rrquirrd *Ur ol Ibc lovrer tkr, 
Wi twiDratHM I* DOW umplcted wilh lite luwcr Uor Ionic, anil tbo 
^yer ol tha Carintbkan ord«r. 

Fnn Ike above citiacb it 1> abrlaa* that traeat of the InUrior arrange* 
^^ ^ tha Paftbewn are to indiitinct at to l«aTetbe matter at Itatt a fair 
•oUtct for conlKifersT. In tho Kittb voluue uf the larc« work publittied 
If Ibe TruaUaa of the BriUali Mutt^uin \t a ralalopie of the Ancicnl Mar- 
U« to tb* Mbw Dui Coileclion, Mr. CccbarcH coitfcMiFi Kiat iIir ard«n of 
tbi BiHBf"* ar« Dot clearlf atctrtainable. Up hiTv tndaaiound to collect 
dl Iha principal facta and anaiucula rMpectloR tU iairrnal nrctiit«ctsr« 
rfAe rartlMnoa, aod gire them in ihli place, because, t» bad been tab), 
tkid^^l BMB be to Importut to tbe artbiteciural tliidrat ot a prcclae 
k«wl«l(a el tbe emMDwiliaa of tbe great tn>? of nrecriaa archileclure. 
fte tuimni lor tappoeiog a donblo tier of ootumDt io the eella of Ibe 

'■IfcMMH UKtU Io reaoltc ibemHirM into tbete two. 

1. Tka pfcaeoce of ibo fraf nteati of a CorlalbiMi «apiUl delineated 

a««. 

t, IndkaliaBt in tbefloorof the Inltrior thai columtti once ilood Ihtna 
' tf w Mtall diameter that if of proportiooaia height they would no! hare 
nvtod Ifca roof. 

Vv peopoae to examine each of tlieac mtooa teparatelj. Witb reipaet 
todM int it may, we Ihink, be tafelf prooouDoed ibit tbn ftaKincnU of 
%t Qoriarttiaa capttal b«1oci|[ to a far more aocietit dale than tlie erection 
tIAa PutbaaoB. la lawood'i large folio work, be gires an Ideal re- 
Utmimt of Aa capltBl to which tbcM fragmenta b«longed, but whelhrr 
^ IkTWtonlta b« een«et or not, thit ia otttain that eaouKli of Ibe fmg- 
^ksHtti iwiala to ^ow that tbcj are to be aatlgned la as opiKb wben tbe 
^H^^««« la a nrf differe&t itate lo that naDitsaUd la Ibe buildinKof tbe 
^^TBlhiaiiu Inwood Uklaed give* a eollaitrtl le«i»onj in favour of the 
L fcroothetir of a ilcMiUt tiar of colauiDt which appears at flrat nrj pUosi- 
j^kut, but wbicb on ennuatioa wUl not b« foaod l« ha«a oath weight ia 




it. He aaji Ihal there b a certaio pemUaritjr Id which ibia frapBeat i« 
teicbles another found in ibc lemple of ApoUu, near Phigalit, which leiB- 
pie wu built by Ihe arrbitect of tho Parlhraon— letinDi. TbepoiBlof 
rateniblaBce between the ftagmeau it thit — il it obtMmd la each toIhIc 
tb«t it ia ool flu(«d IB llie tama wa; on both tides. Jl dor* not appear 
thai tbe letciablance eslrada any fitrther (haa lliia— that Ihc (cnrral fiina 
aud intli<alicio» uf dale are the tame ia both capUalt. But eteo tuppotiirg 
thai the almllarily were carried mocb farther ihaa tl rvallf it, what doaa 
the argumeat aneucti to ! Ia two diirereat templta baill bjr lelioat, wa 
find two colusiu toaiewbat retctnblicc each oUier. Bui toielr Ikia it no 
proof (ufiltclfluf the esUteucc of a double tier ofcolnmas la ibc Pnrihe- 
non. For in Iho other temple buill bj Icliiioa (iliat at Phigalia), Il fau 
ueecrbMoami tarmittd that lber« was a double Her of coluniaa. /itrw 
Il it (juiU certain what were the purponea end tiluation of the Corlnlhiaa 
coluaiD. II it stood near oee «ed of Ibe edit and roid^ay belweCD ibe 
lateral nallt, aud anpt>Dritd tbr roof from the gruuud. It baa ncrcr bera 
quetlioned that thit column was a aia^ tr ooe, not one of a raage bu 
■landing in llie iwUied puiitiuo deM-ribrd, and tuppirtlog ibaeeoUe of 
the roof by ittelf. In tbe ohm of tbe Ptttbenon, bewertr, the ctrenia- 
tlancea are allogelher dlfcreot, fur lliere the frasDuoU arc to tmall that 
(be; could mtct hare bdooied lo acolumo wbich ilitcharscd the an ma 
office at ibat at Pbigalin. The argameat ttema therefore reduced lo Ihia 
—if an analog be made between tbe two eaiea, we mutt infar th« iTf« aad 
ailuntioa of the one column from Ibe ute and tituallon of tbe other : aad 
yet from the different aiiet of the fragmeola it i* imputMble to cvscaite 
that tbcy belooBtd Iq columna wbicb dUoharged the tame oOlcea. 

So that even if it be conceded that tbe Carinlhian column wat ac'tia]!} 
Bade naa of al tbe Parthenon, the accidental pretence of two tmall frai;- 
nratt leema but touily data for tbe taiipotitinn nf a whole order. To iW 
obJ«cti«n thai lite Parthenon rragmentt are ol a dote acteriar to the temple 
iiteir, il may be replied that porhapt some of tbe mnteriala of ibc old Par- 
tfaenoo were ni«d up in Iho cooalrucluia of the new. (Por the ParlheMM 
now eiittijig it tba aeoond temple built 00 tba aama lila ; Its ptadeoeMtr, 
tbe aneient Hecataiepedoo baeiog been deifroyed daring tbe invaaioa uf 
Xenea, and the tlooet of It harlajt been carried away to make military 
forli&catioDt.) Now it it tcarccly to be luppoaed, (he uld trmplc liariiic 
beeo violently duairoyud, and the material* of it utcd for font A cat Ion, tliat 
at a ■ul>fer|uent period port of ttioae malerialt (oamely, Ibe eolumni and 
Ifaair capiuU) wutild be found to perfect at lo ba worthy of being ated 
Bgaiu in tbe bnllding of Iha new tenple, which wat lo be Ibe woader of 
Green. There ia every reaaoti for thinking thil (be AtbeniaDt were de- 
lermtDcd that the ntw Paribeooo ibovld be, what ia Iruth il it, iba meat 
perfect tpeolmea of Grecian art. The rnnttructioo and deoontioo of It 
laied the eaergiea of tbe greateel Hrliita and aealptor* of Ibat agt, aad not 
only Iha Albentaat but Ibe whole Greclaa race looked to ihe p«rf«>cl eon- 
pletioa of it with the firtatett ioteretl. la It then lo be euppoaed Ihal the 
poor foooomy of aiing op old materialt would be readily allowed under 
toy cifcuuttaDcett Aod It It not In Ibe hig^bett de|nw improbable Ihat 
cDlomoe would be employed which ill the important poiai* of Ibeir nrdati 
and their dalet differed from the other col umaa of tba temple^ awl wkMl 
bad m«r«0Tei lofftred all the mulilaliont ioentaUe ia lb* raagh aaagca af 
waflkrtt 

1. Tbe aeoond argninciit f<>r the npper tier of cdnnni it that tiacea baaa 
been luaEid Id Iho paveroaot, from which It ia eoaclDded that oolsmot of 
tnaU diametar eoca alood Ihere— ti> ta»all ibat the colamai conid not bar* 



4« 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Fkbrda&i 



btem high enough in retch the roof. Thia certainly is a more fonmlitetilo 
■rgqiMBt tliAB Ilia lut; Ktbons that ir Mlamc* eonvcpondwit tn thciw 
l»diMtioM«otu4U]r«ilfteil, ttmsuBVl haic bcto another order of colomoa 
or Mae attar anbkcclaral Bmabcri IwKrMD ihciu aail tbe roof. Thia 
eoDcliiiian ucnvd prrfvdij wuvoldable «rb to Prortwor Cockercll wrote ; 
bat wa teriB uan relieved btm all Deceiuily of a iappoaillon of the tind 
hj lh< tnbwiiueDl diaoovcrj of Irawa of largfr ootnnK tthUh inmld h«ft 
Tt*ti*i tha ntf. Thora aeeni* bo reaaou w lalcvcr fur nipponag that these 
cvlnmaa ralhtr than the amall otae* wen tntiyici of l!i«i old llecalompo- 
don. It mmj ba craecded that aach lrac«a wauld remain o< Die fonndutiiuM 
flfiha Srat bnlldlvg aaw«tild exhibit Iba foailion of Itacolumaa; aad 
(here ia n« groat improbabilit; in •a[>poiiii{ that tb«M tracaa would lo> 
bewbolly rflaced bj the crciolinn nf tiie aew ranbeiMii.— Wc otireelTes 
hatv repealed eipcrieace of iht Moie alaie of thinp in our awa, m^iIinTal 
«diBe<a. But thrrc aefina no rvaion for preferrlDg the amall rotuninx to 
Ihe large nnei b» haiia; been Ihnee aciaitlly conilraded in tlio mw Par. 
tbcBon. ir cither *ctof rcnaias arr to be avignod lo Ihe pre* lout build - 
ios. rrc hare a perfect (i|tlil tu chouae Mbich we pIcaM —ao tlial llicrc i* 
no abulule rk^miI) for luppoiiojc that the atuall columua rather llun the 
lar|^ Her« [how of lb« I'anbcDoa. 




But there are *rTpril pi<D*r«l MB*i(l#n«liot)B at a eery weighty oaMirx 
whieh lead i(r trretiiilibl} to chooie Ihe largnr culureoe reachinE tmn the 
p>a>eiiient lo the r«>uf at ibe Mt actually bclnogKix lo llic Pariheiion. Ia 
the >fiik toluoieof iho work oa iho Museum colleelion of uartitee, already 
referred to, Mr. Cockrrell ffite* a rrprteeniailoa of the Interior of the 
teuipta miored ; hl« ilrawhig reieinbliag Hie illuttralina of the preaenl 
article, exeeptini; in ibn onlere of the coliiinDs. Now it wtU be obKrved 
thai ia Mr. Cookerell'* drawing, and nlio In Ibo woodcol here cfreo, the 
OtTcrordcT of coluoine nf the rclta are hrlwrrn lire and (Arrr Iimothe 
heigtitofihn upper order. It Kceo)* to lu perTeclly ImpoMible that auch 
an arraugemeal conid hate aolually eii^ted. The upper rmagvof oolanni 
would be tonaiderably lr*i llioo half Hie tit* of the Inner t«D|^, and con- 
aequf-ntly one of lhe»« two Uii»g» mutl bare occurred — either Ibe upper 

eolu < mviit boTc been conatracicd in total dcflaoce of all dttt pruporiioa 

of th«lr height IV tlietr diameter (a drformity nhicli auch an arrliileit a* 
Ictuiiia cuiild neter bare peitnitUtd), oreltc the eulunme of (fae tippgr lien 
moit ha*e been of lea* diameter a« well ae le** hrighi than Usum of lb* 
lowvr liet^— an arrangeoirnl a* anhward and uaenici-ful at cm pMclhly 
be Imagioed ; for lh« ioicrailuruDialion ouxhi lo bo pioparlJi>uaie lo the 
diameter »t tlic columoi, and here we ibnuld hate liir large coluniut i>( the 
lower lier and Uie amall upper eolamui arransed at the Mamdiaiaocea 
Iron Mcti «th«r. 

Thb objeetion appeare perfectly fatnl lo Ibe ciialeoce of the upper 
range. It iiny lie added thai, rirrwrtl <|uiio iadrprsdenlli, Uie leuo'nd 
Her uf colitinD* It but a poor loake-khitt cuutrtcauco for selHnft uldi- 
lional hriglil, mill nne which we ahould iwiier ailriliulL' lo Ihe arelit- 
letla of Ike I'arlheiion. The whole Luildiaft — ihnl ta, wlitre llii> srchi- 
leolare it el^arly dHerreioed— exhibit* a perfect ainiptlciiy and our. 
ncea of dcaigni Mally at variaoee with this auppodtion, for nbieh we 
bale chewn tbiit ihrrr la nn u^fute tMtuUy, and asatUit nhirh llierw 
Bra f> uiany powerful a prwri argamanta. In iLe etlenor of ihe teaipt» 
Iheeolnmnii wera nil of one order, ahd alt lopporled Ibe tnif from ibe 
ground : if, incianiioing Mr. Lura*'* beauliful uiodc), Ihe obeerver will 
iiDBKiar that the taiue amRgtnwnl wa« obacered la the interior of the 
ouUding, be will, wc think, be dispoaed to agree with aa, (hat the 
brauiiful eymmetry and uaity of the whule It greatly aubancMl m thi* 
anppoaiiioa. 

If we tttppoae the great ehamb^r of the leople tuppotted by a nafc- 
■ificeat nai» at Jofly coluiwia ritiag to the luof, the Kind ianUaily 



pictarea a soble tnleriar, hanaoaitiag In it* aetere and ainiple 
with nbaliheeyo hoa been Uugtit to eipeet by eurvefinii ibe *tleri«e 
of the buildiDg. If, on the contrary, we tuppoee ia tbr Inlorie 
nti^c of diiniouliire eolumoi Bupponlog utbora »ii]l anallrr thaa tli 
lelret, oor pretoncplepd nullooa of the digniiy and tijuplicity of 
Partbcoon are entirely omrtumed, and me are forced to allow thai i 
Grfrfkt Ihemtehes gate a precedent for Ibe later parodiea aiid bat 
rout) ailaptatioiii uf Ibcir brautiful archiloclure. 

Tberc i> good reatoB lo hopo ikat before long ihli matter will be i 
be}<iu'l all diftpule. Mr. Luoa is far too eaergetk a loirrr of the ara>1 
teaea hit talk haU done, tie purpoMB lo tliow Gorily tiio *tTj attaMj 
whirb he bn* ftiralibcd an admirable repreieetaiiimii, for Ibif put|.uwe 
exaraiuiag, in Ibe mjnuteal manoer, all tktit renaiot of ihe I'artlwg 
anil of clearini; up, aa far at poteiblc. all controrertiearrtp'tlii)]! lU 
dlicipica of true arcbUacturo will await the true reeull uf hii laiaiiun with 
iritcre*t, at lending to elucidate poicta of ibe tery biKbei.t arebiirciucal 
Importance. It may anl be inupponune lo call to mmimbmiKr Ibat tha 
dittlnguiUilogebaraeterltlie of Grecian iirchitectnre it kaiff hud «*in^- 
cijy, Bod thai Ibcreforc, is nil enact of (toubt, we ahould lean lo ihe opt- 
nlon which favours ttie einiiiltal form. In oolblng it the ttaipJe^ atawtl. 
(ifj ao adoilrahly deiieh>ped at tn pure cUitie an, at dlatingaobed Iran 
Ibe tuhaeqaent imllHlion* of it ; and iheiefure it U by foUawing »f< 
traeet which are Indkatiee of tha gicalrnt aiDiiiIicily, that ' 
nre n^l likely lo bo UDraiellcd. tVilb Ibit liiul we i)Uil the 
ihiiokitii; Mr. Locaa (or Ihe faluablo iaformaiion wUch be bia pcra 
cuiiijutiiiioated. aud cungraiiilKing him cordially, not only »a the i 
tloa of fame ubich hia nodela will win for hin, hoi on haviug cvia^f. 
a work Mhich will have Ibe moat poweribi cITeel in elevating Ihe pa| 
toate fur Irae dattio archileclure. 



ON SACRISTIES. 

Very little hat ever beeu lahl on the auttyrci of Sacrittiet, or. an 
•re more uiually calleil now, Vctlriet. in the ICecIetiulifKul. Vel |i 
be doubted wbelher (oeh an appendage i> uot tbMlolely Dtte^ary 
tburch ; from the inipostlblUty of diapentinx with lU uao, if the Df 
ofticet are to tir pn formed wuh any ceremoninr, not lo aty drcew-v. 
not only ir a recrpiacle required fur the urnamrntt uf Ihe allar. Ihe'chn 
tod the clergy, but ll can ecarcely comport nlili tcriiily reverence 
change of vcttncat to lake iilac« in tbe prcKoco of an amraitiled 
gBlion : tbe high pcwa in (lie cliancel, irbicli uerd ofim [o hide t 
vera in roeaa country cbiircliex. haiiug by Ihit liion prdij itraerally 
Bp|irurea;aBd Ihe deiico of tcrernlUK of opart iif Iba are* of thecliurch' 
being now fiUy rrgardcd at an expedient Btarciely Jiuiiatbu uudrr 
vuiertctocy. 

ll ia nut dlHioiiU lu derive a general rule for ibe rl(tlit pntiiiuai, 
treeral imporUtUt detail* of tin- amiimcdicJH uf Satrialies (mm 
iBtiuli of our old ehiirtiiei. For allhi-0(;h oiinlinn aiicieol cBamnln 
far from DUtiieroun, yi-t m a lurec pr>'pi)niiin uf oniooelind chaneeE*. 
iiia> olj^rre unniiMikcnblc Irar tt ol Sncritliei n hioh hute Ui 9 dratr«y 
fnim tliBse n« deduce thnt the' pritprr ailaBtiun i.f a Saeritlj i* us \ 
iiurtb <ide of Ibe chaocel, towards iu CAilero part. TIii- ruoxrna for II 
poiiili»n ar«oliii>jUt: il i* near IW iilUrClo the trrTice uf »h.<:h It 
entity, like the rtgidly preterlhed Diai«tiUvm in a Omk churrh 
etpeeinlly belongs}: llw door into It fall* eooeeait niK betwc-u the ' 
tbe norihem Italia and the Rirpa of the tacraniini, ih« aauth aiilc 
yTe occupied by piKina, nedilia, ood the pncal't riilraiii.-e: and p. 
Its prenrnrv, aUaja ralher inirutiie. ia Ira.i to <iu the nonh i 
would he If il imifrr J the aoollicn pruepoct of tbe church, whict 
clim&le It, as a general role, in »a ioulPntirc ipote, the atrar Mr. 

Aocleal Sacrliiiieii remain in tli» aboie citaaliuu ai S. Mculaa, i^ 
Beet, Kei.I; S. Swilhia, Leadrnham, Llnuiluabiie ; 8. Mntj, Ud, 
auric), where Ibcre ta a north chatiirt-aiale ; S. Andrvw, Backwrll 
Bipfiei, Sacrialiea iu the tame inwUion opce csiiied in !i>, Mary, 
Michael, Trnnipingt'D; All SaInU, Terenham ; S. Mary, Fen Din 
CBmbrtdge.hlre; S. Mary, Stone, Kent; aud S. John. Shoiln 
llfrkt. Theie etuinples arc iiiki<n at lauduni. Kiterooi coebelc^i ■ 
north chanrrl-wall; the aliH-iicoof wiuduwi ii> IIibI pari; lh<> uroraW 
-1 iioftii cbaiicrl door. le or rail) blutked. tin nildition lu tlvr pncal't 
llie 'lulcr iiiuoldicga of which mill uf^Bo be found tii be not o( an 
clinraeicri «nd fKundationt difcuvcml in digging (inivel ; re' 
t.irm.r fcinipnce of a Sacriitj, and hi-p peculiar! cits nvi nplalnn 
other tnppottiion. la tome lew eacet Iheee may tieliiceaof 
Chapel; morh more gcnrrally, however, of a Saciialy, atluwed 
ruin, or dratnijed, by ibc holder of Uie great tilhen. Again, r., 
more etprciallx Uciaclied onrr. betnngril geoerally to matiora^i 
lained RiaixiRicuii, fw Ibe take of which ihrj have been or 
rb«D»rtea»Uo opened lo tbe cliiitch b; arcbes, gui by a laitUh 
that we may conclude ilie mnrkt miniiaoed abote to be Inic ' 
Saciieiy, not of a chnulrj chapel. 



IW6.] 



THE CIVIL ENOINEGR AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL, 



47 



f 



nWoM wc Iran Iba qnrilioa or pofitlM, w« boiI c»m1«b» the prM- 

Mrra( kuh arehiun* oho, biiinc p«nlf r»«»l««-il Ui« rale w« kfa Uf- 

■ ■u, h4*e placad liimr 8u:tiia»v« at ih« rMtini p«rl oT Um Dutifa 

I ii>* (kuicc), in ikc asste beivcro iIm oonb tl*l« simI ibe diknccl. 

ivi*iD Miiaatasta •e«in t« bt Rktocd bf llili alltniUoii: il i4 panicu- 

lwl| cwuveatckl Air a cuacc»J*d nin<lioj[ tUircBM to lb* (Hilptli it aNoida 

■>. •«l,i>B/d comer CO iL« oatiidr ; it aUon* a( Iba door b«>»g |v1ii(«d t<> 

' •! aa H)( til ttutim with Ilia allar <ipac*, i*hkh U bll to ba a gain 

.'- . ( uiitMjcrini: thai ■» maiif lay ppDjilr mi>Tl la lb* i^nlU; . N«*er> 

tb(lt.u. iiwtrpcn<}cnil* of tbo arnumcnl /ram aiilharilj, w< prtlcr ibe ulJ 

maajtvoiaAi, bj frhkb Ibr (iiiitiauij of tb« Sacriaty lo iba alttr ia miio- 

'i;u"l, Um ■•» nittJirw vl lb« iwr(b aialv M prci«titJ, a bcUer dialnba- 

'<-> f ligbt >(> il.i> eluinc*! ia joined, and tha aUlU lu Ilii> ovHli >k1( ar« 

kH (ft*. Id a wurd, mp ihiak it will br /rlt tlial ihi* arnncesifcl har- 

■Mlxf* nor* mih Uif dUpofiiiiMi and kr«|>iBi[ of aaoldcbarrh; and 

•■7 oft** the fMliafi of a Iboaglilful obtoficr of oai old churcLes j« 

Mlraiion. cTCD tliuuftb be uiaj find il difficult or iinpuaaible ki 

ibc ill Muf df iho Datura vf, or lb« reaH»> for, bit inipmaiua. 

V* mr* awar* tkai aiantpla* um; bt baod «f Sacriatip* b«iill in tlH 

Mia. aDi< Ml at iba «u4arB part, of th» aartb aid«, u ai S. Marsaret'a, 

tOMtir. nbna II cKCapwa tba niiMla of th« three haja compoaiag lh« 

H*tb cbaot>l*aliil« ; or «t«d of Sacrltllt* In lh« middle ba; of tlie louUi 

kd*. ai at All Salnta. Utatdaiiiaa, K^Dt; but tbla bs ibe r«K, perhaMet- 

-."I]r, in Third'Poiniod cbititlita, aod thnite of a mure <liKnl6ea kind 

itK clau w« ar« now cooaidarlag. Tbe ca*tvra vdi? of lfa« norlh 

Ml* Will bi foaad, WB b«llt>a, tbe uinal placa Id tnoderau tbur<li«« of 

(kf UlddU-Voliilrd |>*rl«d. 

Anoibef poMltiM, (•ntelitnaa cboaeo !■ modefn liiuef, U to be leverelj 

lipilii II 1i il The Saeri>l7 oii|[hi uut In be eajiward uf. ur bt^hiud, (be 

4itar, wbatbtr ll be laade b; ad'aucmc (lie altar aad rerrilM aad Icatjag 

t KTt«g«d liftce t>et«eta il aaJ th« eul nalt, as at Hulj Tnni[;,%!a«i- 

trvl^, or bj buililinK a temidrcuUr apw for il, ai al F.ainiangel nhiircb, 

' We u* Bwtra thai lame haee bt'ld Ibai li.eapthlai Ua- 

'iRrcbet la thii couDlr; nere orlKlnaJlf m Dtud : aiS.Jolia, 

L _. . ._,.,iril*ad, Kmci. Ibe amofcenneai rnaaloa : we anawcr, tbal 

r*m nvre Ibii Ibe caar, whkh wc ttn tiul ticlicve. butli llie DonaiMaqMe 

-lit- irid tlie apee it»rirba>« paMnnl awaTt and iha Cam t<ei well (Wrody 

til)* d**«r*e nteotioa. 

' 'It willed Ibe rljiht poaitioa of (he 8aeri»lj, ve ftitl iMDtian 

1 rtMulara reapeetldK ifal* part of a ehureb. We believs 

uifli w bate K iean-lo ruof. to diaiinituiib il frum ■ 

^<.. .. J .. :.^>re olln, if miC al*raf«, hai a (able. M*e are aot lura 

tiu a M|UfBlr i;Blrle ii ttet lo tie (ccuiiuuemlfO, nhcTr ^ere ia ao allar i 
br cta»|i!(, io aolca : (b« piclurcBiiueiirip uf three giVlvt U, ne are con- 
Umii, a taara ta tome of oar brM irtMtera archiu^ia. S^ill, irihe Sk- 
vMj ran* at rigbl aaglei Ia (hr aii< of (ha <hureh. iattemi of parallel la 
It, « ph\e HMJ be alloiied;but tbU (rraagnaieiii ia uol lo be eoeua- 

The (leLiila in the Saerisij mar b« of a Iciaeccleiiadifal character 
ikan li)']«ca'Imiltrd iaiu the cburtb iUelf, Aulbiiriij fiyr tLIt itfttiindln 
t ii«iil«<j (Irgrre id Ibe ioi'ance* abo*e; the «burcb o( 6 M-fT-'^x'- 
awd aa tb« IthiM, aad S. Leochnnl, at Frankrart-oii-llie-MaiDe, are 
ctamptoa ia palat. ll maji l>e qaeitiuned whether (hi> lierncc i* Iti bo 
OliBded tit more di)[ail>ed fhurcliei. H'e C4uiiitl ol>|»cl !» a QnriiUr.n 
toit acUoinej ia a Sitridj : tet Ihtiu be lioldl; aitd uuiliiguisrdl) ticalrd. 
suit me wa ii«t atirc Uiat a Wu aecBlac atj Ic baa uot beca ■uinctiiara ad- 

Il«pe«ll(i|; I«f^ ar towo cbarcliei, the rnlti are not to ttrinsenL la 
baw Ike SacrUliea maj lie ia an; cuoveaieot »iiita;ii)a ; uf I'uurkr, uearer 
te ^ur Iban otherniie. Tbiii at S. Mar;, id-ilulitFF. llirr are on the 
■nil aiite, ami hate an apprr ilurj orriums Qitrd Tor retiiltdCF; in ibe 
abler cbvrel) of S, Morj, Tenkeitiurj, lb«j are U'nunrullr la'ihnl n|Mrt- 
■aaw to lUo *Q<itb. Id aacb tbixcbea ibr Satrnl)' vutlillo glon wjih 
K^^nr aad vrnaiDeDta ao Iru Ihao ibe taort a^crrd partji af ti*c btfildirifj. 
T\t Sarri<ile< al S. Mioiato, I loretice. and !>ta. Maria Glorioia de' f'rari, 
Vwifv — Ibe firtt Miuili uf tlie auuth chaacet-aiatc, the latter luuih of ibo 
»«Mb iniii»Fp4— are remarkable eiauiplea. S. Aaa*ta>ia, Venma. bun h 
aoUe Aa)'riii)r. aurth a( Ibr aoiih IrauBCpl. The I>Ufliiiii. al Itlilaii. hut 
lanattra uorUi and »«<ith ; im ariiuigrmcnl ailupUili nut uiiliappilj . iii S, 
■!'•( Luixtiia. Al Cvli'ttDc ihvj lie 111 Uic ourlU ; ami lb' ilrltibTil 
S. I'rtrr'i. Iluluc, iM alto Io llic Uunli uf lh« Durlb Iibu» L.I. 
ih« whole Ibe aurlb. fue dijiiilied cbiiicbea sImi, ia the better mde. 
TW Vdalriv* of the churche* iu Unidoii baill after t!ie itrral (trr — which 
fn^tAc man} a inrer fruro *upcrBcial nliaerrrra fur tbeir •u|i|i(iicil tvm- 
ralbcr Iu be irfardid aa iostaucia wherem Uie aivliiircta hai« 
Ibe true iUc« uf i*hal the} ncro building; plariDK il where 
iicoieal. Utliaj ll for iU vuriuui utet, (uufuituunlcij aol wilrl; 
Mtfiwia 'lat*,) and makiDj it a nol unnorthf ■jipectlage to thtir fuatlj 
tisnlkeK. ll vaa neilhar practical skill, nur buldiieii, uur aainmi that 
«M aaatinc lu wir ibeo arcbitecta. Tbe I'ajaniaui tit Iheii age apoili 
11 aO. 

Asd dtla ooniiilrrallOD lead* w> oalurallj to »b«erTe Ibe iBipgriaatv 
of H krdiitcera dfar); mailering Ibe idea of wbul be » goi»K lu de- 
Mp befnrn he begiaa. Tbera ia oo pari nf a church tiLich h«a ao) 
Ha pKvlor um, aad oii|bl not Ihrfefur* Ki lia*e a peculiar t-liaracter. 
Om doe* Mil aee bow « Bottbeea or aouiherD purth could be otbeiwiaa 
tm a pablcd bulhiiag, witb lia aiia at ngbi aoj^ea l» the cbufcb. 



lanaiti 




Asua, ooibioK caa be mora diilinct, or pecoliarle ipproprUU b> iM 
Ban, thiui the cbaracler of a chap tee- hoiiae. SlioUartr, a chaotry, or an 
•lalewitli eaatem allar, wmild »«em to reiuirc a fAbM not: a lean •to 
roof, ataia, befiu tba itibaidiarr «»« of a St^nuj. Tb« »*l«ti<is, iben, 
•t lb« deu(li«l diapier-booae (onn for Ih* SMriatf al a oeK cbiftvli al 
Keiwick, iDd at S. Jolm Uaptiti'a, Raalover, iraa a great mistake 
V*'"€,^""* ■ *'°* "f diauiminatioo befweeo lie itfo kindaof botld- 
lag- nutated pardonable nialuaiM«f Ideaa i* to be obaarTrd ia Iba 
reatonitua of S. Marlio'a, Cavter^rj, wbere a iiacide«cf|ut buildioK. 
part 4i*le. part ctiaulrT. la added aa a Sacnetj. aod a celJar fue iZt 
etoTc, towarda the Reslem part of Ifae aonb aide of iln ebacccl. ll u 
• «reat niauke alaa to build partuea for Saorlatie*. Th« w-iitloo i« 
•BOH IncoMieDieiM, beaides that tbo parvit had, and ■tebi bate aaaia 
an apprvpriaie laae. Nor can ihii iiaa of aa nucieat iMrviaa be wdi 
rtefcndwl, ateo wbeea Ibe aaniit; baa nariefaed. Thia wu the case at 
h-emerloo, GIoDMaunhlre, and led perkepa Io tbe blockiax up of iba 
pr»eai'« door to thai cbarth. We ba«a aees a uodcrB dnipt in wbldi 
the cliaiKel i» raiaed and a Sacrialjr fnraed like a crjpi bdci* h ir u 
«w«ieah|e tbat <re«i peculiarity of ttta oiigfat juaufj ibii arraiii^m«« - 
'"^i it la nut to be lecumneodcd. * 

Il nUl be at once a««'tt Ibai if our obMrratiom be true, few drricea 
are more eaaentialljr objectionable ibau uuc «« bate uflrii >(o|U«red i 
namely, the ua« of a buildioft, op^umg io Ibe cburth. aiate-true or 
ebaattr-wiae, bjr au arch, aad parclvMKi olT fur a Hacrlalj, Ibe iHcaD 
perhapa beins placed abine. It U altogether a eonfuaifm of tdeaa. 

Any aeeolar uwa i>f a *e»t»j an ta lacumpalible wiih ibe rdiiriuiaa 
onea, ibai we cannot (oDcciTe aay anugenieoi wbicb aiiall ee«biec- 
lionably Huit the two cviubiQed. Vo tia>a cooCacd uurwlrea to potm. 
IBS out lb« bcfct coufae lo aJiipi wit)) rrfrrence la itie aacrlai* cooal- 
dered ool} In ii> higher att.—EciUtwtagul, 



8USPEKSIOS AQUEDUCT OVEB THE ALtECllENT 
BIVER, PITTbBL'aGII. 

TbU work, meolly cuatracled aader ib* euperiatp„j„ee of Job. A 
RoeblioR, the deilK<*»r and loatraeior, ba. mipti-d t\u pUct .rfih-,^.i 
ituadea atraoore which frinnally waalijillb, ibesui,. ^f PennaTi™. 
nia al tbe wcsiera trrmlDalitm of llie I'eiiDijtiania C'wiul "'riTa- 

Tbe CouikLJ of tU e.t, vt Pitl.Ur^b. bj whom, in coaaequent* ^ *. 
•rraDgement with iha binte, Ihe tolls oo (b«.q„fduei are vflM r«Mii«i 
and who are bond to keep the work iu rej.^. deci.ird ua re.boiWI«r' 
and after cooilderltic eanoua plana, adopM tftal «f Mr Ituebtia* 2a 
eatered laio eonlraet wlih bin to re<coa*Iruoi iba mMuuiuolcaiiua f.r ihl 
proas tutu of 6«,000 dollara. lacludiai- ifcr rewnval of (b« ..Jd uii«|«,»« 
alrociore and ibe repair of lh« pier and ibatmenu: a eerj .wallVuB. 
iti.l«-d fur a work «( auch oiagoiiede. Aa ibu wmk ii ibe tir.i.^il« 
k icd eeer allea.pted, iU cuutlrucilon apealu well Ibr tbe enlernriM of ih! 

Tbo reiDoaal of Iha old work wai cnimaeaeed in Sei/tember IKU ■■..i 
boaUWerapaaMiltbrMixh the ocw aqiieduci to Mai itgs ' * 

Tbb wotfc CLwiala uf T apana. of i do frei «cb. f«im ««,„ ,« ,„i^ ,^ 
pier. The (runk»of wwHi.and 1.14« f«||ouiE.i4 f„, «,d, .,b„„„J^^! 
UH at M,. tbe aide, »! feet deep Tb,,c aa well .. ,„, u«.o... .ITcJ^ 
poaedefaduDWecoumeufJiiBch whil. pioe plaiik. Ia«l .l,.a«oall» ib. 
lw» cuiiraea Cfi«..u- earb mher at fi^Ui auglrH, ,„ „ ,„ i„„,\ ^J^' " 
IjCT-miikofgrealWMUsilia.ia tliffoee.. kuOSfieni lo bear i(. own wieiii 
ami 10 ream the elTrcis of Ihe m..« . iwlpot norma. Tbe bullonj uf ii J 
truuk re.l. o|«iu trau.verac bcama, arr.ngrd in pal,, fou, f-_. „^. 
bet«eeo lbe>e, Ibe pwb wbicb euppurl ibc »id» of tba trunk arr I»t 1« 
wi.h d«»e-uiled leooo., .eeured b, b„lu. Tbo „„.,ide po«,. wh.rh . uh. 
poit the anlewalk and lo>..p.:h, lacl.n. outw.rxfa, .„d .^ n...„ecTe.J ». Th 
tlie beaiiJ* iB aaimilar manher. F.aeh truuii.|.o*i „ held by two brae™ 
Xl X 10 iurlLaad uiUrcied wllb the oulaide uoMa bv a d..«ble loi.iTr 
9| X 10. The iraak-pmia arc T i»U>e* aquare on i«p. ;„d 1 x U^th!. 
bcclilh. lrai,.vrr»pbr-m*are27 feel IwoK, and 111 x BiBch.-t • the anawi 

l>el*.p,.lLBl«»ff tt imluicht,. U W.I] be otwoed. ihol all n-ZTirf 

Ibe fruimii.(aredooblr, with the e«c..:^.iioD ,,( die (waw. au a. to arfaiit 
the .u.i.eu..«o rod.. I^acii pair of beawa ta ."py«rled o.. rart »,d "„( 
Ibe trunk by a double auapenaiuD rod of 1 (ih inch ioomJ ,r«D. bcm ,„ ihll 
abapeufn aUrruii, and mouiileil on a small «a»I-tfDO aaddle, which r«il 
«uilie*aW». TbeMai.ddleaarea.uoecicd.on lop of ibe cabl« b. 1.^7 
wliitb ditDiMik Ml >.ie fruio iJ,o pi.r Iv^arda ihe ccotre. The iid.. Ii 
llie (ru..b i.et lolid agaiu.! th. Iw.l«. *f maiourj, „l,^^, ,„ .retted .« 
each W-r "^ud al.uin.ci.1 aa haae. tor lb. p;„.u,d, ^t,^!. auppon ,he 
<aLlo». Theae p^^amld^ which are eooalmrwd of 3 Wo«*a of a dnrahU 
coarae, hard giainrd aai.a-.ione. riae S feet aboie Ihe l»r«| »f ih- ii' 
WBlkaod low.paih, aud nieaaure » x i fm oo Inp, and J v eil.Wl'^ 
l.-« The «de.-.Jk .«d l-w.paih heiD, 7 fcM wide, le.,, t tiVl^ 
f.ir the paiuge of U.e p)t*mida. Tbr aui.ple wnlth of ihe low aad A^ 
path la lberef..re eoi.lracted on eeery pw-f, but iL.a arranieneal on^mTZ 
.ocou.eiiiej,«, and wa( Btwawr, for Ike .u.ih:u.i«o uf the cable."," 



48 



THE ClTlIi ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[FzBKVi 




ne cape whtoh niter the Miltlln ttnd cables on tli* pjmaiAt riw t 
ftd ftbo'o tbc ii)M<>c or Uuok r<iiliii|j;, aad woald «b«tnict Uie fr«« pu- 
HKO of Uic toir-linc i but Ibis ii vb*>>t«<] by an iroD rod whicli pwve* over 
fte \ap of Um C4p, aod fennji a gnuliiKl slope down to lk« railing os ««ch 
aM« of tha pjrminid. 

Tlw win cablM, which are (be nain tupportaf tlie atnictute, are Mt- 
pcnded neil la the tnmki one on eacti side ; each af tbcec two oaUea is 
•udlj 7 inches ia diaaetcri perTccll; tolid aud conpavt, aod eoaalracled 
In vae pie«« fnna ebofD to shore, l,17S h«t lung ; it is cunpoeed of 1,WQ 
wirMof jib inch duckotas, wUich are laid parallel to (stli otli«r. Gr«at 
fan baa b««a laliM to insure aa vqual t«uioD of Iba wife*. Uiidatiua 
ii gnaTdad against bgp a ramiili applied la each wire Miwraltt)', ilicir 
pnaamtioii, bowcvcr, is imureil fur cciiHio bjr a cluse, coiapact. aud 
OOBtUMOiU wrappiac, nadcof aaacaled wire, and laid uo by niacliincrf 
ki tiw noet perfect naaocr. A caatinaoui wrappiax ti aa impDrtant 
inpr«««aicDt, nhich, ia tliia case, ha« beea fi^r the KrrU Line succeisfuU} 
api^led. 

A welUcoiistnicted and wetl-irrapped cable presents tlie appearance of 
a Mlid c}Iind*r, wbidl in Hlrrnctb (reatly aLirpau» a cliaiu. ciaile of 
bars »r tbc saiae aggregate trclinn or wcighl. It i* nut uiilj Ihc (rrst 
relative itr»ti|lll «1*lrv nhicb rtadcri- it superior to bar iron, but its 
greatof elasticity, i>bich enable* it lotoppoit tlfoag and repeated [vibia- 
tim*, add still more to its *alae as a iinierial for bridge bnlldiBg. 

Tba eslreniili«a of the eahiM da dm eitecd hthv gruund, but coDQert 
wllh apchor chaioa, which, in a curred line, past ibmusti Urge mane* uf 
maiooTTi Ibe last lloksoocupjinsa vcriicAl pnailiuji. I'be baratampos- 
lag theae «li«lii« aTcrtgo 1 ) x 4 iucb, and arr from 4 to 12 fret long ; 
l^«j are faanufaclured of boiUr vcrnp aad forKcd in ooa pine wilbout 
a wetd. The ciUenie links arc anchured to hnaTy »al-ir«a plate* of Q 
fset square, which arc held down by the fauadatwn*, upon which Ihe 
weight of TOO peri;bp» nf maMiiiry rests. Ihe atabiliif uf Ibis, part of 
th« slmcturc it fnlljr imurrd, ai Ihc rraitlanoeof Ihe aadiuraKii ia twice 
aa gml a* the grratctt stfaiii w nhicli tha cbaias oaa e<cr bo lub- 
JM4ed. 

The ptsa of aDcboraKc sdoplcd oo Ihe aqaednet yaritt fDateriatl; 
from thoM niribndi usually appljrd to iiui|»Dsiaa bridovs, wheio an open 
fJiaDnel i* fnrtnrd undrr [rnund fur Ibe [lastage of the chains. On the 
■qiiMlucI, tbfr chains beloie ground are Imbedded and complelet]^ sur- 
round^ hT cement. In the conatructiun of the maoonrj, Ibt* aiaierial 
and cooini'aD lime niorUir haic bccu abundaatly appUcd. The b»r» are 
painted wiili rud k«d. Tbeir prcKnalion i* rv'udercd cerlaia by Ihe 
)[»nwa ijuiililf «r cakareaui cciacats lo fitetftit otidalioo. If moUture 
thonld Hud iu hh; lo the tbiuie, it will be anturalrd with lituc, and 
add anolhrr cakareoui cuntiag li> tlie Irnn. Thin purtion of the work 
liu beee execaii'd wiib scrupulous cars, so as to render II Dnoect^mry 
on the part of ihcMe who ciertiac a sarvcillanoc orer llie •truciore to 
csainiDe it. TUv re-paiutiog of Ibe cablts arcry tno or thicc jcare will 
iOMtr* their duralioo for a lung perivil. 

Wb«re the cablte Ttn on thif saddlea, tbolr (iae Is increased at two 
point* by introducing ihon wlr«e, a&d ihui fomlng iwella. which Gt 
lata cotmpiiiidiLiic recesiea of the caitiag:. DelireeQ these swc-ll*, Ibe 
c^ble in rurciLljr pretied donn b; three sets of strong iron wvdgtv, drireit 
thraugli vuuniug» vthiuh arc cati iu the »idB uf the ^nddle. 

U'beo liie DierilB of Ihe *u!)pi-a*ion Ijar werv ditcuvied prettous to the 
coninienceireiit uf tlir ilruclure, doahls wrn> tmard a* to Ihe ilabilily of 
Ihe pyramldi nod the nmionry briow, when une^^uitl furene shuuld Imp- 
)Mn tu dlsiitrb ibu equilibrium of adjoining spans. It was then proved 
by a •[aliaiioal deniunstrailuit, tlint any of the arthee with the water In 
Ihe truck could ^uppurt an eilra welKbt of l:tO tvits, witlioul dislnrhnnce 
ki any part of tbc work. In tlii* ciAoiiualiuu, no Bltotr>sti4:e at all nae 
made (or Ibe fireal r«sitlaoee of the wnod-wurk and the (lilTncsiiof Ihn 
Iruni ilaeir. Uuriag the raiaiag of tlie fram*>worIi, Ibe I'Teral arches 
were repeatedly subjected to eery cuunderable uncqaal forces, which 
ne*eidijitur(ied (he balance, and proved Ibe tarracUieta of preemis caU 
Gulatian*. 

The elifTaessaail rigidity of the structure ii eo ^reat, Dial no doubt is 
entcrUiiDed that each of the •a^eral ar<b«e would sniluia it't{f ui catc 
the wood-work of the itexl one tdjuiniug shoald be couumed bj &r«. 



Tbfl woed-wotit io haj of the ardiM Mparatoly aij b« remoTcJ l 
•gbstituied by new ■atefjal, wIUmmiI tActlng Iha e^vOibrlaiii «i 
titxi one. 

The original Idek apon which the plan hti been perfecierf. wis to i 
a irwdn trunk, strung eooiigh to (Dpport tta own weight, and 
eoougb for as aqueduct or bridge, and to oombioc tbi* nl/DCIiire ' 
wire cables of a snfflcjeei streiiglh to bear *afely the great weight 
water. 

Tbc pUa of this work, therefore , is a oombinatioo which prvwDti ' 
■uperior adrantage*, Tie.fgrriLl ttmptft, itij^ncn, M/r'y, itmrmbiltty, i 
coesoMy. 

This sjilctD, for Ihe firel tioie tucceesfuUy carried out on the PL 
bnrgh aquedott, cuay beteafirr hr applied, with tbe happiest reaaltBH 
railroad bridf;e«t which have lo feiiU the powerfnl weiithi aitd 
vibratieni, which result from the puMBge of beai; loeonotitM and i 
ol can. 

RiaaiiK.— Tbe fjnsnlilie* ia ttie following table arc calculated 
dcptb of water of 4 fret, which hai been in the aquedact ever lioceL 
opmiag. The depth contemplated nat 1^ (eel; a gTcater depth Is I 
pressnt required ua aceouot of the raitisg of the botlom of the eaaal [ 
bare and Mditneat, which have to be remoied befora the level caal 
lowered. 

7Mt tf QMHf Jtice «/* the Aqutdiiel. 

LcBfUief Aqatiluei •rtt'iaut aaUulani l,lll> (Hd 

LMifdiarni-iM. i.irirHL 

Lf^th «f nUM uiil •L*liiB, 14«) Int. 
Utiaietef (4 eeble*. 7 tiu-lm, 
AKfitftirtrtigbKafiiftUabtrt. 110 tsiw. 
SecUoDare trt«ol<n[rcii> Uunk. n top' (tet 
ToUl irtliht or «lw In k^iwrlucl. !.HKI laiM. 

,1 „ Due ijiu, :SM loiiB. 

Wrltrhi if one ipui. InrludlnK alt. 4,(1 IMit. 
As(r4t>I* o'lmbrr of vfri* In t»ib rabln. l.HO. 
ABF*Bi>e solid HcUen u( Im\Ii ckblH, M lup. Ia(fen. 

„ ., hurtv^T rindju, TSsBp. IdcI 

JDtOKtloa cf nblia. 14 lert fl livlin, 
ElmtlAn of pynnldSBtHfOploi. ICfM* C loehM. 
Welshl ttmtui Id 1 apsn btmrcn pirn, i-i Vvt, 
Tenainn "I iiUn mulling from ttUi wM2til.3DI laoi 
Teniliiii ff' lut (iKsl* 'It. 'M9li>. 
AtTn<T uRliniiM tiwrietli oT on* wlr*. I.IOO lb. 
ritlni4il,F ■>ri.n)ilk a( nbW, 2.0UO IsB*. 

'I'rntiun rmilUoB (lom we1|lii of nter n|ioa me K>Ud iqawe locb af «ln 

ll.«"il».. 
Teniirw rtenJUng frciiii frrlKlK of wittr apra one •qowe Inch of inrhcir 

1 i.wo ;t>. 

fR«an>vsitlUiigrr<jitmL(LI«rt«i«rapasiisepTnn'l<t. II7t tens. 

,.>,.« »M«uiimliilal(oot.I(t.«Wlb. 



COLOGNE CATHEDRAL. 

Il appears frnu Ihe fiinyninih Report of Ihe Comniltee of the 
for Die Restoration of Ciilognu CjuhcdrHl, thsl the adtioce made dnL_ 
Ibe periHl i-iobraccd tn the prreciil Itcport oonsiiu, oe ihe soiitb tddti, 
Ibe add it I nil al bright to Nhltb ibe pier of Uie IransepU haic brro 
ried. Iu Ihe aamo pari, tbe weitcro ealraace baj ticca conipl' 
Toulted ID, and 11>e eii«l''ra bepun lo bi> ta, A great <|nnntitj of 
is lyiaK r^ady cul f>>r the work, nod sldl more >« eipectt^ from 
qiiarriee, in order, if poiiible, to vauli^ln the middle tpeew a' 
the end of the year. 

Slniitarly, noly sninenhat rnilber, advanced are ibe viorkia in 
north traoBTpt. Here Uie three spaces arc fur Ibe DMOt part atr 
vaulted over, aod tliey will tit all events be ^ui(« coeuplcted Ik 
courne of 'l<» proeiit autumn. 

The wurhn in Ihe ooHbern oave aisle were put ia nrlivity iaii 
ately after the i[lui.triuus ilsit of Quern Vkiuria, it being nrce 
thai Ihe old roo&ng ahuuld bo irlAined till up to iliat tinip. This ^ 
now brca rruoved. niid scifloldinjc U in coutec vt errclioa in order M 
set to work upon Ibc new vimliini;. Se*eu Lkv* of origiDat loulting' 
ae is well kiii>»n, ftlreiuly eii^lRl on llui oortb sidei >» Uuil Ibm 
Temaini^d but tlvr lo coutlmel. Hut un the removal of the old roolag 
and woodwork, ihe suxib-eiiMesD pillnr of Ihe seveulh bay wiia diaen- 
vered to be built of brick ia tb<- most slovenly and imuBicieat minner. 
The grotnlng bands and ribs nf lufTMooD spriQKinK from il were U the 
same itay most mraulj put t»Ketlii,-r, tht Ijup* btoken so as to totm 
polygoai, sod Ibe joidI* lery faulty. Slilt, iiupjKigiog thit defect ooslil 
bst* ho'n partly ditcovereil trom below by the tiiiked eye, and lh*a«- 
elusion Ihrnee arriied at Ibat Ibis vaulting was of later ori^is Ihaathf 
other pnrtinni (if Ihe beauliriil rnultins of Ihe calbedral, willi wliirh II aA- 
milled of tin coropaiisoii, this would not hare preveiitcil it froai Mm ' 
rrlaiDcil froni antiquarian conviderntioDS, bad the prcrioualy-conoeiilM 
pilUr proved at ell ade^uale to tuppurt Ihe presenre of the naaa ^lll(' 
(lOni it to Ibc additional heigbl o* ninety ff*t and more. 

TliTS not being the cuir. this pdlnr aod Ihe vault Itelongteg to it had IP 
l>*gi*en up to dPtlructian. Ttiit in at prevent be ieit HCO(iniplished,ud 
Ihe conslruttioo of Ibe rrDSining spaces of vaullinic sulTFn uinic delay la 
consequcocc. ti> general, the wurha will be carried on nninirrniptedlr 
with about four boadicd oieu. Hesawhile tbe supply of stooc t» by av 
means kepi up wilb the regularity lo be desired, aotwithstauding Al. 



^ 



IW«.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



49 



■rTm»(v*ieBta Imt» bt«ii ra(«rcd inlo with l«it diffprent Gotrlncton, Tbrre 

It MMkJenbla AAesMjr ta P10eari(i|^ Hom of Rixxi qunlitf in * auS^Unl 
qUUttKf; U4 arai WMB UMM Uodcu ubligcd tn be delivered in nil Kt 
one* MMonlitlf M> BiWB 4iBeiai<iiis. <bc due niccKUiin nnulil out lin 
kIwbji i>Ii»rnred, u Ae qnarij-men work oul tbi n«tcruil aolf u it cut 
be procutnl In beat adiaoUiir (rum the rock. 

At • pmivua Bie«4iax g( llie Comioincc, tbe followiaf order of tbc 
KiBl of I'ruMi* MM tt»d :— 

" I bar* rrc<l*ed Um repurl of Uie Central Rcitor&tiaa SDckl;'* opera* 
ttootduriaf; thalwt ikrM jaara, (rBBBmitted lo mc llia 2iicl oflut cuooUi, 
aaii kft>« uk«« mgnltaace at iu c«iiii?riia uith lru« ■&li«Etction. Frnm 
tt I iwrrtlTs Milh piraiure the; cunuauily growing Hinpatb; for Ihs 
gruM objrcl of lfa« SocMjr in cdu»i of the |)ru*iii*;t-a oif ONmaay, mid am 
anicb ^nUftrd in rreo|cal*lag ibe credit which ibe Scii-ictj's Cirmmiuee 
b«* SUMd lUilf b)r ila wite Kfld alrtnnouB cuuduct of the cuacerua «ii- 
traaltd to ttf ore. Th« judiciuu* adiaiuiu'lratiuu and appliualiun of the 
rMMM«M piacKl At it* diii[M)Ml ar« luffld^aJly slitstHl by tlif pvrform- 
«BC« of tb« SoolMy dunuc ihe sbon period of il» HMieae*. Tbeae fally 
■Minr vnrj rMMHiabl* «xpe<:(>4tiuu, und janitj a UUI hl^glier cuiifideuoe 
la IIm ncenafal prtiMcuUau uf iliii ■acml auil uubls work. To pruiiioie 
lUaaacccM Ut iIm uudmI uf my poirer and with undiDiiaiabod iottre*!, 
hnu MO of tb« objMb to wlticb uj lift will ti« demied.' 

FaetM-RicK Willijim. 
AajMa, Sift. 1, IBU 

VvbiCmtfa] Surieij for the Retloralion of Cologne Cnthadral. 
n* Mai rtttipU of the Sucielj amoiuil to about IX.IMI. 



BROAD AND NARROW OKVGE EXPERIMENTS. 

Ve ate iiiH«bi»d for Ihe Mtnvnag partieoliir* of tbe fCprrimeotJ laadA 
tefiore tbe Caagt rammittioair* to liid HomiBg HiualiJ, at |ire«eal tho 
aflkial aomU ha» not baas publiabad.* 

BaoAv 0«Doi ExriaiMExn. 



I 



STATtONS. 



•wnaArrm 
raddbMM 

nmadbpad 

WaaUoadoacRMldi rif 

Gaanf 

Haanll 

Jwotball 

WmDnjtsa. 

Wooch 

MaUwInd 

T>TfM 

Umatmr 

rukalna 

Dirint 

TbMilatealhiraad.. 



Viral UiT, 



flHtTrtf. 
SCanlifci of 10 
lam CAfb. 81 (oai 
19<'*t pfro«« wilt 
fuiualn d «u 
|ti>4 «aiJ kwdcf . 



Itami. 
*.n. 
b. (D. 

I) W 
ID U 
■It fli 
ig II 
I" 1« 
1ft 1*1 
U M 

10 3|U 
ID SM 

It 4a 

!•« 

IB HI 

11 •» 
11 H 



I « 



Up. 
p.m. 

li. na, 

1 41 

t a» 

lUiS 

ii*7 
1-2 s*t 

U44i 
IV M 
lt»l 
UH 
U» 
11 III 
U» 
II «t 



SrcODll Tllp. 

7C«r1»(tau(II) 
Uiiii ruh. 71 Uiii 
BEtju vir*t4|1it « 
I'luclrr ar tntlur 
fend liudfr. 



I)o»ni. 
b. n. 

3 II 

I Ifl 

1 IS 

1. 11 

2 ae 

Z U 

i% 

s « 
I II 



I It I ai BMi* 



Up. 
b. B. 

4 tl 
4 M 
4 C 
4 tf 
4 4Ji 
4 AV 
4 i4 

4 :>i4 

4 III 
4 IS 

4 10 

4 n 



SMOod Daf. 



WlibdcarrtaaH 

110 torn vieltulit 
i»t piiflDtaud Un- 
dM. 



Down. 
a.ia. 
b. n. 

10 M 
ID (] 

III 
10 14 
ID 1 

10 i;, 
i«n. 

10 K 
10 M 
Ml 4U 

10 4« 

ic m 

10 ui 

It) iM 

11 i 



1 1* 



up. 

•.m. 
h. 01. 

I 4 

1 

It W 
l! U 

11 U 
l)47i 

12 424 

13 K 
I! £» 
12 114 
l> » 
II II 

i:ii4 
IS n 



W 



Gfadfdtff. 



ID 31 Mc 3 (Rt pn mOc. 
71 ., 4 ^luo. 
»1 „ « dlLU. 
. . lUlxnl. 
If .. Ul Ml 4 Ittt HT »U«. 
14 .. IM Icnl 

t7JMI4IWi|MnilU. 
17 ., ai riK 1 feel ptT Bile. 



Prom M to m tlK 4 IM par b11«. 
a .. m ,. dkito. 

aat .. KMlWI itlila. 
■S) .. 41 TiM Ullla. 
41 ., 4» laril. 
41 .. 41 rlM:l-inii[i«Tm!t«. 
44 ..it riM 4 r«tl PR oiUi. 



Ob Saturdaj iDorDlDK. Jaooary 10, t«ra more nprrlinenUl Iripa were 
OB IIm bioad saago(tlia Uraat M'caient Ratlwajr) ia tbe proMoce 
rflbcOwwtCMMMUtomn; lli« wcalber w«a ratlier oafarounble, ibe 
tliubaliu d«l) aaJ damp, and ftj Hill* wioil alirring until tbe after- 



1. Tbe Haraclo* "aa aicniii Ml'Oeledfor the ptirpoae; it la a powerful 
■|laa. harlag eoontctrd i«hp*la feet In diameter, cyliDder 1(1 inches, 
Mraka 18 Inclica. aad wrlghs 21 tooa. At Th. ttm. Z4b. abo alantrd frum 
fta aoa mile pool, PaddloxloD, irith a train of 13 irucka. coal'ladco, an 
■MWoaal teadw, and a firat claat carriagr, whkh was occupied \iy Sir P. 
BaMl, ProflMaoir Bailow, Mr. Walado, Mr. Saumlfw, «e<.TrUrj lo ilio 
By, Mr. Uannfr, and Hr.Gibsoii; on thx engine irer^ Mr. Itnioel, 
erof tbe Uoe, and Ur. tioocb, luperiaioDdent of tbe IocoidoUto de- 

_aTba toal aspalBHiti «i«ra mide In t>M mtddle or Dcnmlwr lail on Ihe Omt 
~ I lallaaj naBli««t«ahi«OMkoUTt *B(LD(«aaele<tciiriirlli(pDFp««. 




parlmeot. m> e<periai<ntal traio waa driTea from Paddlnjttoti lo Did- 
ci>L,a iliataoco of SS] milea, wbere it arrived at lOh. lOio. li)*.b*>ia);m«de 
Bloppaget nl Ealing, Soulbal I, Weal Unylnn. Slough, ^laiilenhcad, Ttij- 
rurd, BUd (ioriiiK. For tho eiacl liniR uF arrirai and dipartari! frnm tb« 
aerermi ■laliiiai the reporlef hai bren indebted to Mr. Seymour Claifcr, 
tbr priocipial ■nprrinlrndenl of tbe lior, and it i* aa follnvri :— 



BIIT«« from 




Airlnl. 


I>tparlnr*. 


Itioppise. 




PWUlopiOD. 
















h. n. a. 


b. IB> i. 


h. n, Ik 






?*ildlngtna 




7 U 14 






n 


Eollnii 


a 4 M 


a 7 a 


t 4» 




Htnwell .. 


8 IS H 


M 


^ 




» 


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S 41 




13 


WnlI>nTI«it .- 


« w u 


a 40 u 


I> 1 » 




IM 


Bluuith 


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B ta 4a 


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BUM 


4 »l 




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B n 41 


A 11 




Wi 


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ft 44 43 


^ 


^ 




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FiriKtHJUfoe .. 


> *4 B 


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10 a 


10 3 


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ID 9 Ml 


— 


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— 


— 




ToiaJ •loppega 


tt ss u 





Tbe dialanco wa« acwgncliabad iu Xh. S7id. 14s., or at a r«ie of 3075 milea 
anliuur. Th« wdght of train prupelled. eicliitivL' of iliu «at;it>e, was 304 
tons IB ewl. I qr. S lb. Soon aflrr the Arrival of tbi« Inin at Didci>l.th« 
Iiion, a powerful panSMjer poglne, havtac driTtn^: wbeeli T Caetindia- 
nteler, cnnie np with a train uf 16 iruckf, Uden with coal, loboallaehad 
to llie Irain of ilie Mercutea, roaklDK lo all 2S trDcki aod oue Bril claaa 
cartiaite. Afker all lunttcn werti -airauied thi> leviaibiao tram iiniciTded 
«D ila juurncy ; in weight, icugtb, and lli« liuie it paaaod the didVreat ala- 
tiuns, are Kiri'O from tli« aaiae aulborit; a« tint of llie down trip :— weight 
4«G Ion*, Hewl. I qr. 1 01b.; langtb of miD,2S2 yardi. 





PfOU 






riddii^on. 






UU<a. 


hi B. a. 


BlarMdfroB Dldeol 


U 


1 Zt 1* 


- W^lli«n>r4-nd 


»i 


1 18 


«• <»0f1nf ., .. 


44 


1 4> 


^ PmubovrDA ■ • , . 


«l* 


1 47 


— 'J'VjtorS .. ,. ,. 


mI 


3 a » 


9 S3 It 


— UiUleohead .. ., 


U« 


3 41 


— SJaiKli 


la 


3 Bl 


— W«l Drarloo ., .. 


11 


) r • 


— imittiall .. 


9 


■ no 


— Huinll .. 


n 


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- blind .. 


H 


a 3B * 


ArrlTlDyBlUM U nlle-pMirrom PaddloffaD.. 




a M t 



Perbnnins the Journey In 3h. Ida. 4St., Man tTenKO rata of speed off] 
milea aubour. 

Tbe dumlloo of ibli trip waa M minute*. 6 teconds, whif.h abomi 
■pood of apwonit of 47^ raiiea per bour. Tlie nxiimitit) rale, bctwaea 
tbe 18tli uod lOtli luilc-poita, naa tomewhat aboie il mile* per hour. 

Nabros* OiDCi EiPuiMtun. 

The ei peri menu for leilinR the Iraelivn capacity ofthe narrow-poga 
engine cnirinieticed no Ihc 30tb lire. Invl, opnn U\t (ircni Nodb of Kng. 
land tine, brlwent Vurk and DarlinKlon. The di*tanc« riio was ihtl be> 
Inreu Ihc 6ial and furCy-fuiirili mile-poata— *■>. ISmiloa. Tbia pii-cc of 
railway 1ib> been ectrcted in cu(t»eqQeniC« of i\s beiD|{ or'arly a direct lioo 
throughout ita whole murao, anJ from tbe Tory eaiy charaeisr of Ita gra- 
itienli. The VQKinefelrcM is a new one, rrceolly copalructed, inade ai 
the eplebr«I*d tocoiiioll»p palabllahment of Mr. Rcjhcrl Slrpbrnaoo. She 
had lirru ruuujuK for nboul u week only, and bed nut mude any cictpt 
eipeiiniraCal tripci. Her pcrfurmaDcca were euniidcrtd to be to (tiod 
iiiat <bt »iu fixed upon as the champion for tbe narrow. gauge intemls. 
She » a nix-nhTel engioe, ntlh ouUtde cyhodera ; hu4 6 feet fi ta«bc« 
drieing wheelK, and the topof brr boiivr it about 7 feel4 inchea fivni tba 
raili. 

Tbe hour fixed for the startiof; of I h« train was nino o'clock. Tb«r« 
w*ro prtieot to wltneia iho eip^rlnioni Prcifewor Barlow. l*rafe«aor 
Airy Ctwoof Lbo gauge cuniniitiiuiiefa); Mr. WnliiaJi, the Mcrelar]' to tiks 
cnmniiaiiuii; Air. (i. Htidiun, M ,1'. ; Mr. Richardson, the tonyorof Vutk; 
Mr, llmiir-l i Mr. C. A. Snuuilert, tbc secretary of tbe Great Wralcm 
coiDpauy ; Mr, Uooch, fuperinioodrul of tbe locomotive dcparhneot la tba 
aniDc company ; Mr. Hidder ^ Mr. Cabry, tbe enKioeer of the York and 
Norlh Midland ; M r. Harrison, the eagioror of tbe tireal Norlh of Eog- 
laod ; Mr. W. (ilevriisuo, of llie Ureal Weatem Conpaay ; Mr. WyotU 
baiu Honllog; Mr. Berkeley of Mr, Bobert Supbensiw'a osUbllfhiueut, 
and sertral other acieoliflc gemlemtD. 

The wriKht of Iho train was 50 Uio4 only, and that of the engioe ao4 
leoder U)|t(tl)«( about 2S tool. The wfighU of the ei|>«:rim»ntal trtioa 

7 



«l 



THE Civil ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[FKBavj 



-«pM Um broad (Aop were (ciclniTB ol tBfim va\ teodrr) fixed nt M 
MS, fO UiB* vrX M tana, bul the RcUial laBdagci wen 81 tons II 
Cirtq 71 (OM ISj cwt^ and CI ton» cwL I v». It iriU be kch. tltcre- 
forti ikat Ifap •xp«riawint upon tko bftrfo<r-fBii||;* Iioft, Ibe p«(ttculara of 
.wfaicb «* an ab<Ml loilfUll, li«* no panllfl working upon Ike brotd- 
faup railnBT ; and tbal nbnUicf Ui« r>1ii« af lbl^ rr*ull, tl can b« rtoo(> 
jiind odlf wbca iba (wcMd-aiiga «d|Uu aJwU bsTs Ukoa tb« *ium re* 
d*oed MUMOO for Um wtm» niUuM. 

ST^tattxci.— At tlh, 7m.'lSs. t)i« train tiartcd from the ptatino io order 
lo pnoeti to tbo Crit miU-paM, from nbicb It had b«eD uniJentood lb« 
espeniMat waa to MuacBcc. Vpoa lb« Uraat M'«*tcrii lio« lb? «xpe- 
riMcalal IralM tefl tbo PaddiB|l<n l«rmiao*, nod ircrv brought to a 
■taad-aliU at Iba flnt niila-p«Nt. This, bawevct, niu uol ibe cue tliti 

Tbe tjmii) paaatd tko— 











noM Mck 










TiBt mth 


IMnpMMt 








nil*. 


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3 



Tb«Uaiaat>p[>*d at tha Darlington itatioo ai lUh. a7a>. XO*. Il will 
be SMD that Ibe tS nulaa ware perfanned in 1 buur. II minutss and 51 
awMMttff, or at tbo rata bT iMaiijt U nilta per hour. The naxiiaBn tprad 

Sbetweoa the ilb and ftlb iBile>poata) waa ocailj AI miln per bouf . aod 
liF miDiiuuiu rai« rallitf more than K tnilea prr hour. Tbe aterace apoc^ 
of tbe ttO-tuui train (cacluftre of (he eosiae aod t<-ud(r) upon llio broad- 
|tuct tina wa» 4T*S niil«< per hour, and tlie maxiniuin apead 66 n>lleo 
^rlwur. Tb«ra wai, lion-ETcr. oni! thing grmtl; n|;«iitti lbtnarr»ir- 
|Mte uparloiant of th» roumiiig, «ix.— Iha nind. Whoa Ibt train left 
«w TWfc station thn WRathctnan duI at all QuifaioDraMe; the haiiEitD 
promiaeil rain, bat vrr; lutlc wiud wai fiirrioK, Up la tbe lOih milr* 
Mat ihe rosult prarabal to be pretty tnoi ; tbe laat tbrea milea bad been 
doM at about 63 miles per boar, and Ibe narrow -Katif^e parlj caJcuUtwl 
tbat the 43 mile* wauld be got over iu nboul 3S or S4 minntft. On rtMb> 
log the IVth milo'piwl n tii^uiy wuii'tl; wiod euiMi audilenljr dowB omb 
HnMlrtafaa, t&kiDii ibeni oblii^uely ia the dlrectlao lhelr«in waagoiBg. 
Tba -cffboi wm Mt In leas than a rainute — Uic winit ndaccd Iho speed 
tfom M lo iWBrij 10 milea per hoar. TLera ooold be no doubt aboat ibc 
cauac of retardation, beoeato Iron tbt 10th mJle-pMt tbe prvRniBe of Ibe 
train waa (low or fast in praportiaa ta Ibe Icogtb of eBbaukmrnl, Qpno 
connlrjr or eutiing. Imniediuti^ly the nngiiiB entered a entting, ihn ia- 
CTCASt ofvBlocii^ wa* B]<f*l veQiibly apparent. If aha enterrd a catiinK 
of a couple of furlnngii in tcnj^tlt ur ia iniln bb hour, sbe dashed obI of M 
at S3 or 40. and before anoiiiet couple of fnrlonfa bad boeo ran npirn an 
embaiilLBicnt cxpoacd lo the gale the epeed bccaoM rcdncvd to SO milea 
per boor. 

The retsni trip cumtn^aeed at I5h. 8ni. lit., and tbe train reached the 
irsl Bile-potl from tbe Vorlc atataoo at Ih. %!tm. 9*,, performini; lh« 43 
milea in I hour, 2t minutee and 6t weondi, of at a speed of about 30 
milea par hour. A aU)[ipaae luok place in Uii4 trip tor water, by wliich 
two or thrac Binulea were loil. 
The eiperlmenls irere racuoied on ilie following day. 

Tbe eiprrltnenta ycalerday with ibu iO tone train* wcrr cansidned so In- 
cuucluriie, in coaeeqaeacv of the bigb wind which prevailtd, that It waa 
ddorniiucl to repeat then to-dsf. The bour appointed furkaviugthe 
atation waa B a'doclc. Th« liaia left at 9h. am. lOi., aec^^niMnied by 
rtofaoinc llarlnw, I'mftiinr Alr^, Mr. Wataon, Mr. Branpl, Mr. .Saun* 
d«is, Mr. Goocb, Mr. Bidder, Mr. Wjrndhan llaidioK. Mr. llerkHej, 
Mr. Cab<T7i aad aboat a dosen other geUletneti. The da; wu a (aiour- 
able one. There was a eticbt brecoe to the oortlit and the rails were la « 
[iir mudition. Cealrarj to th« praetioe nbaorred in the experinHnlal 
IriMentlio (ireat Wealcm Kailway, |]>e Irain did sal slop at I do first 
Billo-peal, aad ooanBCOoe Iu experiinenlal trip frun a alalo of tvat. la- 
stead of doing this, it passed the post at tbs lala of abont 9 milei per 
boor. Thefollowbg ia tbe working of the train fortlit43 miles.— tbai 
is. measuring ftom tbe first roile-pc^t out of the York statloo to Ibc mile- 
post oti tlic Vork tide of the DorUngtoQ ilatlon :— 



-*■ 








Time ««b 
nil* In 








^ 








■^ 










•etooda. 








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41 


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49 


9* 






s 


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70 


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38 


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70 


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The time occupied lo perfonntog the distanoa fcsterdat waa I hoar) 1 
miuulr*, S3 t*coiidii, or at tbe rote of sonivUiiag Ibm than U OMlraBcl 
hner. It will b« SFCD thai to-da; the «Bmr dittaaeo was aeoosaplishcd l|{ 
$S rainiJIos, 'Jh i<<cnuils, or at railtpr l<->s i\ma 4H miles per hour, the lUAi 
IcDumtpeetl, bctnrcu thn 9(b and 0th tTiile-ponta, being Dearly bS alkl 
per hour. The wind nf yritcrdsjr maj ihrrrforc tie cuosidered lohm 
oOtred a raiisUwac e<tiiiU to above 13 miles per buur. | 

I 

The relorD train wilh tbe 60 tons left DarKngtoB Rtalion at I Ih. S|d 
»(., and passed the flrsi tsile-posl at llh. 3Xm. Ids. Tbe foUowiag is W 
working of the eogint :— 



TIum'thH 
BUI* in 
•Meoda. 



P-iHd lit 
■nll*.pnM al 
3 
i 
4 
1 
S 
J 
H 
II 

to 

II 
II 
IS 
14 

» 
IS 
17 
IS 
t» 
10 
91 

n 



II 
II 
11 
11 
11 
II 
II 
II 
II 
11 
II 
11 
II 

4 
II 
II 
II 
It 
11 
II 



n. ■- 

3! IS 

34 ta 

M U 

27 U 

» W 

M 41 

St ta 

M |u 

S4 33 

as 43 

sa ss 

sr It 

3> SS 

S 

41 SO 

4S B 

44 IX 

4» S» 

44 43 

47 4M 

40 

M II 



1*1) 
» 
S3 
V« 

:< 

73 
73 
TV 
Tx 
77 
77 

101 

n 

74 

73 
07 

M 

n 






Tmmri 2SrI 
nllt-pa«t u 
M 
» 

91 

ar 

IS 

» 

M 
SI 
H 

S 
M 
» 

87 

w 

40 
4t 
41 
41 



k. 
II 
11 
11 
11 
II 
It 

a 

II 

13 

i> 
13 
13 
13 
It 
It 
13 
13 
It 
It 
13 
It 



41 » 

43 41 

4S to 

»4 a 

M m 

a St 

as 41 

bi 01 

I i 



at 

SB 

i» 
II 

m 



10 » 

11 4t 
U M 

14 a 

15 U 
1* S4 



77 
74 

n 

Tt 
71 

13 
70 tl 

fs 
74 

IU 

« 

ft 

n 
n 

7* 

M 

ra 



T!l^neIl *ip*rimemal 
miautea alter 8 u'cloek ih« 



Irip waa wilh an W4ont train ^ and al 
traia pR>ee«led toward* tbe tt»t Balle-fMt 



3 



Ttme Mcb 

milrln 



VameX lil 
■iil1».pa«I ■! 

I 

9 

4 

3 

S 

7 

9 

9 
14 
II 
11 

a 

u 

14 
14 
17 
14 
It 

sa 

31 

a 



h. 
3 
3 

1 
1 

a 

X 
3 

a 
a 

3 
3 

a 

9 

a 
a 

a 
a 
I 

a 
s 

a 

9 



ID. a. 

10 n 

It 4a 

IS IS 

14 M 

15 U 
17 II 
10 1» 
O 40 
30 W 



S 
IS 

as 

48 

s 



as » 

as 4e 

SB M 

» 11 

» M 

» 

as B 

X 44 



7S 
7B 
7» 
74 
7B 

n 

73 

ra 

73 

78 
rO 

;s 

74 
74 
7« 
SI 

at 
« 

as 



mil* In 



^UwdZSnl 
hHv-MM U 

H 

U 

(S 

17 

n 
1* 

M 

41 
» 

n 

M 

at 

M 

17 

*S 
10 
44 
41 
43 
U 
W 



h. n. 
3 9« 

3 



40 
«I 
41 
41 

*i 

40 
4H 

4:' 
so 

47 
SS 
M 

s« 

47 

SO 



I 

» 

4 
C 

a 



;« 

74 

sa 

m 

m 

7t 

:t 
tt 

7S 

7B 
TU 
77 
77 
7H 
W 
S3 
10 
Si 
IB 
H 
M 
Its 



From this table It is smo that wilh good weathar to-day, the sane • 
gineHpoii the same lino, and gciinE on>r the aana grMtlMl (for dbtm 
ifaere ar« noae), look »0 Uiai 41 rollo* in in mmutas, SO Wi^^yle, or ia U 
uuiules, 93 scMiods, leas ihaa sbc Wok iO toot jestenUy witb m side wid 
agaiait bar. 



WW.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



51 




Djiv.— tn miMt)Deo» of ■« iceldent by lh» Mgkie ninnin; off 

, Uic «)pertineats tould not take placa. 

HTii U IT,— Tmo mure rxpttitaeon K«ra lMil« wMi Uw foodt Inln 

Knd 40(1 loni re«p«cliTHy. Thi? tni:i[ie einploTed ma the Hervulet. 

n ft sIi-wIkcI oonplRd enKioe. wrib 4 rrctfl iucbDH Jrlviaff-wbMl*. 

I,M iMtMrracci tubct.MOrKtj cjliodtr, IS iaclMUi •lt«Lc,84 

Mfiu Mkrtfd rrom tbi) finl niilA-posi bejond York at ffh. 3fii,. 

vrtn atofipafct, amouiiUuji 1o 40iu. aoa.. tn^ arrieeil at Iha 4$ra 

laillb. SlDi. 4lhi. The •Gtiiul lime of ruuuiui;, [iivreroiv, was 

14iB. 20»., or npnaidi of ICi miles [icr liuur. TIti- rtlurn irl|> frum 

Iga Tu with 400 ton», ibc train being ftbom SOO janl* tou;. Tint 

1^ tbe 44 J railr pof t at 'ib. }m. Sn. , and arrival at (be Brfl nille-post 

Sa»i. S4a., wilhbDt makintt unjr iiappa^s. ThlD gitea aoueUilaiE 

19 nilM |ier buiir. Tbc fulloniag ii the norkiug cr( tbe engine wilb 

■miular Uaia, lit. 47 wagooa. 





in. ■. 




n. 1. 




IMnbpwlanoidlD.. . 


..4 a 


!4(h nlle p«t AcBi(4 In .. 


.. S 1 






1 ai 


» 


3 M 




1 >- «- ■ 


> 10 


» 


t nn 




4 a> k- ■ 


) M 





S 10 




1 «- «- ' 


* » 


3a 


tf a» 




f -• #- . 


9 W 


90 


3 SD 




J „ ,, , 


> )0 


ao 


t 40 




( •< .* - 


1 10 


ai 


3 40 




^ »■ 


t 10 


U 


1 aa 




1^ •• 


I w 


W 


a » 




1 1 *• ■« •< 


1 «l 


M 


a to 




u J J ^^ 


J ID 


U 


4 U 




'* *• Hl ■< 


a n 


ise 


s la 






a 


87 


7 » 




i* -. >r «> 


9 to 


38 


ao 




It •! « . 


i w 


W 


3 3U 




IT » .. . 


3 ID 


4U 


K so 




tt 


3 lir 


11 


* « 




K :: :: 


1 4 


U 


a 




3 M 


4) 


S 




n 


S » 


M 


a 20 





ItwUl b< HMQ that tbe nuituma tpcetJ was neitrl} 30 lailcii per hour. 



TOE LATE ACCIDENT UPON THB NORFOLK RAILWAY. 
At u taqoMt coromnieed la DHwmlier liul, ia eoote^aenci! ai a futu) 
«B tbe NoKolk Bailoaj, couiderable inlereit waa eicilfd on 
of lb* coQlraiJklDrj opiuioos «iLi>TrM»d bj two g<iull«i»iin or Ibu 
ftfcbaM aaaiatsM for liicir knanladga of coKlanrlng— Ocncral Paalcj and 
BCr. Bidder, Gvtwral Pauley did Dot heaitate loaaaerl io hi* ii*lri(incn 
tfcaf Mr. Bidder kiul, in (ho coarse of hUesainiaaliitn, etprF»M.-[I ofiitiiiiaa 
'** <)Dilc «m>*ei}ul kuJ coafrary It tiufirtt prineiplci of me^Kanitt. It li at 
'Hh» Uflical iBiivrtaiii;v w ibv oeijiuKritis prorc&tiuu tu aacvrtaio Ibe tnilb 
inwpadias aercral tecj Iinponaiil Ticira piDjitiundcd Ourtoe the ioqiieat. 

It doM not lie witbln uur ptau tu gife a detailed ■ccoiinl of tbe accident, 
lU will be iiiUlGlMit for our purpoM to ttal« aiinply tbat il aruae rroiu ili« 
mpa* ntsBio); off Ibo ruila. The fo1lawiaf[ eitrAct* from lb« evidiioce of 
Ur. Bidder ctnbvdjr the nolioa* nhicb G«oer»l I'aalej declared (e be C«d- 
tmy to aoand iibilowphj, 

** Tbe todiaailoo of ibc line wbcrt the engine bad nn off waa 1 In 100. 

Tbe fcrmai)«nl oar «ai •• good a piece aa any In Eiiglaa'). It vtoa con- 

■tracled o> a chalk rmlnnkmont, the noti ravourahle lait for eui^h work. 

JU tbe point where the engine left tbe nil Ibe eiobanLnient «ai iBiied about 

in fan abevc the nrdintry turface of the e«rtn. The clialk id Ibc einhaok- 

uted m Urje lump*. Bud Hid thought Ibe Lite vet wcilhrr vauld 

DO elTect Dpoii It. On exaiDioing the rr|lni! he foitml ilie iieaintregu* 

ioilicated that fAe tfram had Seen turtuti i^iialilmlg, the eTTecc of 

wnyd be pceritety limilar to Ibnt whii'h bad been deii^rjbcd by tbe 

witnesi. Tbe ipced af the engine ironld be iMrcrciMded than the 

, B«4 thctiain laould i)rf;c thi: engine on, fordng it olFanc >>i]c 

rail| and Ilie otriiaj^ci an tlic other. Ha atiriliutod lUa iiu<?i<l''nl to 

kmfr^ptMf lidiit tafinr-diittr proet^.lirij/ at a vtty liiffh t'tlieiiy and 

mditr%ly iJtnffmjf off IHr¥teeni, Moreover, Ilie line ne«r Thetfurd '>cina under 

rapair, it reijiiirrd (tutietilar oultun. in pKiiti; over it, anil if (be ileeeMed 

4nI Mtl cxeiitiw that pceciulion, it aboMcd a great want oE care nn hia jiart. 

lie bad tio iDcaiit '>f jo'lliing the ciact tpced thr cn^ltic wu fioinic, hut b la 

•fiMtmi waa. tbu ll luiui hiiTcbecn unyyntt./ar tirfaitd liol <t/ ihepro* 

ptr iffd, VB^a 30 nUca aa bour." 

Tb« eiMcaca of tbe oeil wiincas riBDiined after Mr. Bidder h In* 
pvrtKUI. not for matlera of opinion l>ul mattcn of fiict ; for it apprara that 
ha dlaUiaelljr uatad t)t« clfcDinalitncpa oo nbich Air. Bidder founded hia 
•yWoo l» be, Ilk reality, qaila diifereut fran tboM under which ihp acci- 
rical t»ok pUc«. Colemao, the ctiief guard of llic train aa}f, that ■' no 
•ktrWioa «u made In (ba speed Enon tliau uaual," that tbe epeed of the 
** up to tbe period o( tbe mxidrnt ttiJ mot ritftd ai Mi'lri an Aour," 
I ** ba bad Inveilsd aa tiui line rre«|tiea(ly as fant na hp dIJ on 
lay." He lajfa alao tbat JnsI before the accident, Ac rnKioe gnve 
leodoaa Juoiii )" lliat he could tec dUliuctly wl)u((be eugiac-ctriicr 





waa doiDf, aad (hat " th« mooaent tbe fogina jumped, PiokerUg tamed 
round and )oi>ked on one aide, and tKen cut off tbe ateam." He awore 
poaiUrdy Ibnt " Pickeriog rfid mt shut vff tbe aleoan «"(il nfter thttngint 
hadjampttl affthe raiia." 
Tbe eeideace of Major-Getiaral Piulsy ia wt followa. 

General Paaley— My vpinioo ia, (bat owlnR te tbe pecaliv eonatllM- 
tioo of tbe eagioea, like the one that met with the ■cold«nl on tliv Ntirfelk 
line, thej ai« not tbe moet iUitable to the narrow gavge, aalbey do aiot 
admit of any gre«l apend Wlihuul danger. They are peeftctly aeciirc on 
Ihe narrow gaiii^ alacerCaia rate. Fur faalaace.ibe dlatince fromlbe 
Har»lini{c-iuiid siali'iu tu Tbelfvrd ia eigbl inilea,aiid M niaulea la allowed 
to accomptitli ihul distitiicr. llie dirtaoce aitd lime noted In Ibc Norfolk 
Rail nay Companir'etimv-lii!) enn be trarpllrd over irilli'iiit any exeeaiiv^ 
speed. If by any extraordiaary neglect 10 tninutea ihonid be loat bolwcen 
thoae Iwu alaliuus, Ibere ia lit mioutei lu go tbe eight miles, a role of M 
miles per hour. 

C^^^ODCf— Cua jou atcoiiiilfor the broken rfmir.wbieU was Xt feel friM 
the aleeper, that naactit nppareutly br ibt ca^nc tthva it got off the roilt 

GeoenJ Paaley~l sbvuld any tbuC tbe cbnir vns brokeo by Ibe notioa 
of the engine. If it was defectire before, tbe a«tMo might oonlribule lo 
ita breaking ejitlrcly. 

CunitJ(>r— tVliAt deacilptiiia uf «ni;ine wu it ihalmet witb the accident f 

(feneral l*iisli?y— Oiia of luuil Btiruorditiarj lengtb of aut'b a lensth aa 
waa lie* cr uaed tin tlia iiarroie or aiiy other gauge befure. Ifyiwwill 
allow II9S, I will nenliun a drcomftanoe respeclins tbeae peculiar claa* of 
cabinet. Some muathi a^ th«rcexiated doubla a» to tbeeafety of eipr«M 
trains to travel by, aad kuowins tbat o.tcillallon of cnrrlagea n-aa no proof 
of danger, or Ibal their aleadint^aa eainrrd pcrfoel lafetj 1 d«lerniined to 
ride upuii the rasines, with a new of inortteaMly detecting their unaieadU 
nets— Ibelr oaolllBtlog ioiJIcaiing danger. I travelled tinea in difbrent 
pitita of the Dountryi aad Ibe only emcine T found haijng aoch an o*cil1»> 
lioD wag one on the 8»ulli Eaatetu Railway, culled tbe Wbite Horse of 
Kent, tnaciifaclured by Mr. Itobcrt iitephensaQ, and or the Mm* peculiar 
cunairui-liuo aa tbe onelhat went offtbe mJlaoiiibif^ioirull. line. 1 nnitan 
lliuieui^iueai therateof 44 or4lniiIeaan hour.iitid ul ihutii|>e«d ahemlled 
•uraetfainK like a ship al sea. Tbo nairi Nation, nhi^n Ibe train it gotni At 
luch a rate, indicatira a diin^cr of ntnaini; ofT the rail. I luld the ciiKine- 
drireia aadotbcr aulbonlits that if they ran £0 miles uo buur, like tUeex- 
prcsi Iraioa oo Ihe Ureal Ueatcm Itailnmy, the ^reiiler likrliliiKid of tbe 
eofinea foiling over. 1 hare stilted that epinion to Ihe (faoge Commls- 
tiunera. Thi! dilTert'Oee helttern the eflgiae )-ou have alluded tu aa inniia* 
factnml by iMr. Hubert Stepbeniun and Iboae employed uu tbe tiirat 
Wrtlern, lit thu:* — The namiw gauge not odfering ao Kreota dianictcrof 
boiler aa tli<^ limad, Mr. StephenaoQ, to remove ihe obstacle, coDHirutttd 
the long-builer eogiiiea lo e<|aal thean in poarrr, and they bove hiled in tbe 
purpose for which they veru iutrtidfd. Tlie long builer enginea. wbleb 
Mr. Stephen uoa prraev«Ted in, arw four or Sve fi^l Innger than tboae of 
original cunalrociiun, the sniiikc bos orgrhanga th« fore whevia, and tbe 
fire but and du-nin Itie hind wbepla, which will raum Ihnn to oacillate. 1 
think aiich «n rngine ai ibr one in ijuration can KonI 3i)nr3.1 miles an kuar, 
and I ibiuk 1 hnce goDe at ii mile* an hour upon them . but irbealbey B[r- 
proBch ill) I thl»k they arc iiinArr, and thot Li an iipin:i~>n not haatiK fi-nncd. 
I bate fneolianed it frequrnUy lo *nf;ineer* and aitpprintendents of rail- 
ways, aa fir II na to (ho (•iug«<7amtnnuioni!r«. The limn neitem Rail- 
Ray baa brrn worked hv enginea of on« pattern for the lost liveoralx 
yrnra. The mniivc fi>r (omilng Ibe tong-bolief finEioe was tn gain a larger 
cTiiiiomlint; aurfncc, and ihrrrhy oblalning KTtnlcr power of ntvam. That 
hoK'Fvfr bua faitevl, owio;; to the tabe at the fore part of tbe boiler being 
la fur dialnnt (mm (he Drr-buK, and □«( being cvpoitipd le Uie full aetioo M 
(he heat. Tbo i*Dgioe ou the Suuih U'raleru, Muridintleran'l Birmiaghana, 
aiid frrand Junclian Riulwaja, uf ibe make of Meura. fiburp and BruUiera, 
with boUera nf moderate length, have rigital, if Hit more piiti<-r, aad are 
capable of goiogai any apeed they will od mil of, pmtiding tbe croutad is 
in good order, I Ibiak iLea? lung holler cnsiiira, if Ihry are gotug ol a 
ratrr eXE-'ccdiiig 10 miti-A per I lU » r. nre liable la uuill^ir nod ran oTor tha 
line. Tbi- cause ia tbe defect in their formation, ll ia Ihe wheel* hmldled 
td^clher. ur ilic nilea under Itie boiler, (hat gim •» much ueetliBBglag 
dead weight at each end. wliicb I have nut found with auy other euglciea 
but ibuaeuf Mr. Slepbruaun. 

(Wflnpr— Dill you aver aaUcipalP an pogioe of Ihis dvacription mi^iif 
wiih ani'.h nn aicidrnl r 

Ueuurat Poaky— The fact la, I did not eil>ect snrh an accident could 
bate talkca place. 1 did not ibiak ihat such an e&glac could bate goee at 
the apcrd it did ia runoinii oS Ibo liue, ll ia a rale witb engiiie dcitcrs 
to *hui o-ir tbi> Mram on a deacendiog gradient, and in all my jouraoja in 
railway traTclling 1 ne*nr found them ucRlectdiiing Mt. I have frequently 
informed tbe ri>|j]ne-dri«era of Ibeac eugiaes of thn dnnger (he; aarm in- 
curriuE whrn driving them at a rate veering upon 3ft ntitra per hour, la 
Ibc nonb uf r.nElood, howcter, I remember bcInK on one of Ur. Slrphcn- 
»0D** loDK'boilcr eoKioca, and tno puir of (lie whevla were coapled lo- 
gelher, and in riding upon id fi-liniore aeenre than J would Bp«n tbe two 
nthap onea, at the coupling pnxlacea ateadini'ta, uud eooacqueolly aafetjr. 
I wish lo ei plain why I conaider Ibal Ibe audden ahulting off of the iliaia 
cnuld not bate led lo (he uccidenl — Ibc graundi upDU wtiieh I di9cr with 
nthern|)iaiona, ^'ben the ntenn ia abut olf auddculy, mure n<Jcciait) ua 
a dctctndiDg gradieal) tbe nioaeatuio will drag tbe leader onJ curoii^e* 



S3 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[FKBBtrALT.' 



for » considerable diatiAM, and prciHtning lliat (lie cngiiic ■bould become 
delachod froa the teDd«r,tU impcloe wo aid carry it fu in edvkDc*) lo 
MNch u>. ihat tba iraio mmIiI fail iu o««rlekiag it. Tli« encine troul4 
pnweed faaier llmii tbe cairiaKea. In order tn ibuw yon th« rir*ri of Mid- 
donljF thulIinK a(( tliir iteani, I wu Inlrly on an ruolnr oq thp rtntlol and 
Glouwilcr Hailnar witli Mt. Cuanell, the IncoiiKiliie eaprnnlrnilcol, Ibe 
Gasgo CouiniiMioiieri bcini; in tbc Imiu, wbcu I dctirctl a Krcalcctpeed to 
be put (iJi, and lh«D rt^urstrd Ihi^ ileam lo be lumcJ i,3 luddcolf . It Mae 
dose la, niiij not Ihe aligbtrit cSe-ct vm prodiieed. Acuin, »a lb* Oraal 
Weatrin itailna<r I was on an «U(tna nilb Mt. Brunei — inn inniltra at- 
Uched and a goodt' •train of 2.000 Inni, Milh a iipned of 30 inilpi no lioiir. 
I denitcd Mr. Itruarl, inhrn llirir hail lo *lop at a •latlon, lo atiut ofT tbc 
kleam •uddeuly a miuutc before Iho brcaki were appliMl. It wae doDa 
frcquenlly, BDd doi (bi.- 1ea*t cSvct fell. Tb« leader did aelcrond upon 
tbe Cdfine, and iK.'illiti' did Ibr WBKoai erawd upon the toodcr. laabnrl, 
•biUliog off thn aicani pnidueo* oo effiict, unlcaa the brtaka are applied, 
inarfl ei|iv<ially in detceDding an incline of 1 in XUO. At Ibn New Cmie 
incline, which ia 1 in 1(H). ibe iraiot are alwayi eiopped bi niraiox Iha 
Bieamoffanildoalj, andapplyiiiKlbe brrake iamciliatrly, and idhc cause 
of the Mcideat vaa really Ibe thullioK off the itcam, acGitlcut* would b« 
Mnataally occurrinx al Ntw Orois. WbencTcr Ihtre na* a nc-ccMily fur 
Mich n itnj) I ibould have do h»ilation ia adnpliiiR il. 

Coraocr — I'luiD, iiir, yiiu quite disagree nitli Mr. Bidd^a opinion an to 
Iha nanac ol Ihc accideni r 

General Pealey— 1 coaatdcr Mr. lliJ(lrr*a oplobn perftctiy erroorout; 
ftl the ••Die lime 1 wii4i toobeer<e that Mr. Bidder Is a Kratltman of mucb 
Ability, bul ia ilii* ca*« I ibink be b niuvh HiiitaktB ; bta opiDi»D it c^o- 
Irary la tho Gml priibciple of ntechanici. Tbt dimeDiiions of th<^ ^niiiao are 
IttfL In. in IffDgtb, wilhoul ihc fuol-pliitri nbicli tlip i'ii|;i<iF-ctnv(r and 
ocauiunally the alokcr (.land upi-n, which giiei il>aiil V frel iDurr. The 
dliUncc fritm the cfnlro of tbc frtint and bind wbcrli U lOft. 3 ia,, an that 
ifcc tiniokc-boa i» prniccllnK bcf»rc the fore wlieH», and the GrE'ttux aad 
dono orrrliaoiciiig iho hind wberU. Id all ciiK>Dt*. iM^fore Mr. Stepbcnson 
look oul Ills faltal fur llic cooatrucUoo o( Ibe Ivo^-builcr cagiom, the hind 
wboela aro id the rear of Ihe Brc'bni acd doitip, nod iraairiiur'nily tliere t* 
■voTarbanging dead weigbtw the rriir of lli« nhcrli. VV!i[!ii I lirst anw 
til* engine* I tboe^bl thrtu very j[ood in irairJIinit al a tnodrraie rate, but 
I Quw «fe no Biliiuila(e ia their canalnirtiun or improirinenl. The tnrr. 
pari of tbo boiler bcioc ao far fruni iho fire- box, the lube* bclaft »•> niiicb 
diMont, liie enRmc* de oot afford tlie puwer tbal vraa rsp4>ct«d frocn ihrni, 
The eofpBct of Sharp, Brolhera, and Co., with moderate l«n^ boiler, 
foaaa*a riiual or groalrr puwirr, and are frte from danger. 
Coroner — Are ttiern aay (iitual puil* ludeniiLe Kradkiila 
(ieorral I'nalej— After ibe lir«l atcideul ud (bn Eaalem Comtliea 
Kallwav, (lie 1-Url uf Ualhouaie .wrole to ihtr board dmirioK tlial all 
(be iucliaea *hou[d be naikcd oul with poete, wjiich had beeu doDO 
le ^dde eo|tiaii-d river* ; fat at (he aectd^nt at LitUehury , an ibat Itae, liir 
nplHateiulenl of Ihe iDromotiTo drparlia<?ut, who waa on Ihc eugino, and 
Ibt driver, were rrally deacendini; a Knulieni withual knowiiiic it. 

CaroBM— Mr. Biddrr hai lold an iliiil uii gmdicDt* of 1 iu 200, raginee 
JUelnlbehabilof (raifellini: at ihe Brvateal •clocityl 

General Patjey— Then ibal ie csuirary to loy ^Ttitral eiperiecce. I 
BBver iratollvdan jaclioe but thai Ihc ■t«aiii h<il bt^ii partiAlly or perfectly 
•ImiI off. It la a (enoral rule to ahut it oil ud gu^inu down na laciln«. I do 
not tbiak Ihat on a Bnultmi of 1 iu 2iK>, ca^iuN ari iu Ibe habit of luaDlag 
■t (be iirraleai pmaible (elticity. 

Ckironer— Then we perfectly undrraiattd ywn to aay, ihal tliuttiag off 
ateam itt dcai rndins a K''adieat would uut lauKo aucngiDo luatu^tf 

Uenerul faeky — CVrlainly, if tb» brvuka w*™ iiul applied. If tbe d-e- 
eliae i» SO milra ia leagUi, it will nol tU)p until it cornea lo a leTel, It la 
the Kiufce of cra*tl). lia oiciinentum furcet il aliinjc. 

Tbe learned Coroner proceeiJed tu turn up the «iidrnce, aod after cam- 
■DODiiDS on the principal facli M nrUird (u (he unforuioati^ occurrence, re> 
niirkeiJ upnn ihc wide coiilrael vl upiniun enlci'laioed by AtiUur-Ucoeral 
Pailey and Mr. Bidder, it waa fur Ib* j»ry lo dctcrinioe, tcaciwiDg well 
tbal Uiey would w de<4d« oa would enauro (bn poblic every Nifely. 

The frfdic( wa* " Aevidenlal death, rauted by Ihe inipruitenl coaduci 
of Ihe rncinr driver iu kuidk at an riGeaiine *pced." 

Gevrral I'luley.uii liisieluin tu luwii by (be latl train, rude ua (be en- 
gine of ibr Ka*t(«u Cutiullia C»inpaDy,oiieof the »a09V det(^ri|>iiuri ■« Iboae 
thai rao off iho rail* at Liltlebury aod U'alerbvBch, built by ^lutbarl, 
Slaajjhtet, and Oo>, in unlvr Iu lc*t iltcapabllitie* The ipiieil on one pof- 
liou of Iba line between Hiatiop'* Siurlfurd and Stratford wa* for a thort 
bma Dpwartl* of ti tnllfri an hoar. Hud iht rncliH- rude rrry *ieady ; aikd 
In twoor three inatancea.un nearioi: aauilun.he dlreTlcd Ibe euKior.dri*pr 
to Inra Ihc ■Iruni olf Middenly, full a uiiiiule befute Lhc break* wort put 
down, and ool tlie ili«htc«( eO'cel «a» pro.luc«). 

Tbe repl) of Mr. Bidder appcats in tbc fufni of aa adTerliicoieat, pab- 
llahed IB the Tiwra, frutn which we make the fwll«wii.g ralracli : — 

"Tlie lulntam-e of lhc cviileitce which I gave wu la tbc elTcct, (bat by 
Ihe lUddeii ihuitini; otf of the ttcam of the engine, Ibe ca((iB|4i were no 
tang«r drawn hy the engine, bnl Ihet Ihe en^ne wai propelled by Ihe ear- 
rlagti. and that Ihi*. in combioatioe with other eiicarnitinee* which (a« I 
then *taUd) tuighl not oecor oner, in a theuand liiuea, bad, on Lhi* ocva- 
rimi, (he effect of foretog ihe engine otf the line. 

- Tbe gttModa apon wbick I fnemMl Uiu opinion are baxd upon what I 
nual ttill bHiwee W be ■ wali-eMobUthed law of mcchanir.i— i ix,, that to 
tnj iTiUn of iKHliea mavini Mgtthar, il ikm be aa icaUiaiiGic, oi if the 



I ruiitance of eack body be in tlw tike nllo to lu weight, wbeo tba noHn 
power ctaan to act upon then, tbeae budiei will nert no inftntifft «|a 
uch other in any directioa, but if the reiiitaiicc u the tMrtioa cl ih 
bodlei ia front be srcaler tbin Ibal which ii rt^tuircil lo amtain iha Malla 
of (hose vfhieb arelieblad, the retardatwin of the formec will be more rifd 
than (bat ot the latter, and will be Impelled by them, and riee oerwd. 

" Applying tbia to the caie of a railway iralci in motion, we bati lUi fea 
for our gnidanoe — that aa engine reipiirci from J to IZlb. pee tsD miCK 
iQilBia it* motion than ibe cairiagea — it miiii iaetltaUy toXiow, IhM ih 
effect of luddenly ibutt ing off Ibe (team cniwet the carriagcn to — ~"*TMi 
impel the engine forward, ai ttalod by ne in my eTtdeaee..'* 

II certainly m ml be conceded thai naaumiag with Mr, Bidder, A* »■ 
mUnce la motion lo be 7 to 19 lb. per ton more for an eagiae tbAB Kwm», 
riasei, the carriage* will eierl a prt««ure agaiail tbe eagin* wbcB lb 
ateaiu ia euddenty cut off. Uul (be misapprcheneioik on wUcb GcHiri 
Poaley gronaded hia ceuaure uf Mr. Bidder appeara Ki be ihja- dial ke 
presDined Mr. Bjdder'a n^itiioii to be that (he carriage* oeied on tbe 
Dol by acontinnoua pmaare, but by impact or collMion. There ia M 
however for tupposlog that Mr. BiddareBlertaiuedlhiaidca. At tbe mm 
lime while defcudin^ biukfreni lh« charge of hat log erred in Utc Int ftl» 
ciplea of iDochaulca, wc do not heaiiato to dray the paaeibUily of ibe aett 
dent having nriaeD fmm Ihe cautca a**igaed by him. 

It appeara from ihe eery careful and etaborelc etperiaienia of M.(b 
Paiibour, ihni tbe miction of an engine when nul drawing a trmin (IheiMa 
here (uppoied) ia aboul 14 lb. per ton. Tbe friction of carnage* lag IL 
per Ion, Tbia glretanexcotaof VIb. per Ion for Ibe friebon of tbe engiw. 
But from Ihla rauit be deducted iha reil^lanee of the air,ft enoet inportw 
Item In caoaiderlng high Ytlocltie», Tbe realatanoe of air oa tbe carriage* k 
much greater (ban on the enEior in propurtioa (o Ihe welgh( of aach. Wa 
ahould bei)uite aafe in auppoiing (ha(at relocitie* ranging from M law 
mile* an hour, Ibe reilalanoe from ihi* cauae Is 3 or 4 lb. greater per tm 
on Ihe carriages than on the engine. So that on ihe whole we Bay eafcly 
cunclude that nbeu the cngioe and train are diaconaectod «t « higb eda 
city, tbc aicam hclne cut off at the aau)e time, tbecioeaaof rc^laoMa 
the cngioe i« eortaiuly nut taure Ihau &lb. per loo. 

Tfovr we ahall bate no diOioully whaleter to abowlng ibat tbe praam 
whjch the carrlagre will exert on ibe engine nnder ilvcae rircotnetum 
il no greater than tfaH( which could be euily eiefln) by n txiy 13 c,rll 
year* old. By thi^ very timpletl iDntbemftlict il may be <teni<ui lira ted litl 
the preuure ia equal to 6 tiinca (he pToduel of Ihe nuiRber of looa wkU 
the train and engine weigh retpectirely, divided by tbe mm itt Ihoee ■■» 
ben.' Fur instance If we auppoie the weight of the Irala 40, and of lb* 
engin* to ton*, (he produu( of thoae two Dumber* (4M) being divided Vt 
their aam (}D) glre* S, which muliiplH^l by 5 gi>ea 40 lb for (be preetMi 
on the engine. Again, take the wsifhi of the irmjn al 00 tutw, and of tti 
engine at U tons, JlxCO ii TSO and 13-i-OU U Tt: dividtos TM by t^ 
and (ben multiplying t>y A aa befure, we get AO lb. for (be prcaanr* es III 
eogloe. 

It must be carefully ooted thai the preMurc here ealtulaled npraesb 
tbe ir/iofe rjTect uf tbe train on Ihn entitle. There ii noibiag like ImpM 
□r coliiiion becauae Ihe velueitiaa of both oltglne KDd carriagfa are » 
itially (be *ao]c, and an> graJuallj/ relardnl. 

Now it would be perfectly ludicroua (ii imagine that a ptaaaure of Mer 
SO lb. would iujurr au e»Kino or furco il ulT the tine. Taking the w<j|H 
nbich a man cao usually ratie al XOQlb. (uo rery high estimaie) wa ban 
fur Iba ptwiure iu question one-bflh to anc'fonrth of Ibe aiorage uf hsaiai 
atreogth, Ereu if we take Mr. Hidd^r"* own account aad BM«me lb* 
txceaa of rceiatanoe tu the engine orer tliat to Iba train al 7 Iu II lb. per 
(ui), the caae it made tery little better, for iim tbca tbc preaanra il asl 
nearly ao great aa ibat which could b« ciened by OQe man. 



* Lai U Ira Ltir auraMr uf tuna irhicti tba Iralu waiiba, 7 the rielalaaee per loa 
P lh> Hi'KHal |imiv* baiwran lli> iralu aBd taipa*: Um Bfuiirlna theaeu' 
lufca frum ill* lubcuTtllacobuaciki^ i^ iv4, la Uiv <itr«Ttioxi «f neUoa, we ^re 

M—— HF-P 

tor lilt orailaa of (b* cerrlarM. Fai ibc motliin of Ibe cngte* wa hit*. paKlna I 
th* miiubar u[ lun*, aiid f tar rmtutvM par loo. 

F hrrFihanalnelCa tlan. K,giitilna tba nion er lb* dISimtKal (wtilch — tit i 
do ilim tli> ■ A'-t-hf* «ui] «„|iiw «fff niitr^iQiad m aOMlBaa muviaj at ttwi 
■re acL Uie l>rcMiu« V eijiul ua 



^t''-')- 



IS^] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



fiS 



* 



* 



9» tkat it w« t«t*e ta^n gMtnlilJM ud omc l« adinl c«k«Ulioo, lli« 
wlMle tkMty Mv«Di hllKiouB tflngb. WImi ia tlie pnMure ia tbe cu« 
ia 4«MCtoa cooiparcd wtib UiU ■hk'ta tb* cwrlaitM and «b^iim exert on 
cAcfc oihff «rb*<i lUe enjiM ha> (u br r««*rMd to noTf carriapi luck- 
WMrir AkI tbit Mcnn dally and ban Hf without aof f«rjr diMtlKMii eon- 

A OMrb Bora aerioiit Morcc of accidmU on tL« Norfulk Rulnaj ip- 
paan to ■> lo be ll»« nnacier ia ahicli Ihn traavtrav *Iecprr« ato UmI. 
Bvwf Made fnm uasquarcd litub«r tawn In ha]rieit|tti«a)«, Ifaeif fun* la 
hrKi-cjlinitrkal. X«<t IhM' half cjtladcra are not (ir« imderatand) laid 
Willi Ibcir SaL lidta donawarj*. a* in maaj «tlicr rmilnaji tibcrc iLc) arc 
o( OWrK ftmlj luppvrtcd bj Ibc tail ; but id tl)« Norfulk Railvii; llic 
uluiioii *n laid witb lh« Bat aide* uppannaat. Tbc h«]iJ wbicb Uie 
ftwirferf tt'W ♦tut ■*" '^ add ii ea<nparatl*«l]r anall, aad It 1* obvlooj 
tbat • pmtni« oa «ii« (tdo of th« upp«r iid« of lb* eleepar ougbt oaoily 
caaae ii (» alip roDod. If for instiDce, » ilgne re*(iuf on the edge of tbe 
■le«prr nrre prvwrd U[iuu it bj the pitHtinc "f tbe tnio, It would crrtaiuljt 
Mod lo abiA ibc pcnltuHi of Ibe dcepcri wmI tbeivfora of iba nili. 



Mb. RosaBT ^trmMum't Bxport. 

Tb« bllowInK reporl apua Ibe csutea of tbia dcplamble oocnrreiice baa 
torn pnassUd by kl r. Kolwrt StrpbmMin to the dlntton :— 

T« IA( ftiCKfon 4/* ttt \or/M HnUitvf. 

G«>>ka***i — Abaeacc from LooOun on arKeni buiioMi bag pretMiled 
■■ Mwpljlat Mrttsr wttlh juur rrqueii ihal 1 •houUI report lo jou my ob. 
•irvBlioaaMtlMMaMMwia ■u"'!'^ in <>>r crideQDa gireo al the iaque«l on 
1b« lftl« aceidcal upoa tbe Ncrfulk lUitway. 

1 rrUmei to io«d lut aisbi, niiii now proem^ (« lay bcAm yoa tnch 
T^aarlie •• ba*e MiCKf^aKd IhrniMl'ci. la IhaoslMll tn>y atalv, lb«i I 
cam»r gr&ersUy otlb the lagiartrinf; ewidttte* fi*»B by Mr. Riililvt and 
Mr. Manbail. I ^all iherefurc cuoSoc my atxtffvallciot'io ibeeTidener of 
Gewral pMley, bat brfurc I ilirrcl yaar ■(InntKiD lo tlw IndlvHluat Male. 
BMOil*, I ■luil obatnr, Ibitl I Imr F\|ipricnccd OOOiidersble dlflleiuHy in 
dralini With ikcia. In GoiiK^umco vf (bcir bcloc ncrely ripraialaiH wf 
opiiiiuu. withvuladduolvK ar^uoirnU or ipccik f««t* lo tuppurt thcai, If 
|)ic Oikvral bad, after ^rMg mo opUioa, nUled Ifar pMrtiimlMr rMtioo* nr 
muK mJ tAleulaluioi whith ted hint la tucb «ciadu*iaai, then thrlr VAlidlly 
Mifbl bate beva trtlcd. Id tbe prewat iniUncr auch a cnunie U (Jtiulily 
■MveuaM. brcMOfc ihp >ubj<-cl, frum. Ihr i>ine auumrd, is muclrnnt ciirrvl)' 
a acirolific uar, but one intuhinii; profruinoil cbnrackr. I thnll, l)OWGv«r, 
OMAae n>i rvai'Li io <bc (omcr. 

Oevvnl Hiuilry coinui('(i''r> by tUliog Ihtl tbt dptcrifiliivi (•frngine 
waa ocie of " rilraordinury IfOKlb, uf lueh ■ lengtb a» nmii oeter uftrd on 
tbe oanow or any olber gaUKr." 

Fram tbIa italrmcut etttytiadf would coodude that Ihli c)a«t of e»ft>n« 
waaao4 Ib tery Krocral ute i ibal liitle or oaetpcrirncvhad breo otirairjfl 
•f its pecaliaritie* ; Uiat it wa« aa ciperimcotal ragioct puaitaaUti trnTcral 
«bT)wo*0<fnti. 

A(a.n>t ttiii aMODipfioii I only think it iwreator; to ulatK the fart Ihal 
«pwardi of ISiirtiginFi uf Ihi* deicripliuo baie bn^n In daily iim! in ihia 
0vmArj «>mI vn Ibe cont.oent for tbe laat two ur thmf yran ; tbat th* lon^t 
MlvT baa, by cirry ctpi^rivaced nai) impartial loconalire maaajcrr wiih 
vImkb I bii^t.' toMDuoicaled, been rpcci*rd a* a d-cided JDipra*fincnt; eo 
M«cb *o. th4l tioco Ibie claaa of eoKrne waa firil inirodiK<cd, Ibe boiler* uf 
•Id <nit>o't l>aie b«#n, in i«ver«l caMi withm my own boowledfte. vi-ry 
«VMider>bly Irniibeui-d : ihua ofTpnoit th« moil ineonteitable pruif tiiat 
IbaeU CMi>lr(ii:<>"a of engine ■• admitlmi la be debcknl io lenglh oflmiUr. 
Trnt will tii'ar tn mind that [ otu now >pFahin( of llir boiler iltnply ; llie 
ntber |wrlB of the caiiiiLru«liiio of ibc rnj(iue upou whioh GrorrnI E'aiilr} 
4lfiifg aa ufiinimi I ihiitl come lo aftprwards. I nepd hnrdlj »a^, lliut r|ui-. 
tas Ike wurkiag o< aurli H number itf enKiaea M*r »U(h a lenKlli of \\ivf, il 
ia InpOMJl'l'' t'J lonr^iie the aioldanev oraocideul. If Itm Funilru.ction uf 
UgiBtt tavotned daojcer lo llie eiteol tul«ii by (■vn^rBl Paaley ; but. h* If 
to meet ikta artniO'Dl, the IJrtMrral iu hi* evi JencF qualiliei hi* opinion of 
danger by tayias, *' Ibat auch an eojciaii oa Ihe uue in question can (u al 
H ar IA iu>b:a aa hour, and 1 lliink I liare Kon« 43 tniW upon tbem." 

1 caa <>el> ■'■<e my (lOit etperieoM Icadi me Iu a diHetciit twncluaion, 
wd ihal I bu^e rreqoeolly bMR Hpua tbi> dMcnplioa of engini?' wh«a lb* 
(peed (itrexteedctt iliuie aboie referred to nliliuul ibe tiighieal aoeldeni 
«eenrring. 

Oactllation ia ihc body of tbe engitie at liinh velDcltica I repird «a in- 
«Tliable, DO mauer what the cuoalruelion may be ; but thii oacillalioo 
•naea fran c«ii»r* wbicb cann-nl bavo fame wilhio Ihe iDtpealor-Ucoeriirt 
(pkcfe of vbaefcatlon. Il i« only Ihr- pmcllral naD whoM oploioa on iudi 
foiuiM eajt b« depeaded tipoo : II li n»i Ui<> occaahtnal riding upoa an en- 
pse Ibat can enable any ooe to deciiln between Ibe conururlioa ofooe 
<la*4 asd aaolber. or to decide thai daoxrruu» uicilluliun i* raa*pd by an 
ijiiirt^[illK Iftbos or a luus boiler. Iu a wurd, to dnide a point of tlila 
kiad il ia abtolutcly eeaeolial to aiaiiiin* Ibe cuuditiua cf ihc easine lu 
wbU a* it* cou*tru<tiua ; for Inatanca, tbe RieadioMa of all ais-whecl«d eo- 
(Um M*ent>ally dtixitda iipoa throe condiljoni,^ 




1. Tbe diatribation of the weiihl upan tbe ihrM < 
9. The laitral play in the bcanou. 
a. Tbe dutaooe beiween Iba oxtrtae axle*, tbtl it,tlis«ztmMlnirtk 
of bcanng upon the rails. 

Of ibeM tbe Uil only i< permaaeat { Ike two SnI art camtiBtlj raUevt 
to ohanit*. An eaxnit whii^h ii periselly aafe and MmpanliKlj muJi 
to-day may become oDHfarjy. and •««« daaReroaa al hlftb ipeeda, jg ■ 
nan llaie by ao aJteratioo oiiber In ihe (priom or by the Nieral weanog 
of Ibe bcarimta. Now, I bare re«Ma h> Icimw that the While Hotsa 
or Kent, the ins]f ragiao vUicb Ocneral pMley ^notea aa baving oacillated 
eiee(ii>i'rl>,aii|iough he hi* tried aereralothm. wai not io the beatwork' 
ing cnndiiian al Ihe iltne he mada thn nperiaMnI ; wr opioioa wiih ref©. 
rroc* to lla iMtiou ouuld thcrcfoni with tirapriety be dr»we wiihosi taktag 
into accciuni the L-ani)riioD in wblrb the beaiinRa were at iha time, logclher 
with the diapualttoii ofwrighl upon Ibe whe«Ii. 

All euicine* when aDowcd lo get play upon the bearfnca bemne db- 
iteady at hi^h TelorliiM, aod oaeillation from thU Mom U ain:rK*al«d if 
more tbao a due proportion of wrigbt be thrown Dp«g Ibe niddle p«ir of 
wbrel*. 

I bcllere nearly all ihCNCcidraia which have orcurred by ee^ae* leaviBg 
(he rail* are laainlj aitributablc lo warn nf attentiuD to tbi* coadilloa. 

Ia bad weather, "ben tbc raila ere sllpprry, the irmpiatUo to ifae ea- 
^Inrcnaa to inereaav Ibe wvishi upon tbo driving whrela la very (feat, and 
I bat* ffe^aeally hnuwa It eained to an iupruptr extent. How far tbU 
may hare operaied In ibe Nurfulk Railway aecidenl canool now be a»cer- 
taincd, but, rrferriuc lo ibat whicli lonh ptaee daring tha peogrM* of Ik* 
eaperimrataoa tbc Gmi .N'urili of Knilud RbU way, under the GangB 
CkinviwioD. I bate BMertaiaed that Ibi* Impraprr dwIrihoUon of weigbl 
wa* ooe uf Ibe chief oausei of tbe cbkIdc leaving ihc ratli. On a piece of 
abioluMy perfect road thi* mum would in all pmbabtHly not hare pro* 
ducnl the reiuU. but In case* ofthia kind tbi> nliinate rt«ult aeldevn, rtrj 
»rlduoi indeed, flowa from one eauMi ; il li the ooacurreuee of Iwour owr« 
cite u oil laiKT* opcraliDK iu Ihe aame dlrrciion. 

IfBcvidtota on railway* ame from any iiecularitiei or (nnatnietioo in 
Uie ecgiae, we uughl Iu bate tbero CTcry day. If the oTcthaniraf; Crtlioi 
to much objecled t« by Ceorral I'lulcy wep» dao^roui, il would be ab- 
aulutely ini|iuuibte lo work Ibe London and BintKnubam vtte day wiibiHit 
aarriraafBccideol*. The eociurt upon thai l.na bav« llreboiea peuiecting 
brynud Ihe bcann< aile fatly 4 feel im hrn. beinit 5 iBcbea m«M Ihaa lh« 
«atr<rpoDdiD(pr<^eMiua uflhr Nutfolk caRlnr, The Loadonand Sinuiag. 
hamlioe hu been worked uuwnnrly eiKbt years with an UDpanlUadlralile 
With eajEine* baring oeeriiaxging (ln.|»xr«, wiihttul Bay BMldrM which 
ran fairly be atlributml to luch a peeoliaril; uf cva»l ruction. 

I uriicinajly ub>eriMl to Ihu pnijerlinn of th« IreboK beyood Ike »il«; 
but, afii-r an e(|ieiiiiirni cunilnued UDiiilerruptndly for a Mriee nf yiore, 
Willi BQ i'nior>iii:iuii iiaffir, il nuiild be abautd lo reject aiioh pradlcBl e*U 
dcnce atid lo liotd to tuck au upiuioo. 

It wa« Ibi* opinion tbai led ne bi the coarnuciion of ilia arw long- 
boiler ragine, and Ihe abandeaflwai of the objeciion | i^rigiaailr «nler- 
lainedaud acted upon. Uhvn I eaneldcred, moreatar, tboi ili« Loadoo 
Bad BitmiughaQi cogioen had. In addition Iu Ibe oTrrhan|[ln|i 6p*1mi, a r«. 
BMrfcably tburl be«na|- upon ibe rail, and. coeirqamily, adninlug of Iba 

ovorhanging weight opcrBtiox wiili iocrcaaod rllcot,lbe leWlineBjappeBred 
to hte eonelualve. 

The LondoB aud^irfninahnm Bnjfiaea in Ihe comnirnceuuil had a bear^ 
ins upon Ihc rail u! mily H fret (Ibey hate since hoea eile'iided) wherraa 
llir Nurfulk engines l«>« a broriiiB at ll)| (eel. Ilo (his poisl I attd no* 
cuniurtv) ntfercnivto Ibc rnginra M|hio liie toadou and Kinainghain, 
bccau*« Ihcy at* not peculiar to ihal line ; Iliey are lo tw found on many 
olb*>«. ' 

U balevnr may be Ibe effect of auch eeldeooe «poa Ibe ninda efolbrr*, 
I mux conteas Ibat lo me it oppeari perfrcliy oodcUm** llut the orer- 
bfliigiD)! b»( e>Frc»ed m influence sncB aa UeBatal I'asUy iotagiuea. 

In tiinllriiiatiun of Una, I may aiaie ibai yeatenlay. wlih a paaaenger 
train of 40 luu*, niib a huiiUonia* alilv w,nd, I came truui Dartuigion to 
■t otk an ilie A engiur, which hai an ovrrhHOKinit box and lonit boiler, bc* 
coijipanii'd ti|r Mr. T, K llaniiuu, Mr. l-le<<)ier, and Mr, Jaeepk ftl*. 
phrnaou. for llie eipreu puqiine of iryinn tbe oaciliaiion of iha engiiM. 
For ir«eral ni>lr* the siiveil eturi'dpil W mllo* an hour, and In bomb wb 
p«s»cd tbe (on*rcal]vc quxrlrt nulc pmia lii Id aeruudf, being 80 mile* HM 
hour, ioaddiima l>i IIif uicrhuiicing dirluii, we ware all staaaliajconIbB 
footplate wiih die engmrniBn, eacfltHinn .Mr. Jeeepb Strplicnaoo ; cooh- 
qnontly, Ibe oircuoiMaaoes wurr prc-uliirly <«lvul«t*d Iv eagiic oacillatiaa, 
if tbe teudency entlrd loauy apptctUtile citi-nt. I am.lioweier, tuabld 
to circlare miHl pusllively, Ibai ihia rntiia^ was noi only eMirely (tee frvn 
■toy daiiscritu* osutilalion, but as steaJ) aa any eiogtae I ever ittda npM. 
Here I will Ua^a ilic qucoiiuu of uitrtiangingllrvbuiBadpnMeodloaulie* 
the ueit peoulia'ity of ihe Nurfulk rutiinc tproially Doliccd by General 

l>*>le>— (in.. ■• Tbe wherl* belriie huddled Uigrtbcr." 

Iu laukiiig at Ibi* part of th« aubJMt. I am relirvnl from apy diMUMJna 
aa In nialtcrs of iipiniun; It i* eunply one af dlmrii»«o, which a-loiiia 
happily of do di*piiir. | thrrrfote gne )du the dilamiiuu uf Staoghirr'a 
ongine. whiub thr Ccnrral returuod to toon upon, ajid deeland aafe aod 
atendy, and ihose of the Nwifoik cugiue, nhicb bo coademoa :^ 



Slaughlrr'i engiae, dUtanm betweea etlreme ■«!«« 
Norfolk eiigiur, dtiiance bciwven eilmM axta* 



rtiB. 

II 
10 fl 



&i 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECrS JOURNAL. [FsBRu^ar, 




I leave ihc GtBtnl lo Mr whclliur ihl* tllfltrf ore of iii locbcf JutUe* 
llie epitlifl, "ImJdkd logttiier," •» «ppli«i by hiii. Iw the wbeel» of Ifce 
Norfulk Mghw. 

IV G«D*nl, in aooth^r MR of bla wfidna. mj», "Tbew MglnM 
(Klladiog to tUufibMr'i), aluoa^ (he^ ara of ■ loa* bnilcr oututractkin, 
)u>v«uu(jvprbuifll>(WMcbe Uka Hr. EH^pbrowa'*." Tlii», like Ihc Iknl, 
ia nerciy t (|ucati(Ul «( dtoMittiM. tk« Rkcl bokiK lii«t at tbc <biBi»cy tnd 
SlaBilhtrr'a coe>>i: oTrrWiKa preciaol j to Ifao *u»e extent u Ihc N orfalk 
«Bjiq»— »l«.. I fiwH intbca; at Itia kr»l>i» »ftil in SUoglit«r"i rtfiioe Ik* 
&XM i> pl*c«il mwteniMib tbe niddln of Hip drttax, vikfnutt in Ibe Mtier* 
itUplMwil iBucdiaUlr io from «( ll, without, htiwnrr, gliing Ibe n|[M 
noraUiAaQlBcbwMddiliunal iMMupon il)c rmiinaj. andUiii in ftdUlAOca 
of II JM; yet tliii ahKSe of dUTcTcnw, accordiax lo the GcBerKl. wnkv* 
Iha ou mxifii) mIa ami tlMtd) . and the olbcr daoRoroua, ajid apt to *■ roll 
like ■ vend nt re*" aail lbiiii*ilb(>ulr«tar«w» to the fnctlliattiirMotKiir 
RAtily of tliB Norfolk. #ni;iii« ii fnilr a foot lawFt than MtM^bWa. 
W«K II DMmwry lo adduce an; rurtber nidrDov ti wiiald only bat nec«» 
Uty Is laMll to nind ibe baae of tke Landan and binaiBglMin eoginn. 
Nlim, with aa ottrbanf-ing Grabox, iJic baM of Um rail does ddI «tceed 7 

ft:t<l. 

I doD«l Ihiok Ui«l cuiiiiu«ut oa anch a e«ndaMon b McecMfy: if a 
Aade of iliOCrrcDCovf iMi kiaJ be rattlly adM)UAte M fmdof^ mcb (Mkt#- 
,f u«nc«( at are her* italt^ by the lii>|>ecttir-G<n>isl. ibc imuer the con* 
■iTDctiiin of ei«7 claw of locenmUT* oacina w ntited tfcc bnicr. 

Ganvtal Paaley alatts fa wMUicr pan of hu ciideiicr, tbat " the aat- 
ion i[«DKr Mit udicff Df M> ftwl B dIaiMlcr of botler a> the briMd, M r. 
Stcphtnaon. uircmarclbci^uclc, cootUuvtcd tbe Im^ boikr ngtn«», lo 
•qua! IhcDi in power, and Ikrjr bnve fuiod is lb* parpow tar whKth ibejr 
«r«c« iuleodcd.'* Add afain, " tkai on-inic to th* fun! paf I of iba boilvn 
tMiif *» far ln>m tii« ftrabux, Ibe tubn brtug ao mucb dituuii, tbe bokuim 
da mil aOonl lh« powrr that waaciprcird from the*." 

This pantgrapli I bate do bBaitatiiw in dcclailng to be vnlirelj env 
ocoiir. lo ihe fim p1ac«. lh« motiic fiw IcostbeaiiiK ">« bodw bad a» 
nftrtncc la itagsc nt «Ut be«aiu« >tb *<|ub11} appl^c^ble Xo all (^ngMj 
thaobJMl noi (a «at« fii«l, t>y prro'dliiif Ihc e»eap« nf « large qa«»- 
tity of tiatt* heat up Ihe chirDoey ; in Ibit it baa bivB prrfectljT aacMM* 
fill. witKb taM been eslabiiahtd by e*rry axiicninrBt Uted wilb tbil ob* 
jnl. E*ea with ibe laogeal labe yv* inindnoad k laeamalim enfioM, 
Ibe MMperatura ■! ifaa cUaiMr wd bM bee* (raad wilB«ital t« nWt 
lead, whicti b apward* «f SOO d#itrM« «bave Ibe lenperatuN ef (be 
v%(«r in >be boiler. Tb« opioioe of (i«neral l*uley oa this polat is 
aquall; at Tnrtaare «tlib Ibe moit ctlriiaive experienc* wilb alatloDaTy 
•ngiBi Uoilen, which are wnttit ktais^. wiUi ini>i-|> Iria irtoclly ordniugbl. 

It mnit be wbciuui to etcry ooe Ifaat ciety Oidditiun to tliS eouaUDiy of 
fad obtaloed by an wUajKcd oraponitor? capBciiy k iwcetearUy attended 
vltb » corraapiMMliiiK tocrnaa of power, aod iberelore, a* bafurc ci(»cr*«(l, 
•hbouiib my origiaalobjAOt mlcnjlbeniiiK ibe holler era* wtth the *iew 
of ccoccfoical reinlts. It haa been aiicniled nitb a large Intreue of po- 
wer. 1 b*% therefor* lo reinoi n tlir imprcaaian pfoduced by Deaeral 
Pasley'a eekleitoe. by eaipbalically dtdauug that ibe Iubs boiler arrange 
Meul ausgoted Maelf lomy mind, indeed na* in actual opi'r»iiaa> ym% 
befbra liie qumlJoo of lauim ww agitated. I forbrar berc g«ing Into 
Um <)ueilJoa of gavg*, wkieli baa been ao pointedly introdooMl by 4ie- 
neral Pulej boib in hi* evidraee and in his letter Id TIu TiMrf, becaoM 
tt is both forelKd to tba ant^fect, nail enn letd (a Dd reaaM whiUi It la 
■nter the otMtlderaiion of the coumiMioa appolntoil for ihal pvrpose. 

In coocluaiun, t am wlllinx to bclicre, nay, 1 an aiMerely cooTineed. 
Ibat GeMral Hosley, in girian hi* eiidencci waa adaatxd by no otbrr 
■Otiie Ibuk a *itb to acn'v aI the trulh, but to the pr«.eiil Ingtauee 1 
mart bo *xi:<tsed fur regarding; biui a* baling fentarMl Co givo opinuiR* 
Upon ndiflieull lubjecl, and oni! nitli wbii;Ii aeithei hu education nor 
eipenente caji ha>« miule hioi thiirongbly acijuaialMl. la veolurinic 
tliu«iuexprei( Liijsrir. I am lor from W(»li(ag lu imply tba lenatdiiir*- 
peclful f«elioj( to Ccnoral Pailry ; on llie conlrary, my tspDriDDi:e io l!io 
awk in wbich be ha* llllrd the difbcoll olEoe <if lotlwelDr-liconral ha* 
led «e la resporl biro, and at all lirav* to aid him by giving bin opinion* 
on pt^elioat iitbjeol* whenever un upporiuuily preMBted it*elf; but in 
Ihe preaeni FB*e 1 am to penonally iufulved by hi* eiidcdce. and feel to 
Mron^-ty tviiiiat«l Ibat bla tiewa are euUfd) errvUL-oo*, and calculated to 
injure railway imereMa, Uwitta eaprcu ujy ofiiuivti wilb any rncTTatioD 
wimM 1m ittJaalice to many railway cumpauii)* wlii>»e coaGdence I tut' 

joj* 

I am, (icDtleuieu, your obedient teivaat, 

lloKi-RT urtratHSOM, 
Sit Gnat Gwrgi'ilmtt WostotioJtef, Jaik 21. 



FALL OP A VIADllCr ON THP. RflUBN AND HAVHK 
BAILU'AY. 

(Extnul/rom* PritMt Litttf.) 
Il being po**ible tbat lb« news of Ibe fallieg of the whole of the viadoct 
of BarantiOt ''O ibe tine of tbo prDjecled railruad belwrea Ituuoo and 
Havre, and wilhlB lliree loax<*e<< "i Ibe former place, ma)' not yel baea 
reached yan, I thererun buten to send you all tlie pnriiculari iImI 1 ba*« 
ooilecSed. 



TUa evaot took piaM ob SaUrday laxt, the lOtb January, and ha» mad* 
a deep laiprewioB on Iba IseUag and f«u->of lb« population orilaTrc.who 
loakMl forwwd wilb mock auieiy lo Ibe *peedy aod aafo aeeompliiiaMl 
of ao BBileiuklof in whicb their eommorcial and genMal iirtieeata an m 
inpurtanlly involied. Now that Iho accidem hu luppaaod. opiaiooa. 
wUich were fonotrly kepi in »abJeoliiia,are eiprriaed wtthool rnrmi, and 
il would appear ib«l duiibts b»e long been eulenatlied of Ibe •oltdlly of 
lbs work*, of Ibe amoanl cf rare obiet'ed. Bod of ibe qnalily of tha laalc- 
riaU u*mI in Iho raostroeliuii of tliia railioad. One Rhudder* at lb* idea 
of tbe dreadful cou»ei|UFac«* which niigbl bare enineil b«d tbo rc«d baM 
in fun oprmliuu ni Xhv titne oflbo accident. 'I'ho fall of tbil eaorwoo* 
work, mitrd lo tlic hcigUt of I'i yard* Freucb, Ubimt llil Knglisb f**!) 
abate tbc iMil, naturally give* rite laths mtut scriuiu niiiirphriitioa* fiir 
the ctcntval f»le of l"o otbcrr, thole of Malaoavy and M irvillo, wblch the 
aome oondiliob* eapote to a like ro*olt. 

Public oanhdevce to Ibe gcomi •tabillt; of the works upM Ihta railroad 
has, byiblt dreadful eitnt. rncrired a blow, Uieefliwi* of which caq ooly 
be renoTcd liy tbr iciil of limo nod a long seriM of tncccMful opprallons. 
Happily, no live* knte bcca lust, nor much proiieri* id ibo imaediaU 
Ticiaity dctlnycd by tbc (all of the viadui:t. A flimrmill, liiuriic opontbt 
riirr bt. Aualrebetthe, wa* eoliraly knocked dawu, uiid il »■■ not till 
withia ao hour afterwurdti tbat the InhkbilaDlsofbanolia could make ibcir 
way wenns tba moMca which oncumtiee«d Iht road to Ibe rM«u« of tbo aolc 
ioniale. who miracniouily eetaped With a klighl wuuiid only of tbo finger. 
The loscblnciy and fracnent* of the mUl were sotieted about In anry 
dirtcUoo. 

The JoKmal dr« Dcfcul* publiebc* tba fellawiag letter on ibe anbject ol 
the late eala*lrapbe whicb occurred •)■) the Itunca and Kairc Itailrwul.- — 
" I haTo the honoor to addrets you )t>« futlvning note, with a rcc|ufit that 
yon will insert il in your next Dumber. Thedirecian of Ihe ftouen and 
Havre Railroad Ccwpany haatea to publliU the Cnt tnriirmatioa tnncmiiud 
lo them on tbe *laW of th* viaduct of Berentin by Mr. l»ckr, the prtntlpal 
engineer of tbe company. The dtraclor* b«f e mucc bad a coofitvenre wHb 
the priDOipal oDRinccr, at wdidi Ihc atmouucement made In ^e joarnd* of 
laal evening wa* fully confinned— vit., ihal tbe coil of lbs rabnildieg of 
tbc viaduct of Bnrontin willbKHI the expense of tbe contraetora, aud that 
tbe reonnalraclion of Hie TtaducI will tiul retard far mora Iban two monibs 
Ihe opening of tlic llnr. The plan of ihe rccooatnicllan waa tbli day ar- 
laoged by Ibe board of direciots, and will he prescoied Ivmortow U A* 
M ioieter of Pahlic Work*. TItv damage caused to Ibe pruprlelan !■ iho 
neighbourhood of Ihe viaduct i« i^fno *enoui inipuitaoce, end can gkcrlM 
but lu a aliuhi indemnity, already partly arrBogcd.— E. UiuocKia, 8ecr»< 
tary lo Ibe Cunpauj." 



THE JAKU8 ST£AM SHIP. 

(Wccopj the followiuB anicle, addresied to the Editor, from lb* Tima,') 

Sit— na f^oeal article* io*eii(d in your naivcrtolly circaUtcd papcc 
rvUtive to tbe Janu*, indicate Ibat the iucceo* orfailiiniuf tbe cagiBei, 
boitctx. and line* of roattruciiou are subJ«oC* uf public inti>r««l. 

llriDc thus condrmrd lo my opinion, 1 cocIhib lo yua Ibe bul r^url 
miidc oo llti- {iriginal ruTnlving cflgluo eiecti-d by the luie AdniirtJty in 
Pvitmnouth Duck} nrd, the prribrniaocr of whicli eaulno* save Ui tbe pie- 
sent boird tbe cenSicoee Ihey bate Enaiitftstcd in proiuoliaif tbe ntlaiaoieiil 
of an object bighly iolcretting in Iho nnial aertico. 

ThoK only who attempt lo ioiroduce an Inporiaat ootrliy caa ealimato 
the eflaeu of jeolouiy aud prrjudice. I eoallde, huwoi nr, in your libcraltlj 
lo aid ia tbeir nmuvtd, and brg iJjui yon will inquire witetlier oay r«cipr«. 
caliugeualne ha* ever pcrrurmcd diil> i'i|iiiiulriit In Vi contvcuU«B doubts 
vayag** rrcrni KngUod to Anericu (>» tbe Purt»niouili rogiuc boa done), 
almost witbont repair I 

I am, Sir, your obedient serf ant, 

Portsmonlb, JaiL 6- DoNOoMAUk 



Rtfttl ^ftht Earl y Dunitimaliet Halitlary Kngine mclrd ia Utp 
M«i<tty'4 U-ickfvrit Hi rartrmunlh. 

Oo the Ud of December, 1849. two >iinr« and oioe iDoath* of coailaal 
perfonnanoe of the rolaiory engine npirtu, durlaj; all which lima it baa 
bern warhmg ia tbe mu»i clfrcluul ami Mtlffaciur? uaniier, Buderaan- 
mcal oi coiiaciiueace having eicr taken plact?. 

Il it prnsumcd th»[ tittte Iwo ycor* and niuo month* of coniUnl and 
Uboriuot operation (reqiiifing no more than alii^hl aiimtlun bj Itie irork. 
men) hnv« goira far lo iilabliah thai qnnlity which, ualil nuw.biw] not 
boon mffloleaUy dereloped,— oamol j, dorahiliiy, and coaiieoucat cootiauity 
ofopcralioD. 

Tbe prioclpal repair thin engine has rcqulrrd was taken In hand about 
nine month* ago. This was k triliog that six men coul<) haie accom- 
pliabad itinoBSdaT, builia*ii^bc«amuch prcaeed with work at tlipllme 
on« man ooljr eecM tw spared, wbicb eoniw<i}u«nliy prolractod it) compli ■' 
lion for ooe week. 

Tkua after Aoiir yean and nine monlba roaslonl worklog as a prim« 
motcr, two yean and nioe tnontb* of which have bcea so soccesafally ner- 
farmed, uolhiag mure con be rraating creo by the most sceptical lu 



I 
I 



I 



^ 



■ptt.m 
(tta- ■ 



IfUC.) 



THE CIVIL ENGINGEK AND AUCHITECrS JOURNAL. 



« 



UmIi lU mcrlu u • povtrtvl, tconnnic&I, and dnnbl« eoKioa. M|t)»l ia 

fuMI oj rftciviK)- to Mjr rrct|inwiktiBg ongiua m II«r M«j«itr'( icrvicft. 

^IiduJd oiliiiiuiul t*idiiii<« t>« i^uglit lo niabluh furtber clalnii •* ■ 
11 Blraui niftbaniim. i[ 1« lo b* r<jund in IbtiBiniple r«cl.lbUtJiM Bnl 
<.a tbr Eail o[ Uumtuniilil'i priDCiptf . illhoBgh Kl trel Bllend and 
r,t<ju .il»d Id Urmy il In |>rrfe<tniD| i* iieiriUelcM at Ifae pmwat IJtnc pw- 
fecUT frre frnia llaow iadKaiMiU of woakani wd dwlinipc cticrn nhkli 
uj ui|t» iciiioe, nadef MiaiUr cir«uiiutaiiM«, raiEkt probably «fiBC«, ai 
U^ruved li) iUeiAihitiagaiacuuBat KlltitM!i«(|uailuX8 iMheaof net- 
nity. 

Annttrr fM-t t«hieli{i*e( great cuuCdenc* In ihr utiliij iind applkafailily 
»[|tiU priQCipIc i* ita rrecdom fruui liabilltT lo in-.rrnal ilrranxeaeBt,«ail 
taatrquroil; Ihc Mnice in nbiub it U CBjAKcd U acartclf ercr iacoo- 
iralraccil b| iloppixci. 

TIm cuj^lLc lia* not txta op<D«d for «iiimination aiiifc JdIj laM. 

K. T*rLi:>t Eogiovcr aod Madiiaiat. 

H«r H«jr|t;'« Docfcrud, PartuiiouUi, Dec. SI, ISIS. 



ARTIFICIAL ULTRAMARINE. 

Till wtllilff tka U«t iwclve or Altfrn jrara the oDly Mam of tbi* bean- 
Mai pi^Mrnl waa Ilia ntr nuiiernl. Jo^iu temJi. Tbo pdce o/ ibt UocrI 
dmwarinc waa ikui m bi|[h *n lite guinea* the «udc«. Siocc tU moO* 
fff l»^h'"g ■' ■"ill'=,i»]ly ha* bepo JigccTTrcd. h«M»Tcr, «(< prico lia> faU«» 
toafcvi •h>ili»K<>>'>*<'°i>^' Artilitial ultnaiarioa ia bow Baaa&ctnr«d 
Ipj^vc^ oABBuI'rabloeKlcDt OD lh« OootlDent, b«l, u far ai I can l<wrn, 
MM baa U Jtt bcrn mmlp in Oreat Brtlaln. Tb» chi*f Fmncli maiiii- 
fcllniin iif iilrfamnrin* am litnalr* la Paris; and Uwino lareirtt oora in 
fiH^n; an thoaa ol Haiwtii in Sssoor. anil of Niir«oib«rs io Fraoconia. 
Tkn* kinda of ■tinntriac ownr in i;wnm«rfr, llicblur, tbc kitcd. aad 
Ibt jdlow. Tb« t*io SnI o«ly are Irup nllrftiKannM, Ihat ii »ulpbor cob- 
pMod* ; tiie 7pllow it mtreif cbmnale of barjia. ItoUi naiiie and aril- 
ftcial ultranatin* hafo benn ciamiDi^i] >erj carcrolTj bj Htrtnl emintint 
<fatiDuu, nho, howpirr, lut« brrii uiiBblelotbrow raocb light upon (bclr 
tn* tialura. CtirmlM* liai« Diirluubtrdly nflcrrtaiord tbal ntttaisariae 
tlnya conaida of sillcn, oJsmiu*, buJh, sulpLur, and a llltk oiide of 
inBfbul DO tno flpfcloKDr, «i(lirr of Ibn native nf artilicial ullrtimariiii', 
oaUln lb«»e iagrvdirnia in at all aimlUr prApnrllon*. . . Tha lavl 
(bf«i(t i*ba hi* runin(d ulinnoarlne i* Dr. Kltncr, who httn publiilifd 
■ ?«i7 «l)tb(irM« pap*r opan il ia ibe IScd nnntMr of l^rdmnnn') Jcmr- 
BalfartHlI. Tb« ArM part of Dr. Eboer'a paper labliloncnl. nuil cnn- 
Uiiwaa acoouni of Ibc ncridrctal diicoi«ry of anillcial nltramariae bj 
Thiaanand KulliiMn in Ie^l4. aod of tbo labour* of *atiH()>iaat uhomitlii. 
R( tbni gi^i* a di'Uilcct ■ecoiint of hM oma cipitrliafDU. . . Dr. 
Z\t»rT\ paper do#4 ■)■>(, bAwcr^r, fumiab anjr delaiii b; wbjcb uilninn- 
risr t^dtd b« tsaaaraetnred sii<cr«arull)' oo thm f[rtal tcalr. Tbu«, for 
(taDpIr, to r»;:ard to th« occctuiry defm of bMi, pcrbapa iha Jniist Im- 
Bortant cUcuuutancr In ihcprucci*, li« gifM iMdImilDM ifbatDTtr, Wc 
Caaa. linwet«r,froinotbcr»oDr>;r*,lbal[l*bo«ildbeatowredliMl,aaBlmacb 
bUhtr Uaiper«lur«* Iwlb ddIix and arlifictal aKranwriBc«oMtbe«oin«uolo ur- 
ine Dr. I^i>n«r, iadc«d, dots nui aHlrro Utat bo iras «bla (o pnwtira ul- 
bwmariaela 'luantilj uf Bunifuriiilv {(ood colour. lo fad, lh« pmcpmi of 
loWqnrl, publtPihr<) nearly Iru jran ano, i» thr brat which iclcntlflc che- 
■Ut* an*ttti, ihnaxb DDdoubledlj ilic ■oaoofaciuicr* baic creallr Ijb- 
Koittlur'") 't> boblqaei't pmcets cuuiiiia in hvnliag (o Iott rcducM a 
MitarCftf ODD pari purcel.iinclay, ■joeimdttlialfaolphnr.andoo* and a half 
Mrla anbydniii* ■>ni('niiBiE ...f *oda, eitber in an tinhnnivarn niort or co- 
xrvd crudilitr, hn loag b« lupuura ar»*Kl*ea ofT. Whrn oponrd, Ihn era. 
a\i* ntttall)' ontnini n npi'usr naaaof a df«p bla« tolnur, conlamirif 
■or* or iMa ultraniariar miied wiIli Ibe «!«•• of fulpbor epiplojtd, and 
um* uaallfrrd day nnd *oda. Tbe Botubla Batter it rctnotrd bj waab- 
lai. ud Ibe ulKnomrinc arpiratcd (roca tho other ioipuhtk* by lerigm- 
Um. It )• to be regrftted, however, that lh» reiulu uf ItobtijUPl'* pro- 
MM *n by iH> a*«an* nniform ; on# lini« It Ti«ldii n goud deal of ullrniiis. 
llBi«f*'SceII«olqaaIit]>. and p«rtiapa, al lh« *m7 neit rtprtititm uf the 
men* loHrcamtiaaefaapparfaiWsiiailnr, vrry iiittc tiUrainariiic ii oh- 
Uaod, a»d iltal of «a Infirnur quality. The fabrication of altramaTiiie I* 
la«mKl «fa>ch welldcicrTTslh« ■llri)li'<n of KDKti*h (bcmicnl mkiiufae- 
torn. U il GOald be carried oo Tcitb pocolur adTanlagc in thii caiiotry. 
ne chief •ip«-nMi oftb«pro<«M ia lb« fuoi tvqntml, which cuu be pur- 
(based in tir«*i Britain for lets than half the maatj il would lcmi riDier 
Ib Fruc* or GFiviuy.— frocanliiigt ff the Glugow PUlimpMtal .-h- 



Tai Nti*tfH BloHDMCMT. — Thn coniplHloo of Ihi* work hi* at Iringtb 

\.^ i.tUKlmJ «« Vj the Wood* twl For*)U. *nd to tbil *IIitt ■ comnual cation hat 
taa n^* (« (ka artUU la wbooi Ihe (oniiniMloni h>ire tmn ronOdtd, bf Ibt Ciil al 
llMHlB Tko nhjOTU piopMed (or the (oui UhI Rllerl art tti* Tktcrin at Cipa HI. 
IhnDI.Ce^obaim.tbe Kllr, »ad Tnfclp'i "•><> lb' iculplDM »ypa\BUil IseucuU 
*ii, L„l. .UJ Ml. Walaas, Mr. WoadlofUii, Hr. Oueo. and Mr. Turaaalh. Tbt 
Wlto^ mm U n*rui«l bf Itr. I.OB(b. Tb« Mllcttd «ort» wtU b* In branir— lb* 
a ta Beta a> tranUaj— " EiUEilnar.** 



pRocisDiiras OF mcTuvrrxFio societzz». 



ROYAI. SCOTTISH SOCIETY 0? ARTS. 

MoMlajt Jan. 12. Sir Qeo. S. MKLoait, BarL, oif CouJ, F'.JC.S.Bh 
PreMdenLia lb« Cbair. 

The foUowioK cuBimuDkaliob* wtre »adc: 

1. " jI Dtt*h>fmenl a/ tht t^mtctum iff Uu H—m«me B*liM a* a ^ro- 
grtwitt vriM ^^.Sca^rM TWnyte, owf i/ fJtotp ^fftet apoa M* Rwra^t 
wAicA fAne TWaapte ^rerfum, tjr IA* miM «/* UMr App«/An*>M* ; wiiA 
Ritaarit vpim Ikr ulilily nf meM a mhm i» am jK»(httie*lpotml «^*mw. 
Hj 1). R, IUy. Eiq.— Mr. liar, io rtading Ihl* paper «a' the bamtuolc 
raiioi. cahibiud by drawings, nade !■ proMDca of ibe okc(*b(, their ope- 
rat;oD. hy a natutaJ proccM, ki producnng a terits of wolea* ttiaofU) hftring 
all lb« barmuuic properltM in rvIatioiD l« firm, tbat tba MatBral 4iMe»ic 
aeale of niuie ha* to tounJ. Ue tbowed tbat the brauly of prupurtioo aod 
syniinelry depmdi upon the opcratioa of ths niiBbtr* '2, 3, and 5, aod ihai 
thaie aumliara ap«rai« Id tha foriDalianof geometrical Cgnre* bytbodniMOti 
oTlbe dideUiteMOdrgrMi: taiertlng that no oiUer mods of ditlalon 
would produoe tbc lame retulu, brcatue that number lo In ■ pei^nliai manrr 
{nhich lie alto ejdiihllcd lo Ihr mrrtinj) a ii>ultl)ilc of ibuio tlueo baTBolic 
ntioibcn. lie aUo ihowed ibii, by tbc ooubinaiiona at Ibe aadeae trU 
a»glc» multing from Lit proceti, a »cric» of rtctaiiKlH wu prodeccdt ml 
prorni that Ihn* redsngl** Kail ptcnliM haratMilo tjualilleii Ihit balongsd 
to BA Mber fiRurei of the aame tpcci#«. Uc •Uieii that tiich a teak waa 
a daiiUfalaat in arcbilMlnre, aad tlut it* adaption would tie atiM^ed witb 
incalcaliblt adnpU|« in that aa wall w U every otter ail in wbieh form waa 
ircaied to tbe abMract. He ilio iMiilldned Ihet bu i«ale of barmamc faraa 
waa applksMe to coTTcbiieal aa weil aa recUlineai AfitTea. and ibai k» wm 
engaged in a work in whieb tbia aboald be pr«t«d. 

i. J>uVTipHm ani iVewiMpi q/** C^-miar iaw jV fMur«f;Ntf7«eHi imt 
mar* pttrtiefJThf fir Agrieait-rUU. l}y Cnpl. C. D. I'atbuok, — Tlu* 
*aw, il wa* itated, i* adaptrd huUi (or erv*)-euttiag and all oibor kind* of 
work, but more partimUrly for runting cnta through batUna, deiJ*, Ae.* aid 
OM tra*rl ihrougb tiniber of any laagth. le crMt-raiilnf, iba werkiMB 
can citite tbe aan to adiance or rcirrai by meaai •( a handle. For leti| 
nork tbe uw ti ilrirrn backwud* aud forwanti by mMbineiy. CapuM 
I'aienoii adopi«d tbo plio of uiaLiag tlio aaw inrd tosUad of the wood, net 
only bccatiae by tb«t meau ntM«r ptociwon la obialatd than by Boorlng the 
wood to Ihc MO (whkli itHked. b Gmt-onttine larfe lieca ii atiDott ii*' 
pra;tit«blc), but alao in order to a<oid lb« ri*k oi cripptiog the aaw, wbiah 
lie had ofleo known ta oecurfroni cairleu «r inexperienced MorkwcD twilU 
iDS tbe wood ID the acx of rullinp. Tbe taw i* driren I7 heltt. 

3. JJeaer^fioe ni Jtrt m uf t of a Kaihraf Iwlie^lirr. By Wiluau Ay. 
nsKiioK, mail.jiuril.^'llie mncttiuo, aa it hu beea In aoUoa fur thrw 
month* put on tlic Dundeo and Arfan>alh Ballway, wit eihlbiled. The 
indicator ibowi, a; loy moiBcnt. tbe Dumber of milea tbe train bt» trartlU 
ftoio the atatiun U wblrli H ataited, aa well a* tbe number lo UaTel to Ike 
tud uf th« journey. It alaoeuable* theeogineer or any eibcr pertaa in ifaa 
train to taeertain at night or iad^-nae fi>);>, within • fc* feet of tbc particnlai 
apat on the line npoe which tbe train >• tratrllln^. II alio tells Ibe rale of 
aaeed, and Ibe difftrrnt tiaiinna and lMilit»M wbUk the train paatckj aad 
alto the bow aiidtheleiiRUiof llmelt takce to fun erajBile. It wasaiaied 
thai II would be an rlTectoal check to careieMorrecklcM driving, and would 
tie alio a coiDplric cht<k upon book-keepen, conittictOtB, andevery other 
antiant connected with tlic train, as at tlie end of tbc Journey it ha* only to 
be eianiioed in order to allow tbe time when tlu train *lar(ed — when it 
rmchcd eiery one of the diSereat italiont — and the ptccltc Ipced at which 
it had traeellfd dnrlng any part of the jAiaraey; and werottatlidiMti»na 
copied inio a book, tliia woold foim a oMBplcli and latling regiiisr of the 
vliule working on the line. 

J Icit Sijpuil IJp&l, to be attached to ibn upright aplndle of the indiealor. 
vt* aUo dcacrllxd, lii. a reroUliig red and white liiiiit. wliicb would abuw 
at ni)-hi the apwd of a train in sdraoMof anntheral a ditlanra of (oar or 
live mile*, and thus enable III* drirec of tbc following train to keep al ■ 
proper diaUnce from the one in adiancc. 

4. Alt antique eaiiael Laet a»d Atr <jf mriOHt aad iiif*ni»ti$ irvrimtnM^t 

wat cihihited by Adau Ciii Et-U*. Kiq.. W.S.. F.H.$.Ii.A. 

.'1. ^.VmWo/ Hr.W. 0. Gorsa'a fimoersUf ins4ow Sathttfir th* mst* 
eary oadnt^ meoiu ijfCieaninff n'niiotn Mffrrfy irirAir* fA« ^arlmrtl. — 
The adrantage* u[ (hr inve^aiitiii are itaieii to be. liiai the iian oorner-pleeea 
urengthen the iwhri. and rrm^r llicm reiMiteablc. and capable of being 
taken iuiilc the apartinriit to he clcaiird. Thr^i alio oauae ib« laili tn ilule 
more Crooly and tllciitJy m tlie frinx 1 and wlion cloied, tbe wini om n per- 
ftttly (irm, and free from any ratlling or vihtation. They caa be tpplinl 
either lo aew or old wiudow* at a coat ef 10«. per window. 



ARCII.EOLOCICAL INSTITITS. 

/■■Herjr l.>-4ir Richaw* W>»tii.4«o7t is tbe Cbair. 

The inereailn^ namhet and Iniemi of the <Mnmusiea(ioM au1>milied to 
the Imtiliilr hai iiiilticed Ihe Cummiltee lo devote two niattinn In each 
luoBth toUly to the tibibllion of lutiqultlei. and to vcbxvlogJCtl ujwuumd. 



» 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[Fkbbvakt, 



Tfae lint d/Uicm navcnaxtonw wm beld it tb« iptrtaHnti of tho InMltntc 
(12, tUyniHkct], oa Vnitj lut at hmt •'dock. »• li«<l beri aitninaOMl in 
iIh priateil orcdljr* of the CoucdHIm tnd ib« rMCoiIr pu^iliiticd auiDtKr of 

On aptnini ih* praM<diB|i, Sir R. Wc«tiiiac«tt abiemd thai, htht* eB> 
Uring Ist4 an nsmlnaiioo of tlie objcett iubmltud Ii> Uiem, he thaught it 
rigtii tu lUtc. ihii It wkt lu frum tbo tnUntioa of tba comniittPA of tM In- 
UiLule, in boldiog ihue mcetinici, tr> lolerfrra In an; dtgm wi(h the pro* 
eNdlnit if ths Society of Antlqutrle*. He maetSicd ihii iliFre wat i maric* 
•d dhUnnhin U the prorlnce ^ iha iws locictiet. It wu rompcunt to the 
Soddir of Aniiiiaaiut lo trnderuke far more Important object* t — tt* i^nte 
of reic«rch *■■ widor, ill rooMrcci wtre iu«r« aioplt. The Inilllule oat 
nee«uafil; lubiidiarj— <l«i)tneil lo act in a plunrrr capacilv, iml toiupplj 
bj It* eit«ndeil Mtrfipoiidrnr* thoie malffiali not olhcr«iie iCMUiM*. on 
which lh« more imponaat labonn of the Sonelf of Anilquariei mutt ulii- 
naielr be baaed. Tbe meelitulioa of the Initituin wm lo frimr.! ■< «> tm- 
brace all cteatei inicretKd in (lie ilnily of ArcliKnlogj. — doI ihotc ool; 
whoee lopport wai talDabie from their |iu>itian aiKl inltueiii't, hot alio ihoM 
precluded bf their Umiteil mcana from ptnln; the Sucictt of ADiii[tienBB, 
and defiinig fell benefit from ite Talnnblc puhlicatirini. Qjr tliii tnorc com- 
prebcBM** enrelmeot, the iniiituie hoped to tccure \he co-oiicratinn 4(lho*c 
«he were the officii! conwrvilon of our gmi Cccleositicil (dini-ri, and 
Itaaic alio «hnM profcuinnal aducatlnn invalvtd tbe itwty of ArthMolopj i 
•lid of tbe nallonil lyiepiltiy ttiui cr»at«il Die Siiet^If of Anllijiiinei ooulil. 
be fett lure, reap tlit licnrGI. He confijtntl; aniinpilrd that. \iy the annual 
ncciini. a »try great ilimulm would be given in tbe iiudj o( AtchKotogj;. 
ud that in each intvTiiiTc iliit a natr ana iattreitiag loealirjr voultl be ex> 
|ilor«d anil iUnitraled. and tnaD^ precleu* objecu, which lie concenlcd in 
pritalt collccliooi, would be brought to light. Hj the amallcr meetinga, 
■neb ■■ Ihe comtDilt«« held tbi* daj, Lhr; hoped lo glre the Opportooitj for 
Bneb frieniLljF intercoune and valuable diKuation. |[« rrjfllccil to tet, on 
tba pr»rjit DJ^cjuinn, tiich a variMy of inleretling olj^i^ii arid eommnnifa- 
tloiii It ihoaH laid tiofor* tbcm, — a mott gralif*in^ astoraoce of (he manner 
in wliifti lli«te meelinga would be aupparted lii llir mpmhrn af Ihr Initilute : 
and he cooM on!> regret that the limited ipac* of their aparlmenH did not 
allow ihcm to accnminoditr, on the pinrnt occaiioo, a larger aiKnihlT. 

Sir Richard ibcD called the alleelion of llie meeting to lome beautiful Ita- 
lian aculpliiiei in iiury, mIiicIi had paued iato bi* potseision from tbe col- 
lection of FlaiDiao. He olitrnvil, that thcv jrrotiBblj repreiented, in a icriei 
of fT«ap«, tbe tncideati of lamR le{[end or mi^diicial rnniaufrn. Tlttj appear 
to hare been ttKiitfd in (he earlier part a1 thr (nniiecnth Citntory, and afford 
a remarkable enample of a pen liar aijls of deilyn, euuiidfred b; foreign 
aaliquariet ta b« Venetian, and of which lereral tpeciincnt may he teen in 
tbe iliu^e Cbarlet X at (he LouTre.and iCTrrtl prlrile cnliinnli at Tarlt and 
oiher pait* of the continrnt. He alio nuhmilted for {ntpcciion a bead 
■ealpturvd in ttone, of the l.ltb centarj, froui llercfurd Cailicdral, remark- 
able f»t Ihe fine charittcr of the ftalum and general exprcuioa. 

The Uarqoeta of Northaiciplon exhibited a bronic £ln»can rate, of on- 
«Mal fortn, found at Bamacra, aod a rnirror omaneoled on llin reverie with 
an engraved ^up of Ihe Jiiilgtnenl of Parit, and a numbrr of bi-adi formed 
of ilttwMu paatea. diacoiered near Rome, much rcuinbling the beadi found 
ID Brillfh barrowi. 

Several ieiureating primeril weapon* of flint (ud bronir, diicovered in 
ri!araaTgaa»biie, belonging to the mutpun of the Rnynl Inttilittion of South 
Walct,we(e cooiniumcalcd for exhibition, by peroiinion, through Mr. C. G, 
Fianeit, Wa) us^rctiry to tliR Initidilr. X. vjkluatile illugtralioii of llieitn le- 
maioi wai «)ntnhiil*d hj Mr. J. Winter Joiie>, consnting of an uniijuo ai- 

aembtage of lance and arrow beadt of titei, (Iticoveied in Cantdi, which, u 
\lt. Birch rtBarked, clotely retemble in fortu and tdaptation the weapon* of 
tbe priiBeeal tribe* of Qrrat Biitain and Northern Europe. 

Mr. Ditk* tihihited a portrait on glati of late lloinan liniea. pnrehaiied at 
Strawbrrrj Hill, repretentlng a female biut, and thnt of a boj wearing the 
bulla. Thia portnil ia remarkable, not only from a Tandy of detail) of 
claiiical coatume, rarely lo be net witb, but alio ai an example of ancient 
detign, ibowing a great knowleitjjp of form and chiarDiciini. The head-drea* 
of the fcni*lA rMrniblci (hat of tl>i! Rmpreu liilii Mnmora, and Iha poftrait 
it peo'iably n"t lal«r (h*n the time ot Oordianut Afri^aniii. The luode in 
Ithlcb (he work lieiei^uled I* alao oiirioiiiii( It apparently formed by in'rapi'ig 
way fana of a Uark pigment, n a* to ahaw a gold ground tielon. t!ie itir. 
face of the picture bring protected by a glaM ptatc rcmrntcd orer It, Annther 
faetntiful portrait of the tame kind naa exhibited by Mr. Hargon ; and other 
exaniplct of thi* *pecic« of gltst have bceo noticed by Buuoaroiti, in hit 
wore «ti an dent glaat. 

Mr. Talbnt eihibiled a warranC for the payment of Sa loli tonimoii to 
Klatandore, trwDptter of ibe Comtr, d'Atigonl^nir, for hringinp the "good 
and jajtui newt of (lie dea(h of Tilhnt and (h« defeat of tha Kngliih liefore 
Cattilloa." in the year UU. Mr. Talbot alio eililbiled aome Itomsn tiUer 
Imperial coini from VeapaalaR to Serero*. foond near the (iianla' Cauacway 
In iralaaJ, and a ChincK purcetua phial taid In haie been fannd in a tomb 
■I TbtAct. — Mr, Birch xaieil lint all ibcic phiali were prohahly rcry much 
later than tbrir allegrd date ; firit, from (beit beicip inicrlbcd wilh a charac- 
(er not earlier than the Gr*( cciituiy ■. c.; lecoodlj, from tbe fact (hat in 
tbe Chinne aanat* the ftrtt mention of poiceliin doei not occiir till the 
..iFieMh century jl. d.. and Ibeo U ii ipoken of a* a rarity ■. thirdly, (hat the 
merchanu were h* the Lahit at the pretent daj of briogioi tbeie «aan lo 
Cairo on the retim ctf die canrana from Mecct. 



Mr. C. Vinien Bayly nklUiad a Ma of wood, probably part of a nVn, 
ornamented, and with giutipa to lellef aod pounced woik, *uppo««d lo reptv 
icnl a luliject from lomc r«n%aiK* ; the ooiiuiue of tht figure* wa* ltalia% 
of the la(l«r pari of the fifteenth eeaturr. ^H 

Mr. Poynier exhlhit'd lome itampnl tealhero haoginga of beantiftil da*^| 
ilpi, from Bradwell Houte. Borki : they pmcntad a good exam pin of tb* 
deeoraliona wbirh lupplled the place of hanging! of Artai, toward* the cloaa 
of Ihe aartnleenth ceniury. 

Two dtawliip. on a irry larce *ca!e, of early Cbritilan, inscribed and 
iculpturcd craaaea at Ncvin and Carcw, in I'eiD broke* hire, were cihibilcd by 
ktr. Wcatwood. Mr. Weilwood ttated, (hat tbcM were tbe two Sunt apeci- 
tneni of Ikis du* of monument (hat he bad been able to diieoTee, and that 
llitir date WM probably tbe eleventh eeninry. — The repretentailon of a re- 
mukahle icnlptured mnnuinenc, at Auldbar, near Brecliiti, »at exhibited at 
the aanie time, tn<i ipveral feature* of cetembtaoce in dealgn were noticetL^H 
I'bii curiuu* early Cbrimian memorial had been cominuiiicalcd to the laalb^^ 
lute liy Mr. ChalDiiera. of .\ulill)ar. ^B 

Several cominiinicaliant were read lo Iba meeting, anonf which waaa 
letter from Sir Pblllp Egerton, ttaling tume aiugiilar facta connected nith 
the Koman occupation of CbethiTc, ai detailed by Mr. Hoitage, of N< 
wich. Letter* wire al*0 read from the Rev. Hii|th lonea, D.J.,andth#^ 
lUe. II. Longnerillt Jonei, announcing their intention of com mincing; aica- 
valiant on tbe itte of Spgoniium. near CaemsrvnD, nbere It wt* aniteipaied 
that interfMlnfi iIiionDiriet wuuld he made. Ur. Junei Haled thai the «alla__ 
of Caciniivuti Cattle bad recently been rcpairvd in a tnoii laiiifaclary 
ner, tiui that tome portiuni of (he town walU, the praprriy of Mr. . 
Smith aud Lord Newbotuagh, were In a rcry decayed alale. 



DRCORiTlVE AST SOCIETY. 



loe wwiB^H 
ary nu^l 



i 



A cootianal'oa of the paper " On Chramalic Deeoralloa* in FngtaoA,' 
waa read by ^tr. E. Cooper. He commenced by noliriuK the prn^rfatlTC 
re|[ard fur eoloun-d dccorationi eihiblted dunog (be \»rii>an «nd Gothic 
epiichi; alluding to ihc ilmple aud cUaate elTecl prixliiceil by Ihe poliahed 
Piirhaek marble ihitftiil Ely, and tbe Temple Chorch, Ihe rich uraadevr 
of the earlier alaiitcd glaa* wiuduwa at York and eliewhere; Mitb (be at*' 
tendant painted decoratiiin* on ceitiug* aod walla, tud iLa pavnoeata of 
eouauatic tile*. Ue ollcnip'F'd to ftucidad- the ptiuci|>lr* nhich prvduml- 
aatn ill (hn brtter example*, by explainliin (bo jEmeral application of tbt 
(hre< primary oilouri. and Ihe mure usuoi cumalrnrUiiii of llif^ dellflia. H« 
(hrn noiiL'cd the ataiiii-iJ iiluaii niuduwft at Kinit'i Civllieicc, Cambridga, 
where tbe whole of the auhject ami detail arc dcsJKned with a fmliiiK of 
Braaiuaucc (It la auppuerd by Giuliu Riimaao) ; ho tald, from pervoBkl 
obaerralioo, Ibal ucarlj nil tbi: culuored glata la what t« lechnicnlly lemed 
por-metu3, *o (bat nbere it it not to, at probably in the fioeal colonra, it ia 
eoairicllrd slaa* ; and he obterted that drawiag and (hailing were ptaead 
upiiii ilir*c, a* i* evideDl fcuiii (be ditaypaanoce, la many catea, lea*la( 
the pot nicEiil only. A diKansunaac* waa alladcd to, KricinK from (ha 
vdnurBof baek-grouod and fure-grauad is pictorial lubjccd bcisg of the 
Buoie iolcagity ; and a inetbod of producing light and distance by remoTlag 
(uorc or lee* from the Ihirkneaaof the ennm^l was tngneited atapplieabla 
to window*, and a apecimso wai exhibited. Mr. riuiper ttim comniPOMI 
on the agreeable elTvct uf ilaiui'd gieist wiodowa when lb* well* arc of a 
aimple or uniftirui culnur, hut orgul careful contidcraliun whro Ihe walll 
areilcconilrd nilh pirtiirrs. }{c DhgerTcd (liut the alt^r piece at KlDg'i 
College ia entirely neulraliied in clTcct by ifae oeetwhelaiiD^ coloured raya 
of light cDtcrioK in every direelioo upon i( ; tbe earlier eiainplr* of Oolbic 
window* were aaid Ui allow the iranamltalon of a Ereat«r proportioo of 
fate lighL He maintained that the ancient coloured kU** had no tap** 
riurity over thai uok prudtiri'ahle, and that Ihc preialeul upialon of Ilk* 
feriunly bnd aiiaeu fioni Ihe Hrruleruaeof pamfed, iottead of pel-aartal er 
enomeJIcd ifiiLu. Aficr lorac remark* ou encaoflio tilea (spccioMna liroa 
Iteading Abbey), and ilia peculiui'iea of Galhie drawins, ealoaria(, 
and aculpture, Mr. Cooper dricribed aotne example* of Eranaiiino.eriBiiad 
Uulhic auii Italian character lo Ihe ceiling* of the Chapplfloyat, Si. Jamea'i, 
anil the chaprl o( lliihup U'enl. In Fly Cnlhedial ; alio the hoo apeclmetil 
uf barunial liFcorniinni Inkty rcMored at Hamplon Cuurt, lie (bea look 
ucciuiim U) ci^niiiirn ihn iiiauucr in which aome of the coloured dccelvdOBa 
iu tiiij ApHiidrila below tbe niixluwia uf (he aiilea io \VF*tiuiDtler Abbey 
baee b««ii dealrojcd or ooncfialed by mitpluced and abturd tnylhulogical 
monumenlal tubli>t* ; and bo nodced annid lio* and wpII known exaaiptH 
of "high toiohi," richly ornammted wilb marble, colour, and Ktldiaj^ 
Tbe (iccuraliuua of the KlinaU-ltinn pcrl<id were noticed, and a (pccltaca 
of vmbuM(.'J,Bil*frcd nntl ciliforvd Icathrr bauRiojc* from the Manor Hooa^ 
ItiOiuKxIiursI, vns cibibiledi Tbe intrgiliirtiun uf Italiao a/chitcctnrct bf, 
<'h;i,rlr«, Ird lo ihr ciiosiiIi'raliAn of the ceiling of the BaDquettlng Hobi 
WbJiehall, painted by Itubeiia, alaa uf Ihe wurka by Thurnbill, Vcrr 
Laotnie^c, ood Charle* d* lit Poum at tireenwicb Hoapiial, Su Paul' 
ChaiawoiTth, and Muuiague Hoiiao (laic Briliab Muarum], At pmci 
h« reutarked, tliFrt appears to beaBtru^gle for nuprcmacy between tb*; 
Gothic aud Italian ttyka ; aad, io hi* crilicitms on >oi»a rpceat dceoi 
lioue, Mr. Coupct espit»3i?d *ii opiniuo that tbe iruilAtii^ai have been 
•ncceatfully appli*d, inaUflflni; Ibuse in the Temple Church jj partakil 
loo freely of yelluw ochreou* Uoii, the Royal Exchange a> bruig loo pttiti 
and paltry fur Ibeir purpoae, the ConacrratiTe Club aa ptntcutiug a be* 
wihieriag profuaiooof triaiDgoniamenta doioidofaay imtKittant characlar. 



1 



THE KEW YORK 

PUBUC ubrartI 



MT«n, LIMSK AM* 
TN-Mlt FOUNbATHMM 



18M.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL- 



t 



■r ifdliia, «iMf iiiM«ri«tlT dimmitliiaf uty k'*'*^ '''^1 tkst the uchiUxl 
p%>it hMt* c«at«isftai«t. ikltor wiim ramrka nplaaator; of hii viowt 
« dMMitic <l«coral>oni nf lh» pfwral day, Mr. Coaper tkbaltliMl s qaf u 
fin u lo ibe k|>pllcftl)illtr of GHhk 4t<«rmtUim* U moibni pwyoan, wilh 
■v«np<>chil refcrcacelo Ilie Nor Palsce ofWcflmiiuKT; br adnHlwl 
that drcentioaa tbaakl be ia axvudmuot vrilb tbr (Ijle, and futiwrilrat 
hi the an^tfciun] i:liBni((wcrftb«*d)flce; b«i,Uc«»kpd, most «• liuft^ 
CmMtww llM<*aHi«r GoUiic MUii*n*iR*r Cop; tbe altMu|»ti oral) a«» 
ef eu»fkU«iiT« barbannn la Art F Or, am wn la ailupt ait Uih Imptorv- 
BCSlvand kiKtwInlp of for* of I)ii>pn>«nit daj ! I(c cont«ncl«J that Uia 
CMkk dill KM adnll of pklotlal drconiion tu pn>i]er lirepiuKt *ai1 tbat 
ttemcdcm Mboo] of paiDimi; prFMnicd Mt many inooBnatcncio*. lln 
tMKliKlcct by UMttlag ibal iba Italian style of Ibc lilWaih ami •iilM'iilb 
Webiriei, ■« fo^ad in 1h» dvUgn* of PalUdio, }i««niosi, Sumvibo, ud 
•OiFra, MlnitlMt«f lliMtUDOMdagna of Kfinnii*nl,both ia iculpiDre aail 
filiUag, RMl aloriled proAtabk ntattrlaU for diiclf for tucli « purpoie. 



issTrrunos of ctvn. excineebs. 

BcTRACn MUM tna Amvoal Rmmr.— Su«tox 1846. 

Tdford Mcdati, in mlrtt. Iu*a b«e« a«(fd<d to PntLfc Cnrtwiix Da lu 
' .Lit. fof lii> " MciBOifdribe Canal of £l«ter,froin ljr)3 lo 1711." atxl t« 
i.uii(.( BnisAKDa, M. ImI. C.F.. for lut pi^r " On BUiiing Mirl Itockt 
Mlir «itf r kB tha lUvn S««erR." — rrnninait of ilookt, luilabljr bound and 
btcribeil, bate btcii laa/iled, to Juhm Uaoaaa fkioHsBi M. IntL CB^far 
! ■ ri:«r -On llu^ ailrinl«g« of working EnstnM "ilb HifU-pnMare Steam 
[: -nittij. aad It high Ttlucitiet. &c. i" (o Dkm^amix Lrwta VuLUAMr, 
.•.I :. I[ut.C.E.,foiIw pipM "On lUdiriyCIocU:" ••H t« Johj* ItAuar 
!.::..'s>, Cratl. latt- C-B., for lii* " DoKiiplioti and Umwiiigi of the M« 
Uit lro« pi«r at CraxMBd." 

OnrrvAkr. 

' t te wi m ir* f«« : thr; ai« RolXTt Thonui Atkinon, Klenber, ind 
I fit«nt Idmnl Nlcbolaa Keidall, ltJs'„ and John Llcwcllj*. Awodnt«9> 

Uf. ATMt!>M» ma the Drplien a( llie htc Mr. DuildlCt and after Iwing 
Inuahi up bjr Uoi, Bnliicil bin for looc jcan In liii large uiljting h<I en- 
-g andertakigp io the Sortb. Not loof before hU detib h« t>Mk tlic 
.TioMl of Ibc Seitan ItcUitl niinei, irhcte be U tUled 10 hire dit- 
fltfti grrti titf.nt and jadgmnl fa 'UfHnIt poiiiinni. Ilii comnosiettiAa 
toiha inilitutlon ID the watioa df 1812, " On linklvg and Muring piti in 
Ibi Korib of Bn^ud." will be reeoUecled b; ttw memban and incnaae the 
nptt which nutt be fdl for hit loft. 

Lm-ntNANT KKynAtt, whei* graadfather. Admiral Hiefci, aad fatkcr, 
CifUia Kiadall, wtre botk dtitLB{iiiibNl aaral OlBatn ; noaived bii adn- 
ttltoa and bacMie fi/ai boy. «i (be Bor*l NkTal College^ Fttrumooth. He 
OMrad HiaMa^eitj'itrrviceaia Midihiimiaa in ISIt,enbo«nl llie Mutlne. 
Bf wrrad Ktifa credit in •ncmt other ihlpi, and front bit adcntillc aci)iiitc- 
■uu wm* chkdT cmplejed on the lutvcying teivicT; upon the trigDuoaie- 
vical iture; in Oikot;', Sheilaod, the ccuut uf ircluid, and ia the North S(«. 
Ob the fttttnf onl of tbe I'olu expeiiition, und«r Ciptaia (nO« Sir Edward) 
Fury, be v«tanlc«red lui itrvieei, *ad acied u U«it«r'* Male o* board lbs 
*N^,' Capita Lyen. Ha wia >ub«r^u<iiily lelnrted bjr Ctpuln (new Sir 
Mn) Franklin, *a one of hli eonpanlont for tli« land Arelic espedilion, end 
Mnnicd witli tbi proud dittinctian of being ailiebed (o the ool; aD« of the 
Mar eipedHiOQi that Had conipteKly ciTeelcd ita obiecta. The cliirli, 
drtwn op b; I.teutenant Krndall, frnm tbe nilrononiLnal abMnratlant made 
if fb Jobn FnnkttD and Umiclf, jemaln ai cTidtncc of hii talent and in- 
dMlrf. lit waiih'a «pp«int(d,atlb«r«<OEDnendiUanof the lUiyal Sgeiet;, 
l» Ibo * ChantielMT,' for tbe purpnie of auicling tUn l»te Captain lieary 
liftef iaaaeriuorei;»riiiienlao«thepe»dQluin, and vartoui otherbruehci 
If tonttie rcaeareb ia the E^aterial and South PoUe rtfiani. He thea 
■adactfd tb* (UTvejr of the Wntem Coatt of Afrieain tlie •llecla.' lbs 
riben of wfanch tmhI T^d nearl; all lUlea ilrllnn to th« cllmiie. He wai 
Atn employed b; tbe Secretary of State for ilie Ci)I<atilal Department, in a 
a!«m and confldenlial icrrer of t)ie banndnrT line of the BrilUb and AmcH- 
Oa ttatcir in Tfcw Bmuwick, and exKuted bit ta*k in the mott ulitfactoty 
Hancr. On bU rttoro be c«af41<d a couiiiltte map uf the protiace of New 
tnatwick, rrrmi hit odd ■tlroaoniltal mil Other oliMrTatiani. He then 
hned bUai'.tnlion to the tubjeet of Stum Na*igalian, and after «a pen v 
kodngfor a Jaini Stack Company, the boIUlingtndfiltifigOut nf the 'India' 
neaa ibip, whicb wat dcttioed faropenini adirtct coiOKiunicalioii with tb« 
Xatt ladlri. «tt tha Cape, he wai appoioteJ to a poit uiider the Royal Mail 
lleaa Packet C^npuy, wbicb be unlj Iteld for a short tkinr. ami then he* 
oaic the agCEi at Sontharaptnn, for tbe I'emaiulu and Orlceta! Coupin; -, 
•ad Ibo Dircclnn and >U «bo knew liita in that tapACitr, boar intiiuooy to 
Ul M»^ talenU, arx) b:^h iuWgrity. Wbde holdiag tbit potiiion, he wu 
lUacked vilhitKklea UIuoh, and «:ipue>l on the 13tliof Feliiuorr, IS(3, In 
the prfne of life ud nacDilnett, bting eniy in hit t5th «rtr. He made 
WNfat ateAil eomniiniMatiaai to the Intlittilion, and iileadKl iU nieetliiga 
li fte^nntlj m wu compalible with tbo oaluTo of bii (ngagamcnta. 



SOCIETY OF ARTS, lOMJON. 

Th«*ecDitdafilieaTy ineetiiif ferilloilratloB took place en Jan. ll,4l 
the Society'! Houmt, Adclphl. Rdwiid Sftut, £»q , la tba Chair. 
The following eoMniiinicalioo* wete niadf— 

I. On the Iknry <^ PM»gnifhU Attim, illuitrmltHS fie coaaM^Mi le- 

lirefn llu Phttofra/ikh agnl «■■( Ktcdtiiily. Rjr J, Non, Ee^, Tbe 

Hubstanee of Iki* highly inportnnt and orielaal paper, which led to oa 
inlcrt^ltng dticu«>ioa. anil wax Io b« m«»td at the neti meeiing, wai as 
fiitlowa. " Since tl>e diuovcry of I'holOKraphy there i*. perliap«, no branch 
of rtf^lrifal phy^ca aiore iatereatiog ibao that which coanprehevidi tha 
piiFtioincfw «r phoephoreiecace. For Ihoagh llslii hr ibe appareol ageal 
io tbepradactloaortlie photographic picture, yet the accotDpaaylogcir- 
cumUaner* eno only be ulialaGiurily explained by a ri>f«rea«* to electrical 
prioripli^s. Liglit i* a term inerely relativn in ii», bnt HkIiI Itielfbaa no 
abtolnie nttience no mure ttao Aiund ; then hnn unpbiloaopbio orr tbn 
teraw, Ulcol light ikv-I ticbi in darknrM, which we »oiuelime3 bear, a* if 
tital which it merely an eflcct.coutd be regarded ai a caaee. iir a t'^y*'*^ 
force, at llie ume lime that we know it i* not poaiible to d#nion>tr*ic the 
•ablMiee of any oilier pbyikal force in nalan than electricity. 

" Uglit ■■, Uierefere. only aaallendaat eircnoiRUnca la the pradnelion of 
tbe iifaoiugmphic plctare, aad thii acena clearly prnied by the fitci of uno 
body irapnsMn;; its imacc apon luinthec Id the dirk, when Iba bodiea an 
apprmiMBtnl in electrical plirucalotu ia catleil ihc (IrlkiBgdiMaacv. 

*' Af light ihcQ BaaiMit be regarded u the pbotog rapbic agtal, electricity, 
whkh in all prjbaUlity Is the frloeipte of l^bl, woold Men ii> br, and the 
effeds prDduced whea pltoapliMvnoe ia dctelaped ihtvugh Juxta poted 
Iraanarcni nedta. of diOcrtDl deniiliea or rlrcirical aSaltlea, bear ■ 
ilriklognti analogy ^ thoM which are pmluccd Dpen aacaailhre lurfaoe 
when cipuaed to the action of ligbt rcflcclol frum bodies la dl0er«iild<' 
grevi of iiiivniiiiy as Io render H tnore Ihaa probuble, thai what it uad«l< 
Blood by iht^ tera pbotegrapbj, ia a limple caie u( plioapboreeceece by ia* 
■alailM. For we led ihalBoaDeparii(iriheupoiiii*>aorf«(«, then exhibit 
what nay bo called an electiteaffiaily for ccrlnin aubatnaoea, whlk otbera 
do ool. The reeulU eaa only be tbe cffecta of KmulUDeeos atlraclioDa and 
repttlaiooa, the ntaaifeatatioa of nbidt ia ioooDcctlable ludcpcadeal of the 
prtfi^oce of cleclricit J. 

" Tbe ti»eslloa then ariM«, if tbe phologmpkic picture be Iba mtilt of 
electriral ariiua. why may not the colonr a* well aa the eontour of bodiea 
be taken donii, aeetDj; thai colonr b not u pmprriy niatler, but as a 
properly of li;h|. All bodica are teen only hj rrUcctrd light, and their 
(otourv lary m tint aeeordlnclo Ihepoaition nf Ihr npcctaior wllb tcaped 
to llie plaoB of reBedion, For ItMtancc, in tbe D'lrnial of the plaoe of ro- 
llfCtion, like colonr ofboditi Ii moit dialiotl, and at every deiiuljou froia 
ihii point, tiie local tint changes, and in many cnset,itloU!lyaitingDi*hed 
when ihe rje uf the ipectnlar reacfaea tbo angle uf idibI reflection. Thoa 
then, wbere Ibe ivlected ligbt ki tbe alraagesl, tbe eolODr of bodies If leagt 
peroeplifale. and rke eerad. 

ThcM conaideratiani iodoord me to try wbal rompnrativc cITcrt would 
be prodnced upoa a •roerlire eiirface, t^ light reflected at vatioui a^les 
of iBcldence from tbe plane of tbe picture. 

" Tbe elfeotii whleh were Iba* prudnced were qnilo aoalc^mu Io IhoM 
which are oboened in ualare, the local tiolt of the bodtn repreMBUd 
TuryiogHilh etery cbantte (bat wa* made in Uie anxia of rMeclloa Io 
which the [rieturt waa taken down, and the direct ray Invariably gBTC leas 
pi(Ttareei|ae retolte than wboa a parafle) gloae wai u(«d. Ib some *p«cl- 
meoa takea with the parallel glaaa when tbry wrre louknl at dirretlj, all 
Ibe appearaace of a ractiillUj^ ivdectiun were prearstrd, aail whea looked 
at obliquely, all ihoae uf a tiieculary reOeclian, at if the »ua wore aelually 
thiniag withio the photognipbic pictare iUelf. ' 

Tbeae reealia gaio ptnmiee that awne remarkable efTMla would be pro* 
duoed by polarived lighli I therefore had a toiall taodial niadci ihc ityle 
t>f which was formed by ■ bit of icry fine rdvcr-wirv, aud from the ceotro 
of tbe dial a bit of Ibe same wire wma erected perpendicularly, lo that the 
bour anitle and tbe eiia'a axlatoih were gireu at llir kaino iotlant. 

Bj meaat of ihii iaitrDOMOt Ur. Nottabactvr*, Iig wainblclodelcinnin* 
wttliaKooddealofaocnracy, the puMtunof tbcann, with respect la (be 
plane of Ibe picinre ibatlie wiahod to take a pbotogiapblc repreacDlation 
of. Tbe gliua of th* cantera waa alao made adjuitnble to tha polariaiag 
ancle by an atlAched graduated quadrant 

M'hto, by (heseneaiu tbe light waa polariceil iolo tbe oamera, by a 
double icflrcilan from tbe plane of the picture, aud frum (be |>aral!rl glaaa 
it waafMiad that tbcol^ta iBdeepabaduw Bud iboic in tnn-ligbt were 
taken 4ewn aimnltascMialy and widi equal peociaion, and that wiihaut the 
aligbtcat Inceof •olarisalioo.nbibitisg a cun-ligbt ricw of ibe K'oalcat 
truth and beauty, In which the Irauipareacy of the abadowa and the cll«Gt 
of the diataaee produced by an es<iui*ite gndatJOD of tiDt, aacb aa art could 
■carcely hope to Imliaie. Thia reaalt of pohuieed lij^l aeooia donUj 
iuterestmu; iiocc ibe recent and beautifal diacorery of Faraday, whcra • 
ray uf catii:[;ui:hnl palarixed light la reillumed by ricctrictiy. ' 

How- far lliiaditcovcry may eoaUe na to dclenniDC tbe nature of tke 
active Bseiil cuuceranl ia Ihe production of Ibe pbo(oK<^pblc picture, we 
will not Bi tbe preient moiof'Bl preaame to decide, 

3. On Iht new Pufcnl Oil iaiepmeal, or «trfa </ Paint, by II. P*<it, 
by which gieui facility it aflbrded for ioierinr or eKierior ilerariilion. 
The aulbor, after pointing out thrvarinu>i»c<ii)ie:iirncm which the public 
experience ia baving iho paiutlag, grBlains, sad oil dccoraUoai douc oo 

8 



«8 



THE CIVIL ENGINEEH AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[FKaauAmy, 



the pHiDlwt, procfKied to iboir aona of Iha adnwlagvs nbich b« ob- 
ttiu by KibtlKaiiDz K prrpanii akin of palal for Ihn onliMf; roiHiM 
p'T^t TlmaailtMtociiare wyopparaiil w Ihc d wu rait— rf Mtl- 
IDO, at IB ti« mteBUua uf aajr kiod «f flal tmiaociilAl wmIi, wbedwr it 
bi licilulirtis vl notidT. insrln«*t l*U(riag in goU oc ii4mim, mi «kll« «r 
tromJ-woik, af it ts ontj DocftMry thai lfc» iluMatiDii* o( ih« patu to 
to «niainMil«(I ikouJd bfl pr»*hraslj ttk*P, ud Um wort cbd be odri- 
ptcMd M ib« miMi' il]«|> «r Xody. lie iwxt pfocMdnl to drtuib* Ui« 
HDCM* of mBabicltire, ffOBV-kioc iXai ika aklna at pttMinl m»d* arc 
IS ttrt li} S fm, that bciac Ibuiul llis Mwt «0B*eai«iil >uec, Itui ihcjr c«a 
to iMdcuf BAjtlinMiwivii*. A atottoCtl«ptwii<,araaj ilMit |iapvr, ratiiar 
larger than ika kkin re^uirt-d, i* lakm, abJ Um tuHaoa on uim »hI« onljr 
b prfpand wStli a mlKura a( gum anbJc (rMcla, aad wat«r, uiioa 
wliU h «h«ii dry a rant <if palnl nadc fiit)i toiltd otl and whiM l*ad in 
Ibe ard'marj way It pat upon il; wkn that la dry, llic oprrnllaa M r*> 
pcattd till the *kia i> of ibo rcquirtd lUckocaa, but lifo ouala art fouftd 
to b« luttcint Tor K**<n*l «•«• To fcparal* Iko aklit (turn Ui« pijK-r it •■ 
laid on aclran biMfd, wiilt Ito paioladaid* duarawarili Ikv pay** ■* ^"^ 
mFltad al Uia baib •* lih <I«an wal«r, and aflar U bu atood a Cwr taiftulca, 
flie palol onT be reiaotrd wiihoul anj dilkeallj or Ike l#«(t fraf of tia 
teafiag. Tbe aiaie paper niaj' ke paiattd oa Iklrtj or tutty Uinea, but 
antalwajs to prepared as dc>*nni«(l above. Tto paiui wlifra renuvnl 
b carefullf irtpn] wilti a tpiyoift and ttou dricJ wlilt a Ha»li liatlicr to 
reniOTF any pviliiin »( liir vr"i>*'*'i^<i vikUk atllirre* to il. Tkx ikta ■• 
tkfo foMed and ptl airny liJl sHb titM ea It nuy b« rniMirrd for we. 
Tto ntodeof Ixfeig Uw akin t« to rabdawaiba larfaco lo which tt u to ba 
■Inched, mud, wtoa IhonMChly ckiin. it la tEona oter niib bulled uU and 
ntd al»: a. amw U aaHtciciii. The tkla b Ihaa laid cm wllb a ion 
Ooth, w m Am iinlil»l> llapc^ballSlD^ ScvaeU bcawifol aunbaaaa 
«t«M txkAitad. 



INSnrUTB 0? BIimSH AFCIIITECTS. 
J^tmeiy 12^IL E. £:x»3a.LL, Eu)., Y.C., ia tto Ckai*. 

A pip*' *u md by Jahn ilritton, Eiq.. dtitriplitt o/Bntlfn CAo^l, 
Mtridmtwgh. Thii «li&r4! ttit ci)indi!ii«<t ia 1446. acil liii Hiilow and 
mtem m ott COBIIbhrI the norkt, vhich hid been left untittihrd at ih« deaili 
nf (be Ibunder. in It 79. Mr. Biiitoa obwrctd, thjt hit alunltoD liad tw«a 
tfir«tc>I by Iff. David Ri>!icrt4 lu tbe aiile at the taat cud, vbirli it wider 
fhlo ihc lylluT ; and it vaald appear thai tks ptaa bail been clianicd oAar 
Ibo jtaii*-i>«Tii for tbe nuliiai waa prapaiad. aod in vrdM to make it avail. 
M*, tka trelulcM bad retorted ta the exjwJiaal ot oarrjiag tka ar«b«a apoa 
Itifaprojattinf Mrbab,— armafbabb loaiaca in lh« ooMtnialioa, nhicb it 
maid be diffioall otberniis la eipbln. — Ur. Burn ahaanad, that (ba pie- 
twwqne traditiun i.m> mUl hindkil tiy Sir Waller Smli) nf tbe iatt.meai of 
Ito Stnolairi. throiulcd in llie irmoar and uiicoffiMd.in a rudl liaaaaib Ihc 
duiiel, bdaalUata of fouailaUoa. Thare U a crypt, mtnixbr, but bqOMltht 
cliitid. to the UHiraitl, vUich Mr. Iluin bclicwct, ati a caraful amninatian 
iteTer to bava bicn uacd aa a lepulobrc i and Ibcra ia oalj ana otber mall 
nail, whan aane of Uiafaoiily bava toen depWtad in adica eoOai.— Ut. 
toimUt okaerrcd, that the naiC of Ika building wtt Ttutted on ike Wimid- 
■Na, tkoafk not tiBgnbr ptio«ipla af a aoW r««f, tka rtinim at tka arch 
Caetatag tto axtamal corcring. The vautting of the eaai end aialc ia reomk- 
akta for tia aiccaiba Bala tat, and appcan to ba*e toaa letibad ia lit plaaa 
ky irow tba gtooami iaia Ito atoaea ■ a tiagcUiiiy in tto aoi lm tl ba aflto 
UhUIc Affca. 

!!■• UaaailtoB rrad a letter from Mr. Kna«l«a, tnm Attou, deacriWag 
lome kte dituuicrica made b fuctka* diacacamboiag the Acropolit ot to 
nbbiab. Ooo rtaail kaa b«aa to a>certain,tha« tto latcnor of ihe Parthcaon 
«aa aappoetaJ by eolwnu of Ito Vtmt oeike, 3ft. '| ia. in dlaatet^r, af 
«bbk tto faUd eaaloort naaam tt%etd on Ito paveneaC. Mr. D»»ildsoii 
Made (DOM rrmarto oa tto modd at Ito Partkeoon by Mr. Loeai. afaiblted 
tt tke Brilbk Hnaauit in wbicb Ito lower fange of iniertar eoUinM ii re- 
pnaaMt4 ai tf Mm kmb onba, ad paamiMd teni (bettor nmrfca «b tbia 
Hbjett at a fiH on •ppwtnalty. 



IfiAnEiicin.— Allto J g a rf ami r 4m Sti«M4M, Parii, Da*. 90^. A. 

Segnlac read a uoti««of a na* alaaai •>«'**> '>>■ bvmiMM of M«««a. laoafd 
aad Mertier. After daarribiac Iba aaaatractioa of tbia Mwiw, M. 8a> 
guicr u;s:— "ItdilTcri ftuin all tliat iiaa ktikeito tottttlaia o iad, Botaaly 
ia tit cuoBixuctiun, but aliu ti; iLe ap<«lal naiMiar In wklckltoattMa b 
empluycU. laitead uf toiag GuuTayed ftvtu Ika saaaraUir to tto mnlive 
apparalua, and uudergpioz on tke way, ur at iha naataol ttbea •!> mcKtoa 
b r«q>ued,all tto lotaoaana to tto itlniinatkM of volema by Ika cautea 
of Ike c»jtiu|[ procew, Ika al^an la nainlalaed al a vary eiofaied teiupc- 
rmlure lu the KenvraUoic Into, oad Ika lalatioot of tto healed aartecra aud 
oTtiul water ioJECled are calculated ia auth a way itot tbe bcaidoMaal 
aMape by tiio oiific* uslil it liaa acquired aa Incrtasa uf UHfaaatoM 
wkicb pvrauta it l« att at out* aa ataain aud aa d4al«d gaa. 





A VIEW TAKEN OF A REVIEWED ; 
Ja a Utttr t» tk* CiOttt tf IJU Ci'U Emgi-mr aad XrtiUUce» J< 

[Va m contpelled by u anfortnnate misprint at p. tS ofllUa 
and frum an anxbiy to aro»d all appearaace of liijualic*. to git* i 
to Ito Mlowlag lailar. It b nttor of a pbUotof inl tkaa m-akll 
(kamctar,aiidlkb,laMc«hef trilk a rail appr«cia>ioa of Ito arttua'* 
M an arth)troiDr«lc>frtc,r*ndera It wildly nnnacrfMirr fof Ike 
to eater vpon a detailed reply. Tf< bate taken ito Utorty of oaB 
UM or two paMAfB* to wkkh tlic writar'a fntUnt* luiea batrajrd liim iolo 
panoaatUy. Tltc oiiiprial af Ilia word "fagatW" waa maiked oa 
p«oitf.akMta, bat Ito aorraattuo waa negleeird by iko ei>Bi]»ailar.] 

Sia — To crate n« a parlkiilar favour, or favour al ad, wbal I ' 
marid it aa a<:t uf ju »l>ce, would to oo purtieular oumpliioeul Ui yvofi 
pfrHurully. It would imply (hat I dinu^ht ao nteuiit} uf ]iou at i 
pow thnljCB wvaM not feel }nur*r!(nulHr>rnlly Uiaad by juur owai 
of bonoor and hoMMy to afcvd mc, ai mm matter of ouurw, tto up 
laolty of espoaing in your onu Journal ibe not only very unfair but i 
ally falHfjIag remark* whick tb« " B«v{cir of tkc Compauion tut' 
marmc" baa rMidereil II tto vchiata of. I need au* udupi tlie tabculi 
loan of a pctilioaer, aur do you reqnirr to to tickled by dainty 
fn'o dDing what yotir vwd feeHagi maal pnwpl yoa io at o«ra, r 
yovr fecUaga. mere rtganl to yoar aim lalertat aait to (to 
ynnr paUkaHon. 

Your very abver Bavbwar fcu Uaadarad in tto oddaat 
Ikrvagbout, and ha< cosmMltd tolk htoialf aad your JoanuA. 
a dnvmlRfci ktaader, II waa auraly a pka of graal ladiwntb - 
port af Iha "Clell Ka«liH«r" to aaail. or avler to to aar-' 
ODC*. tn ilB own eoluaMM,uid tfiat, vlih raaenreat apMa. 
KuiTtd ka^lility, ibal wry portkm nf ifaa Conipanioa wbi<k 

iu*lf hii» liilhcrttf ripecially »od alni»t evcluHiaiy DOttOTd, 

recommended to itaowu rra<U'r«, n* eoataiuin^ macb interdtliBK arcM- 
tectoral dcacrlptioa, remark and laformntiun. I du nut tay that be* 
eaaMftof^onpamoohud all aloas barn aimkrii of faioaiabl]! — i 
■ivHy by tto -Gtail BaRiaaar," tto latter ou^kt Cm mere ruaabh 
Hikr, In tiavc coaliaacil lir apeak of lk« CoiB('a<>>'^o ><■ tkv eamci la 
formerly. In Ihc coonc ff tinve. pnbliwtioaaof iLc k'od era apt ( 
— aud allcr crE.-iiIy f.-ribe wura*. Tkey qolm loxMbtirorigiaali 
cknraclcr, and rnvrrly trte oa opiia th» rrputaiion wbieh itoy tafv^ 
dnring llioir aeuwn of rlgnar. l^icli anrurlaaila ckao^e may fer 
neertto'*Omipauiuii:" l^i grctitteOural writer nay to iattoi 
of Ito pOKg arcbbidiap of (imiatla, aad yoar Rrviewer to* ktally i 
taken to to ita toaeal, aad duaKreeablo IrafA-tcnhig Oil Bla«. A ■ 
toa of late cene aver even your omn Jounial, uldwagh ii hu ixrt aaaitoiM 
^■ita aa maay yeara aa tto Oampaaiaa, eooaaqwatly haa bM beaome 
nui^raaaaated:. Ttol ehuga. tofram, b of eonrw oaa deuMtoUy fiw tto 
toiler. btiU. i« baaia aotoc raiiwtia beaa ralker a taaaitddea ami atacilkig 
«D«t. MiM uf jour readeromaai barn bnii IM a tlub aaloaHhcd try tto 
■■ Uetirw" in quniiun. If ito Oampatnaa— by vbick >> to to im^vratoarf 
ilic Mtbiteotoral p«rt vT il—kaa alt«|elker drgvaivntnl, a«d U aw ' 
<if any iutercataad vaKie, il migbt ha** been OooUy diamMJ«d aekavsl 
paucd over wilho«i any notice at all. 

Jbtwaea uvl tpruiing (utuwrvkly of a puWiaaUon, aad apnaluDjt of tt 
abuatitly, itora ia awidir ditTL-teiicrv— « wide diHietvaoe tetwcco ant 
praitii^. aad aiaraiily rciilinc Wida m» U iaiy««( " BeTtvwv" baa di*- 
pbred hla agility by bapias over it at a aioHia baaad. la pcvformtac 
wtiick autabtcfeal he baa, unl««kity,juinp«l ptuio^ialo aqta^mlae. IM 
nabope, Mr. l^itor.tlial to hu not <l(iiH>d youe JoBiaal lulu It al tto 
•ana time.— tabu burr ][ (o Ore hia MumArrfaaaat ttoConipiaiiiu*,lia ova*' 
luadetl it ao incauUuutly iluu il toa rHiuilnl. aad Uid him ^frawling. 

lalriidvd to bo Mferc, bb rrinafks tliuw cabfy Impolcat aatagocMj 
aad if be dora ant actually fuan at tto moulh. ke kaa Jiackorgad « piM 
dtal of n««w«n*Ical frvib irvin Wit peo. Aa to *«*erti|. I 4aa to ae*a« 
miMtlf; pertop<s Mr. Ld.ti.r, y>>u tbiok ote w now ; il Would, tbe reftoa. 
at III beeMte nw to exclaim a^aiittl Ihal ■* fuJi/MfMI,'*— «c wlial linkt 
Ilka it — w your Baviewer'c alwervaUuna, nt it baadoce bim to pmli^iit m 
luitiTy aitainal ervery — >••« the rocMt ionoMDi ipecirt of nrtificF, sbaa 
aad decrpllna, al the very time thai he waa iapoamg upon the rca'ien of 
your Journal hiaown dittvrlioua and naagliogt of wwda and ueaaifl^ 
a* rvBiarl* ecivatl} made in the C«iiip«riloii. 

Sueb being tto caaa, 1 migbl nry well paM tton orar U too eoatmp» 
bbfarootica. Cailoabtadly, I tnigM dba»— nmi nttoiv, pertopa wodM 
do, bocansa that aama "too cmiCmptfMa liar Botlcr," la a nay cbcnp aa^ 
convvnimt iDodeofakowingaiie'aphiloaiMhy. 1 alioaboaU perkapa hara 
adopted II, had not llw Bcvbvnr amaag kb otber bbrlcati»i», bonxnend 
out and afaiarpened wcapona to to Ivrned agalti>l hiwMlf. Ttore are b 
Ito wvthl Iboaa wto eaa vary beMioafly rabmit to bxar any amuaatof 
coatompi ao ba* aa it b aot espmaad puUtely. It ia wt ihe men «i» 
lHnMilMir,bal Ito paM«ilyarii,wbidial all laiadiaa then. Huideadl 
wUdt,baw«nTooBb>«i|iUUatba matter nay to la Itaelf, Ito op port into 
of nratai; a Rcnewci coMptciel; ineide out b by far too tcnptioK. Il ■ 
■ot flTtry day itot a almtbr one pm««t> ilaelf, and |i«thai.3 it It toller t» 
Itoo otberma*. 

Aa 1 hare already mmI tke Ueviewer'i perrenlona uul iiiiira|>tMaal» 





THE CIVIL ENGIXEER AND ARCIIITECTS JOURNAt. 



m 






tMM AM M p«B u futtoUy to MpoM UteuelKFt, yoc *trj fan r«aikra 
Maarf l»k« tbr limiUi of eompmnic n Rnirwar*! nomHu ud (jb.UIixiu 
wM Ika bvA awlf iha- bsppow tn (m uadw boUos. Aa4 yoar Rttimmm 
■Ml wrt m)) ba oT ncti nf niaa, krt nut have fell prttiy «ril MMvvd tn 
liiQMit aliodritliutliii 09 ntdwa ■tall«nr4« M,artUt ihi xCbB* 
iMrtM* WW or all bw>ki in Um wviM lh« HBrf wtiikdy to Ml fa Ibt way 
aflteiMteM ar*« C.»l EapnMr.tiM fc* wmM hanltj btm fvntaml 
loM ealca[ue4 Ui iadnee fMiplt to i«n •! «^ !• ih« Cmh- 
Um ptHiMtM! of ucartRiiunj; wbithar Urn naarka m PnUie 
■ta wan «4 BovMotk*! » hr has leprcacMcd Ikeo. 
r Sevwarer en— eii w ii bi* attack on that chapttr iu Dm GMnpanion 
vi&'aihat t« ratiieraa aahicfcy tU|> (or « {reBtleatau irbu pmlcod* lo tak« 
lAntatB^, t«r narclt^Nneatorexprua'ai, and utaccanuMavflaiipiafc 
fMi( H «d hM •jitanuD — aa4 a KMieawr"* ofwaiaa ms b* aaOijaff >••• Ihaa 
■ ^nptr— tkal ilie dew naK> aWbaildiui* aear tb* Boy ■! Kidiani^.MUad 
'navwo'i PUMt" U jmuscU for the " ywiitifcitfiwi" ! wkloh ii li^iiai af 
■i f— . IUm, Uvu, »b fiad "quattdiMtUia" mnfontMlird iriib 
itr," aad Mwagfc urbat Uw wtMer swaM to p«t li obrioM eoaairti, 
I aa ri^M M aayaet that kt* own aaaaMg* mlt b* Mdalccally «ado 
^HtfcrMn, wbao twbnaadi aiii4icaia wiai a tcr p ral Um at b«M tq^Uy 
|kM ■mntup "r«tkM- Nftttfi. PfrtajM be tbmi|hl that "^wlliiMlin" 
tittf tkm limKf *ii>*i^na Vbt tatt Mwnrilnc watdur t)u lM>a^Mi4<tfa it 
Ihr )>n-frn-un.- avcvrdinjj. ihill, hoa«i«r awkwanll? expr««Md, Uta 
«M>iMv >i*-.ir Bm| be j-j«i ; na4 •* ii otKaiaJ]' mo Uicbt ccmmc vpoa me 
M> pratatidi vaapaak of arcliiuetan*, ua mj Ikal be pnwM taJdiati &r 
fmmm wWeh Ikar da aut al wt pe an M^-nat hat (bat vacfa aiatapnv 
inaato* baiaadcali Ibvixt Ureatjr b} arohilMiatalEnum. 

tka parilmlar upmi dniiaed b>r Um liutUUns ab«*e maiKlaDad b. Iltat 
Kb a Una aa>l ocll-ptujtjrtiouvd arvbilcniBral umm, ■■ will hanltf ba 
HlHtKl br Uioae wild bn>c >ata it. Ilwnrim, ia unlcr to aiako ttlitetH 
HWh what paiallaktag JUgrituKy tbu Uvinvrr b»* prorrd ii lo be iitiullx 
MiHW«ia« of Iba cbanii««r gavea it, H u wocMarj firai i» girc the re- 
■■fea [a ibv'(»ni|iaBiun"ai IPDHih. and ibia ounaider wbal cort of ftxi 
CMMnwthm Ui« Revwwcr baa put ufim (hen, 

" Praamui'i Place, ia ia a inaniwr to c«aiifcte<] wiih Ute Kojal Ex. 
(biota" (in;iitiiHi*d ja>l bcfure in tba buokj ■■ lo whicb il mij lie cue> 
t Ui K i* a auH of ardiUcctural aawllit*, that we pracecj to nuiicc it at 
mtt ke^Mw «■ «■■>■! it> uUer gea«ral iaiproT«ia£iiti anl al'.eraiiuas of the 
', «n«ra rspectolij aa it iliiln^irina uwir froa nlJ ike r«*l by bariu 
I Iha atr uf a lin^ larjc edlOo^ lUaa a nam piece al strcai anhu 
ra. Tula raafc of lwiblMe> "lilch Iminrdiaielj TacaatliaMM fniU 
tf iha Jbyal £kci>aafic, and r<*fui» ilio oiipjaicc uJr of a wida fated 
iNaa it lt»ntv<B Uk twoiiritidiugi, u^iunmrvDiifurrMit paaMu^flcaoalj. 
I*lla a atyta uf aaMu UHi|>liL-iir that U)'» Mack ^ tbc (wxl liu:e and 
jlri(nMU nf ita aicliilecu, aicstiK. £. rAaaao aail Soa. E<)iiallf fire 
ton Iba dmsI c «iii i> w> -|ilaoe uf pretvaNuiis <I«coniiuu— >ipl to tuo IMo 
Aa ■KRtniNiNat aod Iraoi tMJdupa and maipidlijr— api alaa to be mixed 
af iefib4kci ^omk, It i> at va«e aglwr aod digniOeil — wild oriiber too 
aiaobnar UM UtiUuf rintMllisltniviii, but (ruaiiaiuBl tbrouxkvHi, aod idl 
•la piv«e. Nal DnJy u it a Hit* maia uk fitr tu enere cur (m*, but Ifae 
■apunaiice lu Or^meil, ii wc.l kefl up hqlI prMerved by Uie cliiirBrl«r of 
0* -fcneauiUiiiJ," aliicjb u aaea aa not lu cut up Ikenut iiMirmlu 
Httraeaa, aa u Ura KeacfaU; liic catc, oirMg Ui lauduwa bain; pot loo 
Am4v U|<Mba(, Nlucb inainiAblir otuMaiuai an ardiaarf dM*|Uag>]HHMe 
k pMeatI, in v^Hte a( e>er7 utbempl lu laaik it bj araa«K-DI i vittrtm ttlia 
bfadv" — let iiiu be partiii.ilarljr aiieadrd bi — •'kf Mcccdieflj well ptu- 
IW li ea nl nmli a« lu llii: luaouly uf windour opening aatuupaml willi Ibc 
<MUa aurfarf, nail Avll-prDi»nMaMl iiUa la rvgard la naaa (aboul lijit 
lat bjr an lirsiij nlicretuni liie eje lakes lu Uie tebute u(il aa a dMIIncl 
«ckU»ctur*l iif;!.-!;!." 

Keee iiee-J »ui <>' <|3.>!i>it, Here beioR akrady eouush (or ili« parpaie, 
mi ale* ta itk»w Ike Liud ul writiuc oud ai-Lliitetlatd cumiUTiit la Itie 
CHipau»a, wliicb, a IMue uf the b.rat, am qinu^ m rmkI ut what nc 
paenU)' gel liwui atcliilecluial juutiul;i. iNuw. Hllcr ruH'JiDg Ike atiuir, 
a«U an) pmvu Ui liii »(u«.-» B(i;>piMc Uial bj -> rtucatntion" la lo be an- 
AkHbmI niereljllM BrviuJ-tuvr miiul(i«),uki4;ti,apeKkitig«ti:l)iteolunt)y 
«4 antalMiall}. au>w'cr e>uuk bMUr lu iLe uaiuo ui )[lamd arcade* Uiau uf 
■iwlowa r TbtcdMigu Would b«e bteu prevWj Ilia •anicliMd Ike gfouad' 
S»( iir'-i..* iMiea eourely ajwo^as runuMaaee, la what ia vailed Cuieul 
I . -tA. And did ttiif ltt-*iirwar umlentand aay Ibiog «f arcbi- 

.jd a [rir crude iiu4ninB ^bout u, tia inuM know Ibai fcoMlra- 
lias awl aitadai; iviuirc vet) diffvreul pioponicua ia regard tii the nlu 
ItHnraa avlidi na'I rv,ji t»u ili-aiwniui> Uctcriuiaed, buniiTer, ii be u> 
Aaae (he Cu«ipauK>u, uh1*'I«i alHiw tbe naicutuu« aod igau rant abvurdily 
tfUw critici««i," tbit b> abtliualely tJiuu b<i rjn Iv whal i* mcaQI t^ Ibe 
tmu ■■ Ki r-(iralioH" — furof tlie wiudoMa au4 llie geaer^ cci>n|>«*ttiuQ u( 
>; tafcai Du notice— Luiiuiidiocialy couBaei hiia»elf eieluaircly 
J-Hoor, Uit »wy pdri vthKli ia «•« pointed out for oullce la 

■; w ihfti aluue wbal i« etideaUj' Intoaded lu Ije 

-Licuriticg'-iieialaiuat. 8u, Inonlcrtaglfo aume 

.*u >i.»i«rted iV|>r>u:iiittiio(i ol the lualltr, auJ to maltc 

.Biboref ■■iliertJinulvu.aud Igooraal (riliuiaiii" alludnd 

, __l'4altely to UicuiuteJ opeuiaga of ike griMoJ-lluot, l>e 

" rt> itie wunta "Uiis i'kpAlic," inio ■'line AiiCADf:!!" * a a 

■fit-p* he mil now atlcnpl to any Ibal Ibe alteratiDO waa a mere mli- 

. it WM a moil pal aud c>»u>tui(!ul one at tlie lime, and be 

■■■vk can i»j( t« al^r ll>«l itiiau currectius tbe proof. Vet tliu 

-iMivie u to uoioehil} taeky aud coateiiiuul, thai irilbuui H the quoialioo 



nmld ani hmrt mtrrre4 kla ptrftt al alt. bat ero^iM rather haea laid 
ai;aiii«(hini < Hr haa ID rrainrniiinr ii ml nlT. baii«i i 1 1 Hid lililawillll|, 
■.wif A|.ai r^tt the nianBcr of lb« Mlow fai nnr of Hoganl^e F.looUlw 
I'irtiifa«.whoaBtrideona(if;a p>«l,i4&anjng il tliroacb aical elferandy, 
the reauK of wkM aehieveupof will be, that lie mu*I eertaialy vooe to 
tbe (tubikI. 

* To iD-it>> auftranee douMy ton,' fhe It«f1ni*tT laVcs eoaie pain* to 
cnnvlitf' ii« of tbe aanHhiaa fli^ that whea CoaeereatorlcB are tiiilH to 
<armpoi)i1 with the arcliiteclnra ef Iht maitaloa they hapoca I0 b« Ma- 
oecte4 with— nticther dni;:ned a* amdet or olheririse— liie apacaa b*. 
IwrtD the Rlasiop are ijuiie oa wide aa lli« pleni at the nm»d>doarlB 
Fnwmua'a Plae«. Whal ■ notable pIccroT infurmiLlioQ! Caw WonderM 
that BB arrade (weeing Ihe groaad 6ooe ofa * Ireel butUios aboaW reaeertilo 
any othrr airade, mere eepecWIy eae naed aa a cooMffvateey I FiMlonato 
waa tl for Uie ftoyvl Exchaaice Uai the Rerlawee did am turn nmad «pM 
ihat. and diBooTer Ifce aiKrvpte earfua of ihe windawf, eomjwred arlCb 
that *f the nasoary, to be ae creat er (treater tbaa II ta tn anny ewaa t iia. 
Uirira, hi llie rriuwo tlial ■* the srauod-llaar of the budding niiililt* aoe 
CMrtinurd terlei of arrlitd wladawr-opraiofi, ae^rntad anty^j-pien.* 

Of oounc bcliiiMelf ba» wen ihe buildin^-tirif ont, there ii a naitlal 
ekealkia «rit In Ike C»nip4ai*Ki lniufi>rw turn wtuiti* it*de*ij(ii,andwtikt 
are tu propurtiost. II«jidM Hceln;; It, he ffivM ui In lee that tie extunlM4 
it eeryeanfuIlT— «o <erj earrtulJy Imlcnl, ai to aee uotklng bi all In tt 
e«vpt the linfcle pert which it »erv«d hi* purple lo leak at, — which h« 
iMtk a •' mush adiacunftenenl or." and cwiccniing which ho had wftKaii 
•OBierrry n>D|breianrka. The only thin; in which hrthowa nay imMlb* 
aeu ia Ihe gealla jprotealaUoo— Bung out aj a mp iw tbe arcbiiccU ihen- 
■el*«B— Ihal he doe* •*iiat inlead the aliiliU*! eenture uf the actual 
arraiigenM-ui nf the wiadows." Hew rasUy casdid iDd ^ropma*? haar 
eoothiniE and fl-dierlniE It mual be to Oieta lu be aaaured tlial ihrir ImildiBC 
ia j>a*Mhle nxiuKh.only it don nul al aO aaawer telkechamcler p*ea a 
il ID ikc C^>miMidva,a» bdu( asoUeaaAwell-prapoftiaaedaitylar fSipada 
WK cut up iuu> liltlniFw by loo (Mat « aaaibervf windowf. Hawftr 
lack reiUytt or ie not Ibacaa* wilt b« rendered lolerablyevidcatby Hatlog, 
thai In a fnmuce ut 100 feel or Iheivabouts, there are only Ikineco wiodoira 
a>er die ttrtxut or Erouad-Donr, which belax treated a» an arcade baa, ot 
reone tery loiMh wider aiwiilDXs Iliou Ihe reel of the fefadi. The eeaeivl 
fiiC4d«l»kuurrdly qulie aa lolid lo its pruportiuus a« Ihoic of the Qefnnn 
and other palatial dBh-boaaB»,— at Uaat u reganb Ilia feneilraliou of dia 
*et«r«l duwra, Inr 11 niua be adnilled, that there l» not ^vUe ao mu«fa 
tparm belweee oar floor and aootlipr u could b« desired. Siitl, upon dia 
whole, Ihe Freemaa'a Place Iboade 1» marted by ihe quality— ur aa the 
Iteittewer has il, by Iho qoalillcaliaii of trcnifrJi— by which, lou^l Airliii 
bcocit lo cf pUtD, Is Dot to bo undcntood iridJk. 

Tbe Deal tutijecl of curonteatary, ubKrm tlie Rertewer, la TtafSlfV 
Square i wbcn-upoa he praceedataoaaijiteiit Bii»n ihc aiianrniu^ In t)i» 
Onnipaniuo, otttr hie ow« iogeiiioua aod iiiiicauona fa*lilea, nc Chit 
EngiMtr peurKiuatcd, a'^aip Uuie «j;o, the l«o &iuol>Ui» in Trafalfar 
Square 10 be not only far Irom bean I if el, but pouitvtly ugly, and aoloaly 
U(ly but of " iiiieiiae oglloeMr whkb tbe (AmpnoMu opiiicn to Iw rather 
* too M*en.' atatt^uins u rflaaoB Tor MKh opinion, ibal "the intiitiiificaaca 
of their (the fauoialDe) appearance U at Icaalaa c^tual drfcci." tt'btoh 
obM:i-> altuu ha* ael been thrown away oa the Beiiewer, for br aeiicrii bold 
at il 111 tnii Mnya, liral lo broach nuovel aail eery pecaliar uotiDii cnlirvly 
hiaowo, aadnvKltoei^oMihe writor'^Ulaeaadatiaurdlof-io. Afcunling 
io the RaeMVer, Jmv"!/^'^'"' oTaptM^miceaml L^imrte. — htlberto con- 
(idrred iwo diitiiicc aua very aeparahle, alOiouib imiI alnnya aFparatatf 
qualiiiea, are ao iscurpuraicd iu|[«iher aa b> cunutilute one nad the mud* : 
a« that whaiercr ia ugly maat lie alaa inaigoilUanl, whaterer b iaaigia* 
feaat,ugl^; wken«« it »bouM foUuw Ibal what deatr*** cither one urika 
Difaor epiib'it ia the aupeelailve degree la euprelatiee wMh regard to tHidi 
uttriliuted at ilic iMn>e Ume, aod ■■leteate ii^)aeae''U equivaletit taiattntt 
iuaii!nin«.tii(e. Hence — tfeiicli eefyounuaaarKunient benorthanylblaf'- 
apisiuy uiuit l)v a Ear uglier munslar to cocoaoterthaa ttglioal Puiyplienaa, 
o( wbetisibcitauit ihiuga biilnHunionaler of aciauinotviaiigoitcaotihaB 
a piguiy. Afivr ihia, it will be abtuid lo talk m Ihu^ Ifoiail " <iOo u>*Ir- 
nilicAiii itod coiilemplible fur niitioe." NeverthetrM^ there are sunte dllU 
ctillie* Bitendinf tbo doctrine and ita applicnllnD, > InaigaiPeaiKe* bu 
till nun paited for beinic rather a relulife Ibnn a poaitiTe qualiij : the 
rnnio Ibing ntay be ellker iaaijalltcuil or iLe conirarT uccordtnz to place 
and circuattaBcea. What would be adaiircd e* a * cry elesaat and t«itefi|l 
omainrat uptrn the niaulclpkoe of a lady's boudoir, mif;lit make bat a vat? 
iii«j-Bi/fea«( appearauoa ia a ilMely And apteioua Mloon, yet woald B 
U»erefor«beeoBi*atBllugty In Itaelf?— hardly. To inch awkward coneln- 
lion, liowaeer, Ihoie muit arrira wbo go along with Ihe Keilewer, tha 
cnriouoeae of whoee idea* on that poiol of tbeoiy bat ledaccd me Into 
•oaetliinK llhe dlcmthja. The aotina which he hu briefly ibrowa out 
ii by far Ufoxood (i> he thrown aw<j i wbTrefore it i> to bo hoped that he 
will e«<jl*r, (ipuutid, aadelabomte it, tAiug il aa tUo gem uf a no<* 
*■ Philaaopliy of jCtfieticf," which, if it abould nut edify urill al leaal 
ajtoniah the public. 

Beaidet the mialaJie of eoppoeleg there ii any diilincllon stall betweeo 
u;liii«ia and iBel|Difleanee, ibe t'nsiptiiinn ha* cumojillfd Iht egT^loQa 
error ufawsDiacoae defect, not ax ailditinnal cauae fur ceature, bat Is 
Biilifalion of rcry eitoag ooniuio on account uf airme utiicr iuipoiad defect* 
Vel theie ieuinly iwthlBf lIlagicBl in that, uolca* logic coatttU mura io 
verbal f-Muu than tdnu. The Kcriewcr eiceptcd, every one I* aware thai 

k' 



60 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[Fbbroabt' 



(>ppo(ll« defMU MDlnlbie e&o)> olli«r inor« or In* ; c<>a(«<iu«Dt]} nhftl is 
w («r from iMina Bolic«iMe u lo be iDBi^iflcutt, eusal be MpMUlly 
rMMriishk or racnaiic for it* BKlUoa. Ntitiirr doe* (be rtmu« in Iko 
Conpaolon ndnilt UmI Mr. BitiT]** fouiitaiDi dietnvK ti> be cm1I<hI ag\j at 
all. II i* nthcf Irtollnl «c*>ii^ ^ ou(rai;ci>iiBly tiiiipemlic cruichin 
wblcb bnofli Ihrn wilh Ihal epithet in ibe liypT-iiupETliiUrE drgreo ks if 
Umj clbibiled the *«r; ' [>r«t«rp]upprfrct' of liiitrouaars*. H'Iitii il •*•* 
Cral bMhiwed «a (hcni, tbt Ftp»a*ir>n ** iotrnie njliiu**" *«««] ta be 
nll»rcd very Inconiidcrkicly, but a* il bas bfro bruughl into boIicb afitta 
Klthaut aoy admiMioa of it* imiiruprict j-, cr with tke hail atlentit MMifieii 
tl down, w« maM pctfomc cooctnil« tlut it vrai |»rine<l ilclibcralvlj at llw 
time, ■od that its auihur ilill maiotaitix it ranat mo!uicIj. 

Thai critic'! TDcabulary uiuit be civecdioKlf liniled Inilerd, nho caa 
iad DO tNTui Sot the uuiuFFuu* iot«nnediUe ({radatioB* betl^r■.M Ixauly 
and [iiMitiva ujlinut* and tb« CttreaD of hidrontiwu. Thi' Uniiintr 
lepiD* to biiiD only bluck luid nllile upon bii palelte, und In daub giory 
IbloK Iw notice* Hllb one of ihoM Itto colour*, a* be*l mil) hi* purpo*v 
Bt Ibc moiucnl. 

Id polot of dcMpi the Trafals*'' Sqaare fouataia* ara ant rcmatliable 
far any iMTlicvlar beauty, i>«iitter ar« lb*; »o f»t Ibe oppwiU reacoo. 
VhMl la noal to be <am))laiD«d of U Uut Ibej an not upon a euflleleotly 
aoblaacal*. A tinitlc (avntafn equal in capacity lo bi>lh ibv ptitBni onp* 
would ha** fufined a notjlfl decuratian— 4 far man inpiMiar utilrct Jo the 
centra of the •Quare. But I fuisel— Itic RrTieiror haa an ^n/i-ttw tiurror 
ottJtrj tbinKtbtt brm/Hiaiiigoi partaken of loipoailioa. Lrt us, hoieevrr, 
•M wbat Mtl of iiDpo*iliu(i [>c can, ncicrlbcUta, »toop lo bimecl'', — what 
Mrt of aaDf*, or DoDtenM he bua nuute out ofnbat i« laid in lli* Con- 
panloD respecting ibe gmenJafipearaneaof Trafalgar Sqoan, And bora 
It la Dcceaaar; to quote fnim Ibe boulc. 

" K matt Blilkiiig arctiibiciuril fault a* regard* tbe eocloture <ir Squire 
llMlf it, Ibat the twi) (iile bauodurr wnlta, coal aod vrc«t, are tDado lo 
alopeaccuediBR to the fall of tbo grtmud fi-oiii oorlli lo toulb, allLuugb tbe 
aocloeure ilM-lF i* uu a. ouiloriD letel plane. Wiliiiu ihr riiclfiiiurv Ihia 
prodaeoa a wnKulBri} di»agf««Hbl« eirrci,rar llie lopaof walU nrpsat inada 
to rlM and f^'l like IiimIbi accordinc lu Ihe foequalitim of the pvond," 

UadoDbIrd))*. Ihl* il out *o well exprcMed a* il roiittit ba» been : Mill 
the neanlDE i* »ufriciently ohTiaiii, I'a. that nn unpleaiiax clfrcl li occa- 
aianed by inc tops of thoio inalt* being made to »lopc, iattcaJ of htiD.% 
carried hotiaoDtoll^. aaii parallel to Ihc llat pit<ein«at of Ibo urea. Vet 
tbe Beiiviter ha* made il appear thai it ii complained of hy the Com- 

KDIOD, that ■' tlie lupiuriAt nAlU ure not niaUe tu ri«n anil fall like 
dgel." Hon came ihil [emarkalily ■igiiitjcaiil " Fkr" In be curiJ<ireJ 
into the lettr~-or itid il jttup iu cntirrlj by accidctnf, a:)ilju«t iiilu Hie 
very place where it no admirably auiied the purpme of llir huueii unj 
waHMOlloiti Rc*'c<<er r Vaa Ihal, loo, be a mere mUtatie f Ifau, iK' 
ntobapa «hii'U ha><i occnrreJ in printing tbe Keeiever'* camneata, arc 
sal BO much miiialtei ait'J miihap* a* actual niiraclea. Still, prndlglnei fly 
lanky aodtoDtBuient at they otaj have been jtttt at Ihn tim<>. Iliey proie 
anyihlog but apveabic In their con*equei)Ri'x, nhea ihcy itif pwinl^d out. 
They occasion nol only ugly, but *■ iniemrly iisly " (UTpicionK ; ead IIium 
•usplciau are rather cDo&rtDcdlhaQ at all leHeocd frbea il t* perceived 
bow *ludiou«ly Ihe Ilcviewer labour* to foilco upon the Cinupaniiin mure 
ailline«s Ihun il really ttiotaia*. Where did liu find in ibir hook |ts«<If 
such R Baliiitm rrtprvMion as thai of '* making Trufalgar-aiiiiare agree* 
ablet — Bnd, if il be nnl in ihe book, but one of himn-n concikcliui;, wljere- 
fore should "njtreeabte" be printed with iniirtrd cinimnt, as if it *tas 
tbe very word there mude ute of, and Ibe uoc cooatitatin.jf tLe tilliucfs uf 
Ibo pbnue ctnptoyed. Il i» a[«o ia sone deiiree made to appear ibat, 
while il apeak* of Trafalj^ar-Kianre ai en *' ill-amaged *pal," [he Compa- 
aion ealU it "one uf Uie iioIiI-fiI tilna in Euru[)o,'' tbiiMi «-<iTds being 
also prUled brlwrea iiivcrtrd cuiiimiit, lu il a qiii>lation fmni the buuk ; 
«bl«h, not beta K tbe fact, the Doirwer uuihl to have tuerdeil agaiuitt 
nUCDOceptlon by taying, "vAiitAiiaAi-rnrii/'rdiy »'in«,*(inos[ pcuplt) oue 
«r lb* aeblc*! site* in Eoropc-' " 

Il is, buitever, abturdity ia mn to Inik nf hi* guarding aft"^ioit ■iil»coa- 
CCption, wlicn mincnnceplioa aod mlsACinglruetinn, ami miarrprv tenia lioai 
mn what he haxeTiileiilty luboiirea nl iu all that lie ha* luid oflba aee- 
ttoa heailetl " I'ubllc Improiriaenle " In the Companion 10 th* Almanac 
lo like maoDrr <u lie bu teilcraiod bis cruiliiog enoijtiniialiun of the 
TraFalMar'iqvarc foanlaEn*, he ha* agnla altucktd — fur Iticrc can be very 
lilUe duubl that the roimci attacli proceeded fivm itiiimelf — Uie new 
building at Lincoln's Inn, on account of (IvaI boioK used for tho efillag* 
ofsomeoftbo rooms, which ho mit oiilydirides, but nbsolnlply vllitlet 
as mtr* sham and deception, Dot nl tin land Ids that It it the real noud 
which ahowi Itself, without prefcndltig tobc aoj other matrrinl ihaa what 
It actustly ts. tnaiserting thui the luembers ofibc Inn thrmielves tuie 
tbo celliu^S in nuistiou tube BrutDnageni, bo may be rijtlit, fvr if he 
etrittt nt llie <> llall dinners," lie of course can be*l t^ll nhi-thvr they du 
or mil— and hU veracity is of course also ■iDJinpeHchable. Still, few will 
agree with hlin that llie snseriog ciclainAilon *' Diumraiigrni" Is at all 
Ihc critlciiniof -* gentlemen aod men of eductled tasU." On iho eaa- 
Irary, it Is a Tcry nrnmcnBgeia sort of ciilidsa, to wtrich Ihoso only hare 
recourse wlio bare ueilher remtOQiiiorarguiiieiil4 wherewltli totuppurl lliu 
oijinioD* they pretend lo hold. 

Singolarly enough too.jusi after aernniii to allow that it Is Ihe olum- 
Binest ofthe deception which render* itBiiatW* materials despicable, he 
Is sbocled at the Companloa for ita coiDioaadliig the colainni !■ the Co- 



losaeom lecauH Ikey imitate while tnarblc " most deceptively." Adni- 
nible eoaitaaeticy. truly t Are we thra 10 snppOM that, ia his Ofiinwa, 
Ibe iniililioB wmild hate been all the more praiieworlhy had It Iwcn Icsa 
suceeiaful aid lesa deeepUis ! — thai the pnllriueM of deception is ia pn>> 
pDTCinn to the eisctnris and linlhfulim.i of Itic imiialion. 

At aay rate he has tlartcd a fiesh and frrltle topic for ditcnsaiois— o«e 
wl>i<h t Dia«l here j>aM oicr, conletiliDfl myself willi hvcpisg il in reserve 
for some other oecasioB. only reniarkies that Ike [Reviewer seenatoeoA* 
sidrr l)«itga u* nlingeiliEr Mcnnrt^iry to Mnirrial ; wherein he ihowt hin- 
■elf En be a niurh niwre mnllnr-nr-facl kind nf pprxin than be baa done a* 
regnrdi itickinK In maller-nf-fact <iitDtntioD. Acconlisg to bt* ooliani, 
I'o in prii, Willi ita (lucro colnnins, Venice, with it* sit colled ''tnarbte pa- 
lace)," and \'iceuza, with il* fAlIadiaa fa^adea of brick ooalcd orer 
nilh inttiiiafo, ought la bt Mouti-<l a* eahibitiug Uie niero Bruounageaa 
areliilrclnre. Tbi; Tmiellert' (!lub flouie. I'all Mull, Ubut of maek. 
mntcrial ; and Ihere is ple-niy of Urtiinaiit);eni, «iz. liiani marble, or acag- 
llola, not only in Ihe oiher club-houiek, but in Buckinghatii I'alace and 
Snthrrlecd finnsc. Nay, there I* rirn niQck nuunnry — wond-work ecsl' 
inK* painicd to imitate stone Taultini;, lu some parts of both York MJa- 
»kr aaii 1^ C'atlMdral, surely, lliercfurc, tbe deal ceiling* al Liac«k.'a 
laa are not eoeli vary dif^oaeat Ihiun* aflei nil — pcrbap* hoacBl enongh 
to salisfy noel penple, ifnoton? whni* a* *lraig)iiUoed in his nMions •( 
honesty as tbo Bevicwar hH* shotro him*elf to (w. * * 

To your own Broders, JUr. Edlinr. 1 leave now lo jodce if I am iho 
ridiculous ignaraniua nbleb your pnhlicniiDCi ho* represealeil me; aad 
whether I am capable of writing tolerably correct and iuteiligiblo t^- 
Itih. Thi* li; Iter coo laib* ftoiDO peelly plain Kngliih, and also same mf- 
ficioaIl> intrlligihie and sigaillcaal hinlj, which you ought lo Ihank me fs* 
not having made plainer. 

I rrmsin, Sir, 

Yonr*. is.0. he. 
Tflc WaiTU i» Tiic CoKraNion 70 tiic AuitKi 



CHRIST ClIUBCK, I'LYMOt'TH. 

Sta— In rvfereoce to your ubserraliuuiun lli» fault of a " sbotr froat, " 
tbe ■'oUief sides" of my church being "merely plain nasonry," il 
la only Dpcessary to inform jon that ihe side* of Ibe buihttog mmUc 
with tbe buildings on either hand: that the CastDrb end is Hilrely 
concealed, with nu more than a spncv for light uf ten fi-tt deep { and, in 
khgrl, that Ihe front aloiie i* visible; orthsl II alone unit bo tlilble when 
the iriUaded school is built igaicit the ^ootbcrrt aiilo. The diurich ia 
nlrfiady bnlli in on the anrlh aide. Of cuurse, aotbing csn be worse 
the nofclajr of an insulated buildiug with a " show front." 

YdurB truly, 

G. WieRTWt 

[AniOGg Ihc dif5cul(lcB which architects mretwith from the iqjodicii 
Willie* »flhoee who eisplaylheni, Dutthe Icuili^thal nf ereelio); biiilds 
ou ailes wholly uniuiled fur Ihetii. A chuich of which iho aiites ■- on 
with Ih* buildioEa uii eilhrr liand," iniibl have Ihtrc ircnl drfc<ti : l*t. 
linaB»hnw front which greatly diniiiiishei ila nrcliitcclural value. Sad, 
Tlie difficulliescif procuring light tnuat be vbfioted by some nncburcblika 
arraDgcmeal : Srd. The adjacent houeca produce lalinnnoaioas eombUBll 
aaJ suculAriitt tlie cUaraclcr of tliechnccb,] — Kn, 




ICKWORTH. 

8111— In a mnmrfir which 1 have jual been rcitdiog uf Marl*. 
an Italian architect nhodir^d ia I^UJ,— and who, I mny nbserea, is 
not only in N'^Kler's Kiinstler-LeileuD, hut in thn niormoDsIy tmploni 
graphirul Diriionary of Ihe Society for ihn T>itTii»ion of Usoful KAowledj 
— il ia lUtPd thnt hiadeatgned fur " Mllurd P>i'tl," d iplrndid palace wb 
that onhicman aflnrward* he can lu cre<:l inEnelaiid. Ity'Inilenl Br 
—that " icmn mrcmatc dclLu belle arli." isofvuurM meant the ' 
llervcy. Kailof ilristol and Bishop of Derry, but i* il Ickworth UmH 
the rdilicv ulludcd t».' In the *' Etesoties of Koglsnd and VVslee," 
man*inQ h said In have been bogua from tbe dotilgoa of two Parli 
arehitecta, named rfrrraJhu.— wIiliU has always sir uck tne as an mi), 
bttity. Sappoifng, honcTer, Ihc latter accuiiul Iu be (iirretl, what iai 
nibcr " polauo" which " Mituiil Ertci" erected or bryau to creel h Eng- 
land t Or il that a mislake ou Ihe purt uf the Italian writer, who porhape 
cuofouuded Ireland with Cngtand, la Ibe former of whiclt cooatriet UmM 
il or was soniewhriro ia the county ofl>erry — thi> name of Ihe plaoe, I 
do Dot now recollect— HUD lb vr aluirly touutiy-seai. buili b} the ■■ Bitbap ^ 
and which tike Icl. worth niia reuiarLable for Ibe linculurity of lU pUa, 
the body of the house, being iu hulli insliincei!, an vtlipaie. 

Wbelhcr the mantinn in qurslioa be reallj Icknorlh or uot, Ihe dcalgM 
fur It vrcTD eDHTBTrd and publithed, Ihat circuusiaucc being aikgM at 
•iiEBclent reason for nwrely mcatiaalng ibst tpctimon of A*prucei'* abib- 
liiM, "chfl luili, perchf iociso, biuiiirneart caneKBaa" — it be ing what is 10 
well known Iu erery one by meuu* uf those engraTing*. Itc ibry eirtao 
well knoMDlin Ital), nofopiea <'f luch wiiik or rngrartngi mm lo ha*e 
reached tkij couolryi— at least duI roisalc; DCierlbdcM 1 lake icfu 



1^ 



isi«0 



THE CIVIL ENGIiNEER AND ARCHlTECrS JOURNAL. 



at 



lilfcvpMnMifjiodlioirbaviajtbemtMnbyaomvaDaaiaoagjMir ttndon 
awl ean«sp»a4«iU, nhu in meh um mil proitahlg e«inniuui«kie what be 
kvowsmpecUnX Ibtm. If iiuooit elM, ih« pieMui M«fqul» uf Itnilul. no 
AmMi csHi and Bo doubl alto, woultl adWd iiic ilic lufunimtiuD wliitb at 
M w aa l I aBdMirour lo eUcii tliruujth jotit Jaurnal. I dmru sajr it notild 
M lfc« «cr7 Unt and last lin« «f liu l>onJ«hip'» Lciuk oi iroubltd vrilh 
m HccNtric aa applicatiaa — om (laTinj; him Ih* caniiilniiml of my (uk ing 
mtt itrj atran^ inlareat la bla maBUon ai Ukwitrlti. 

Stranfi at ta Um apinion of luaal pertoos inch c<>iirf« noukl be, la my 
oWBoplahwIt la InBnilct; roar* t[raaj[c Utal m rtmarkablca (mcco ofaictii- 
MaMra ma ibal inaDslvu b, sbottld liarc aJioxctber niiMd ibe celebril; 
vUcfc naaT MructutM (or 1cm ilsMrrinit af il ba*« obiainad. Moat of tin 
kM«M ihown In ■*%'iliiirlii»*i*'' •■ Vi»w» orSntUi" «ad similaT cvlivdion*, 
V* acarcrl/ worth ttumia/, at all — a* aludlM, or ai arxtbttsetiir* ro«rfl 
■nllltiaa— iliiDES ant worth lh« powder and ibolofaDcraiiag itiefli ; wh*re> 
u IckwoaUi it unique i( uoljr oa accoual of Iha laiuh diiiiUy or sculpture 
b rrlinv Ml >(a cineiior. Yh do tlioM who caa leli ■» a liair Vbrradlh 
ttcry aduMMUtiBoat of tlie Parthcouu, kiKiw nut ol cr«a liiu tsiatcuCE of 
IcLwortb. 

I nmaia, yonr*!, Jno., 

Kooiimio. 



REGISTER OF NEW PATENTS. 

If mMWm*1 iatotntVaa b« rtigiilrKl niiifrttng uiT pileul. It mnr Ix obUUwl ■! lb* 
PimirnS'ti OF &AS. 

Hsanrr pNtLttra, of C1i«t lloniton, Devon, Cbeinift, for " JinpneenttU 
n/mri/^ats C«§." — Granlcd April ii ; EnroHtd 0«t. L&, lSt&. 

Is the poring of ^ bf lime two tueani are reiortrd to, cillnl the wet 
adlka drjr line proonwi ; in lome worki one only uf the tvo procruet a 
Btd i 1b other Vttrki both procctui am uicd contccutiicir, aad the lioie 
fpliijtiil for sacb pfocc** (ithcre botli art vxd) it fretb liiut. 'ihe «bjeci 
rf tbc pTMent iuTtstiOD DOtuUl* io uiuig for Iho >«*l liiuo pnrceu th« lime 
irbdi baa bees previoutl; cmplojed for tUo iliy lime prore*i, hj which a 
COatiJ'rabU tarittg af Una trill letult. Tbe gu it firit puicd through the 
Mt Itsw purrfleri, and then ihroufh l|)e dr^ lime putifim; nctrorfrMb 
Ume ia the ordinar; mai.nM' It emplojrad Car lh« ilrj lima proD-ii, nnd tftet. 
nnlt tkii tian it uh<1 (ot the net prucra, to be Inuieiiialcij iiiixei niib 
waler, in a ral, icmcI. or olhtr irceiier, tu pieteiit ii (tarn lit^comiiig littd — 
wfai'.h UoiCf by ntuni of uddilionil portiuiia of water, u brought lo ibe pro- 
pel coaalalcncy for tlie wet liote procoi tn tbe miuc nmiiDcr u if uiiag frrili 
Udc ti>f aitch patpoac; ami tticU mixture of Lmcu a|>pli'>l iu I be ordiuu; 
ipytnlM oaed for the vet limo proeau. 

PaOntLUNti RAILWA'V CAB&UfllS. 

But Ui Gaixoway, of th« Slruid, for " /mp-opntt/nf* te pngtMiitf rail- 
«^ MmajM."— Cnuied April 10) EoroUed Oct. 10, 1813. (ffiU At. 
frwtmg. Ptatr n\.) 

Tba isTcalioa it for ceritiit improvatoaot* ii) rope traction, Iha objcet 
bt£a( to propel the tram of ctrrlagea at a (pced ^tlM tban thai of iha tra- 
laOiu or propelling rcpe. and is effvelcd hj neani of an appiratui leritjed 
• 'dra{,'' altadiiil by an}' eoiivenirnt mrani lathe (ini curia|{e fanning the 
lnl>. Tlie foUowius it a dracription of Ibe ajiparstnt, refereniC? being had 
■0 tbe dnwlngt of whicb flf . 1 it an clcvalloii ; hf . 2 a ptao ; and Ag. 3( ao 
taA viair. Sinilar leiten dciLotc corrckponiliug parts in eieli flrura ; a a, !■ 
a rcctan^Ur or oblang frame luppnrtcd on iraTcIIin; wliecli h j,«bich tnn 
Bpon itixiliarv laiU placed within ihoM upon which the Iraln of carrisget 
■M*C tba wbola •pparBiui being to ooMtruetcd a> to pau andemettb the 
etfiiagea forming tha trtin, or m other wordt that tbo train ahall pan over 
Ihrdrig. v e' are two ihaftt luppOTied at each tiiil io tiiitable beanogt at 
d <f ; upon cadi uf the ahlfti e tf tbire uie pullin r/. of dilTtTeut diaiueien ; 
p f . 1 A.aroin-o lopucitendiug the whole k-ngtliof ilie line, the one inarketi 
wr.h tbe teltctt 97 bring a tnitltins inpc. ibc other m ark rd with the 
bttm k A, bcBg a flitd to^, Ibe eedi thereof bela^ alttchcd lo a Used 
yi'.:\\ at tbe (enoini o( csdt itatiuu. Ths roixn $> and A pittt rouml the 
j ,1. i(» er", aid/y in tlin following mnnnef, oimclir, tbe rojie y g', which 11 
tbe travtlliag rofte paatet tiad^r the pulley e', over tba pulley t, and round 
tbe dti*iag pvIUaa or dmmi ennD«rt(d whh the engiac at eaebatation. It 
will therefoteta trident thit if niollon be giien to tbe rope fir. )uch mn- 
tMB will be imported 10 ttie pulUea t e".//*, the carriige ot drag a a, it tbe 



! lima remiining tiaiiuniiv. We will now tuppote tbe ttaiioniij tope 
1 1 10 pau andct (be pallet /^ and paitiall)' round the puIlev/.auU to bo 
died at MCli aad. B7 tbu arraogcniint it will be at^parcnt that if motion 
k (iTca lo tbe ^Oln * ^,f/' by the travelling rope f g, tuch motion would 
In ttaatmittcd i'> tbe rope A it, wbidi would (if il were loote) traitl at a 
neater valoeit; thaa the rope^. in conaefiunce of (he dUFerence in the 
^anetcn of the two pullie* e and /. Bnt in oaatei|urn<e of ilii; rope A A 
Mag ■ fiird ropr, 11 necrusril; (ollowi tbit ancb noiion will be given to 
tlw dng. wbicb will travel upoo Ihc aitiillary raili at a tpccd double or 
tfUlt Ibc ipeod ef the piopeEiug rope, ilepeuding upeu Ibe dilTureaoe In 



dianattf of tbe palliea « and /. By thii eontriTtnee the italieoarr f ngiaM 
will onlr be retjuired to work at ooe-lbiid or one-half tbe ipftd i^d'peudlng 
on the duTsrent diiniMara of the pulltai,) in order to obtain the tame iel(i> 
city aa ttiiat tiorlied on Ibe tlnet eonttmOc^ on tha preteat principle. 

Ur. G. pnya%e% ai each tlaiioa to iletacb the drag fro«a tbe trtln of car- 
litgea which ate takeaup and propellcil by another dn^lo Ibe n^^t ttailois 
the train of carriaina in arriting at the ilatinn pamct over tbe dc«; ; fur lUe 
parpote the carhagta mutt either be coBiituctcd to that ibc drag can pat* 
under them or a caceta niatl bt made at tacb ttalion for Ibe drag toranialo, 
to at ta town il lofltclently for tbe nilM of tbt earrligea to pait over- Tho 
pnlUea t f and/y art capable of being diiconneMrd by meant of a dslcb* 
boa, to that Uie train can be tloppttlat any pait uf the bnc aitlioul tHip|iiAB 
tbe itationuy oniiasi. 

UAILWAY CjIKKUCE BITTTOIS. 

TiiOMAtt ^'aUUk. of Eution Squarr, nechaiiic anil GaonsB Uilu. (k 
Dover, ooil rocrchanlt for " in^rDrpeien/a in ipringt anJ rlaiHt jjinetr ■ 
vpylicmit< l« rviUMf ourrioftt and othtr teAicUt, and to elJitr nrluUt a» 
fVjuMtt in <rAicA tprmgt «r *latlS« f owtr if MW aeaif."— Gxaated J ul^ S 
MU i Eorollad Jan. 3, ISI6. 

TliU intention for ipringt and ctaatic power coaiitUia llieappllcatliwiof 
■Icrl ipiiriKt or olhrr eluiiciubiuiiccincomhtneliou with BlmiM^arie air la 
buffcii ot loilnay carriaget. i'iif. 1 ibow* a loDfitudlnal aaolion of a btiBae 
conilructedaoeordiagto (bit inxniion, in which, o e it a cybuderof caitiron, 
b 6 ve the bnfftt'rodi which pau through holei formed in the ead of Iho 
cyltadw: ec are pittoot made to lit tigbi within the cylindtt, wbicli ia 
diTidt4 into two eompBrtinrnla by tneani of a diapli/agni t: ffv* bolea la 
the pitton, which are protided with nl«n opening inwaidt: {7 jt aie ipiral 
ateelipriogi.oMcnd of which pretaM agalott t.ha diaphragm e. and Ibe other 
agtiott tbe pition, to ai lo force Ibe aamc oDtwuda; the object of the valte 
it to admit air hetween tb« piiiun, ami diaphragiD daring iia motion oul- 
waidi, wbicb air ii pietealcd returning or eacaping from tocb place L>v iiieana 
of thcTalva al/i Uicohjecl of tbit airanntaent bciag thai tbootd a lorca bo 
appbad to tbe burfar, tuch fore* t* not only coonteractcd by the ipiral iprin^, 
but alio by Iho air cnolained wiibin ih« cylinder, forming the buffer, vbicia 
beeamei furdbly Mnpreeaed. and ilineby acta at a tetiaiing pnwrr to the 
oppoiing (oroe. 

Another iDodiflcation of ihii IrolTer it tbown at Qg. Z. in whitb the inm- 
tora coiploy flattie bagt of Imlja-rvhber placed within ujlinden, and CUod 
witii itniBtplMiicalr wbiohUtujrplicd vbrou^b o^niii)|t ai;;- 

Anolbn part of Ihit in'tntcun cuntialt >ii a peculiar luode of oblaiaiBg 
inotiro powe/, for which purpote tha ioteotora liave abown In the drawing 
a i^etional rieratioa of an engine la be worked by the rtpour of aamonia. 
which il contained in a Iwiler plaoed In a water lialh healed to 'IVf. The 
rapoiir or noliio power obtalud fom the amnion]! [laiics tlu^iu|h tba 
eJui-iioa and iuduiition pljK* of a i^linder coaiirucied in Ihc oidinaij nian> 
ner, wiiU Die extrcpiion Ibat the pauiitco employ ludja-rublici baict (nniilar 
10 ihoic dcacridcd), witbin the cylinden above and below tbe pi» ton, the 
object of^bidi it to prcTcnt the vapour ctcapiiig tbrougb lli« ilullieg bOX 
or b«L«ioea Ui« piriou aud tidct of the cylinder. 



tMl•Ilo^'la> AitTincut. UAXvac. 

jAifB« MoaraATT, Bii)., of I.iverpool, gentleman, for " f'Mprtvtmtmt to 
lh4 moKu/aetnrt iff nanrirr." — Cftntcd April 15 ; Eftrolled Ucl. It, 184&. 
(A eomoiunlEatlon from IVof. Llebig-) 

It bat bean atcettained, iLiat ihegrowlna of any cropou land, and remer- 
iag aad conauming tt wholly from tbe land where it wai grown, lalua antf 
certAit) mineral emnpoundi i' and It hat been tu;|«ied by Frofettor l.icbig. 
that in eultitntlng Und and applying mannie thereto, thai the maniiie ibonU 
be inch >a to rvatore to the land tbe mat ten and the quaniiliet thereof, 
which the pailicularplanti hare abstracted from the toil during ibeir giowUi. 
It hat been obaervcd In llic cheoiical ciaminalion of inailt and TegetaMo 
a*hci.tbai llie alkaline caiboDitet nnd the caibonale of lima can form eom- 
poundt, the loiuhilitj of which dependi on ibe ^uaolily of eaibonatnoC 
lime eontaintd in the ptrticulai compound. It bu further been fonnrt, that 
tha aaid alkaline carbonate* ran form a like compound uitb pboipliatc ol 
lim«. In wliicb Iho CMbonaie of potaah or loda it jiaTtly changed into pboa- 
phalc of puiaib or loda. Now tbe object of llib loTcotion it tn pirpiuro 
uiBoure in auch luanner a* to icatote to tbe land tbe ojiarral eleturiiia taken, 
away by the crop which hn been ffrown an and removed fruia the land, aad 
In tuch manner, that the character of tbg alkilinc matleri uied may be 
ehtn];eil, and tha aaiuo ri'mlitnd leit ioiuble, lo that tlic olbcrwite toteblc 
aUralin<; piult of the nitntjre roiy riOt be wttheil away from tho oilier ingre- 
dienti by the rnin faUing on the land, and thoa leparaiinK the aarae ibere- 
frotn. And it it the combining raibonite of luda 01 cntbunate of potash. 0i 
botb with ritibonatr of time, and alto ih* combining cat bo nale of potatb aad 
aoda with pbaiphaie of Uror, in tuch manner at la diniinlah the tolubility of 
lh« alkaline taitt to be utcd at ingreditmi for uanure (lutiebte for ^c»t«tll^; 
lo land the tnineral mattcrt takea away by tho crop which may have becA 
growf on and removed from tbo laod ta be manured), wbicb couititutc* tlw 
novelty nf the iuienlinn. 

AlthoDgh th^ inaniir«< mado in carrying oot thii imrntion will haw 
earioumatteracombinedwithllie alkaline carboutetp no claim of ini en lion 



THE CITIL ENGINEKR AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



^ 



[FsBRVAMTi 



Illil>li llifnililllllMiliir- Md tncti Bitmilivill be 
naH«» Mod) «be iMil u 1m Auonri nqnlm to bi» 
aMiw lu ihn mfwril TnNwrn >kon iwiUmmL 



iMMGMAiptHdH 



lelLn 
Itae ^imiltr of eartio- 
nitc ar plM|ftiiN •( l»e. «Ml witta Briwaato of Mda sr poiub, BMr be 
nried Kooidtnr t* ttie 4cr«c »f Mhibilltr '«■'>< >• te •'■»>■•'• <trp«du>E 
M tte tocilitr wfaere lb* immm b to 1m nad. fai ordn M nvdar tbe !••• 
ptraitao l«t» Mlnblt, i« locaUiIei «hm Ua BTgragi MMtkr of nto MUas 
JB lh« ytar ii |rM> i bat •■ id praiittn, it umiU b« difieall l« p »i f aw 
iBMur** l« tnit oKb |Miti«y« locaUt* mib uwImm, Hm a/rtn^ f<tp*n- 
Uoii u will intt moat loealtliet will lie pven. b Mkiif Riiniir* >CMrd. 
ing ta Ike iaxMtten. urboiMM of wd* vr cf fotarii, or both ne tn fae futed 
in m M«erberatae]r famwe, ulch u is mai to tb« Manolacfne of Md»a«h, 
with (WboiuUn or pbotphaie ot lime (and with (acta taed tO MffOCTdi arc 
niud ottier tngrcdiente u hrrtafler Heallontd,) an ai to |irodnoi ibBiiwres; 
and nicb cotapaillion, trbMcaU, belag gn^ai inW powdtr br edfc ttotica 
gr «ibet ooMreaieal Daiclihierf, ibe mbc ii la be apfilied 10 Isad u iiiuiar«< 
Aad la order to appljr moK tnannre with pmiuon, tbe 4D*lytl* and a^igbl 
of the (*«*><■<» a*f ODgbt to be knovn ititb exatttWM, eo u U rHtirv l« 
tba Uad the mtoenl e tewim bi tbe wei|bt ud proportiBa ia «bkh ihvy 
have been ratMraad hj the crap. 

Two nnpoandf are Urn prrpartd. one or ot%ef of aibkh li Uic bsiia of 
•II tm u un , wbkb wfU be deKtihed aa Uw tnt aad aeemd prvparaitaM. 
Ttn AM pr^anliMi la failed by taavf tafetber two or nro and a half 
faiti of caibBwate of Baa with om part of pMuh of coniaerce (eovtainag 
m ao anof* tistf oarbonoto of poUib, tea lulpbale ot pMatb, aad len 
ddorid* of poiMMiM a* e e— eaa mlt in tbe baadted paiti), ot with one 
port of nrbouw ot aeda ud yotaalk miut to aqaal pwta, Tha aaeotid 
prepanttioB ii fcraed bf Ibiiaf wyUwr «ne pan of pbaapbaw of linw. one 
|an polMb of catMDerte, and ona |iBt af aoda aab. BMb prafiacalion ate 
paaad to powder ; otber tolta or toptdiaaia ia tbo tOM of powder ara 
■ddfd to IboH piapaiattoaa aaid adaed itptittr. or Ibooe aat of a toUtfle 
OlBiiMcacT wmf hs aided wkaa fta pecyacattoot are ia a eiaLe of faihta, eo 
ibtt tbe MMVo iBBT iLptuMl ■ neailf ae poniUa lb« caaf«r*it«eo of the 
ufaot of Uie pteetoiog «Top. Tbii ie aieiuninf that tbe Uad m in a higli 
etole •' celtieatMO, but if it be dnired t« grew* pulifular crop «a la>d M>t 
in a higb eiata of euliiT^iivn. Um ih« mannre nouM be eppUod in tfae firtt 
nuiaaee eytaye (nr the comtn; nop, and then la aabMi^ent ('-•■m. the 
aanon pnpaml Kr<;Milii)g lu tine immiiiin wouid, aa bcreia dcaoribed, be 
■ppHad Ig natoee to tic luiil what bat tieen taken t hu e fcca bgr tlie )>cced> 
a§o»p. 

frtpm n lnm ^mamrr/ir iaarf iMcd Aat i«dairi«Mr crqegrvwaonand 
Kaiiead lkir^fr«mt.—TA9 «f tbe Int piwperatioti tiz parte bj •eigbt, and 
ai the eeeood preparatloei one part, and mii with tben two paita of gypeiiin 
—amf F*rt of caleiMd booei — eiliMte at potaeb, (eoetaiaiog eix parte of 
■iltoi)— and one part of piraapbate of ■agaeiia and anneeiii. Tbia nunure 
ia alea applksUe to b« naad iftor gigartaf torUf, oata, and planti of a 
riattar charecier, 

f^ ipa ufwa tT p awil Jb- dead which ia» Imd m rrvp '^ Armt jrmn* 
Idijeam mnA iiweaaf ther ^ ram. — Take (mirtcen parts br weight <it lUo flfil 
ptefiaiatMB. two part) of tbe Kcoad preparatioa, end mix them with one 
peil nf cQiuiiinn t'ltt (clilariile of •odMicri.) — ■ quuitit* of tillable o( poteih, 
(tonlkiniTiK two p«n> of tUica,)— iwa ptm of gifxiitn, and nn^ (lart of 

C' iipliate ef mtgnesia and tniroonla. Thtt niinure li alto apptlcnhlp. for 
d on whicb peaa ee other piaMa of a einiilar cberacier bate uren grown 
wdrcaoaad. 

ftvperfllfeM ^mmmr*^ ttiMd on wUek rvmipi An** Jk«a ^«wa oad re- 
MoeiMf (Aer^rtTMii.— Tile twthc piwi» bjr »eiglii of the Gmt petparatioD, ooe 
jiait of tUe eeoond preparation, one part of gjpkUD, aod one part of phos- 
phate of taagneMa and emmoDia. Ttiii uunre it alw applirable lor laad 
where potetoe* 01 limxtar plant* have Iic«u ^iixin tad icmortd. 

Tba clain ii lor preparttiK and appljring in ihn inuuhcuiro cf roenurt. 
cuboiiato of potaih and carhonilD of teil.i with cnrlMaato and phaBphoic of 
line, in locli nianner ai to render the lUuIiiie ulti in manuliaetiirtd maaiuc 
lee* lotulile. and Ihcteluic Im hilile lu be nuhed avriy b]r lain bctfoie thtj 
are autnilsicd \iy ibc {cowins pUnio. 

CTKAKI £!tOIKES> 

KiCM,iap Htirnnm, 1/ Bury, ta th* coenfji nf Lmttatttr, rafinrrr, for 
nrtaU iwprormrWa hi Jtrsam^ariar*.— [(irwoird Fcbrueo !<■ '• F.nrotlcd 
Augaat 10, iHiJ.I—KcTwrfed 1m iVnrl«H'« Auadva Juurira).— itf'ifh ra- 
gnrinfi, PMe tit.) 

Tbe prfncipa) feature of na««l(y la the lofenliua I* as follow* ;_TJie 
entire worldac eDcioe Lofl both the coimuun rccipiucaiing rccliliut^r 
uotiuo, aud also a circular uuUuti niuud the ceolre of (he (tritiiig>»haft i 
the itcBBi cjliadcr bciu^ liud u uue end of a leirr, whilil (hi- crank 
f JKilvea loooely in ■ alep or beariag al the other end of the mmt lever. 
L ha beaa or eanlra of thia )oe«ria keyed fcUnpoath^ mam drivia^-ttiafl, 
uid K iateadMl to cominiioiale tbei motion ut the eugini! to ikp nanw. 
ThU molloa ia tranamtltcd U Ibe fulluHin); muiitei: — IpnuDOc rul of 
the crsiik-ahaft a apur-whoet it hejrril r^il ; Vie ra(liti> uf iti pilrb tine 
being •4ual to half tbe dbtanc* of tiie i.-eiilrca of ihc cnuL'stuift fram tbe 
iDHia dnviiiK'*'"'^ of thn *Ieani>engin«. This vibcei gcan ialo uother of 
tbe time (liamefr, which i»6xed, and rvmaius ptrfeclly itoliooory ; the 
MWta drlTlng-ibafi r«volvin{ looielr throogh ti« centre: coa*c^uetiUj', 



pr ( IVirm , — flrt^^l 



the wtind upon toa cfanh-ehaft hai ■ doable nsHm to 
beniK n miarr mawefneei mund lli own nsri, coRHBonieated 
Ion tiy lacaiie of the co«iiir<;tin];-rud. a* in ordinary •(eBin-rntin 
other brinir a pleortMry bioIUid ra«ml the main dti*iDC.*baft, occaaiaBed 
b; the «|ier «1iFrl npoalbocrank-^aU re*o|rrnK, wbile the oihcrwfafd 
(Ibreufh Ihc eeatre of which the Main dri*io): thalt paneca) renaiu pof- 
UeSf ttUtaumtJ. The wheeli being both of the aame dianeter, ft* 
"ptanel-wbeel" will cempleie it* orbit round tbe min drtvlng.ehaft 
and ^Min-wlMwl" in rxncity the annir iqMKe of linio m tberTanh takaa 
to woke one reiohitiaa roond its ow> eentre. The oh}eet of iheae ha* 
proremeale i« to goUi both power and rfrrA. whirh la aci^rniplbbed by 
the mtetimn bciag oomtnaoieafcd to the driving »btft b; a mncb lo««r 
WeraRe than ttwial; Ibe iac*«a*e of power bting in praporlioo lo oio 
ddftrtcev liHwpifn Hio length of Ibe cmnk and Am leaylh of Ap 1cnr> 
iu Ibe end of which it nvotee* : ibn epred la galaed bf the Bhoftoeaa ff 
the crank, a* the piatcoi ha* a mailer dblsnce (o Intel «t erery itrak* 
of tbe engine. 

In rUie 111, fiic. I, i> n plnn or horirMntnl vleir of fltf toprotafl 
ileaiu FnRine, to be worked by lii,;li-|>rFt«ure ilean 1 aod fi(> S la • 
purtiul eection, nhRwiit^ taorr elrarly the coDlhiartee for the MitrUM 
■ ud etit of ilii- iii-uni lu and from the rjlinripr; a, foanrlatlon walla 
nbiDh mipporl tiir miin Khift 6 ; c. dy-wbepl ; d. sienni'tyltiidpr : e, COB* 
nrcling rodi /, cnok ; ftnd g, the cranfa'than. Thii crank-alwh g, lb- 
■tead of revulvinj; is fixed tx.'niinxi), na in ordinary •letin>-*u)!iac«, n- 
• Dlve* in bearios* at one cad of the leren A. k ; Ibe tsrntrr or boMOf 
the leter A. ii keyed fwlupon the luaiD-sha^ b; ttievlciiin cjliader d, 
heiB|; Miinehed, by bi4t«aad top, to the other end of Ibe le«w» k, k'. 
The ileum i> admiltrd into Ihn cylinder, fur the parpOM of aetnntiac 
the piiinn, in the f.illowinjr oianuer: — ti will be aeen, by referriof to 
Be, 3, th^ Ibe rod h\ of the ahaft ia lude hollow, having a luidCeather 
i, tiimi^ the ccot'e, to divide the eatmaca-pipe k, frsan ibe cait-f ipn tf 
and revaltea in ■ hollow itewm-cbeat or abUBber m, bctot packed al««a> 
liSbt by mean* of (tufllof; buiea. Slenn ia intriKiuceii luia thU cba»> 
brr by the feed pipe n, aod paeiea throttsh the cipeninc •, imo Uw <B> 
tnoer-pipe k, and ihence Ihrmi^h [he itide-valve (which i* of the wdU 
nary coMiraclian) lo ilic atrain cjlintler. The nctiou uf the piiloo cna* 
nnnieatca rpUry iDotiou by nieam of the c»aiwctinK*rod r. nod ihc cnnk 
/, lo Ibc trauk-thaft g ; tipntt one end of tbb craak ihaA g, the ptonet- 
wheel j>, is l«y"l, K^criog iaio a ■ao-whecl j, ot the rti»e dianeWT} 
tbiH wheel v> hai, no motion n-het^ver, bat merely itcreei u m radc, 
around which the planet ■<nlicel jn iraivU. Through the boM of Iha 
wbed, q, the eeid ^,uf Ibe naio dri'ing-afaafl paiaea, reenlTlaf looeetT^ 
Tin* It will ho evident, ifant, in cnnseinieace at (bo wheel f , remniniiiC 
perfectly •toltoanry. ibe rotatbn of ihc cmnk-ahaft f, wiU canae the 
pluot-wheel », to tnml romid the «un-whcel or cltcnhir n<k •}. in Ibe 
snaa l^sea er tlnM m which it twrolrei upon ii« ^nro axia, ihui esaia* 
iNf tte oagine to retoliie, uliitc i;Dinf> thenogb H« renprneaiiuf netioa) 
the mala-abaFl b, h', \ina^ xke rulcrnm, uid reeoleiog with It, to oaft> 
teqnence of the Ijugscs of the leiera h. A', being keyed faal upOD thai 
»h«n. in thie inipruretl iut«ii [ructtt vf Ike aleam-cosine, in cedcr to 
work ibo tlide-reltp, |!iv cacrotnc t, i* Unliuunry, nuJ is coosMricd to 
tbe vsho by n (trita cf link* and Irvert «, a, e; Ihc lotBtioa of tbe 
rtiKlDB eunnwoiemtlng Ihs requisite mnlion lo the ral*e, Iht MMB a 
Ihc rntolotion of Ibe espriitni; r woold do if the engine weee Ixad or 
alnltooary- Fie I ia n face liaat and aeetiea or a «n, to bn 
conurciiiw with tUa wnaiaaeat, to plaoe of (he eiomirto,tf 
<.irrd t» wurk il>e enKliio nspaDtienly { dUa onin be)ii« oalcnlaiadl 
of the ■teaoi at lialf stroke. 

Tbe paie«teo remnrki, thai ho b** repnaeoled hb iovmlivn na < 
piled to a hi^>pr«Mnra "euiieaary" attain e«giiie; bat he 
U>c itaproenl "plaBetory Miglue" oqually adapted In ao«Mleaaii( 
Riuea, and wbeUwr tntpioycd for mariue ur cAber pnrpoeea. 

MAtrcrAC-rriiE or as. 
JuMtt Mrnnom, of Ktajil^.ton. Middlricx. mrtlisoicnl draoghla 
for" eef*ila laipioFnn^iiCi in Ihi mmnv/aitwi a/gat, unrf in Ikt uppa 
employed rAerrin.— (llems a (.-oniaieuicalioa.j— CTant«d l-'ehruarr HDIl^ 
l^rvUod Aaciift Xml<, IMS ; with eiitfravioc*. Hale 111. 

Tbit isteoliou ean>i<ta io trilain itBpToreo>eitta la Ibe niaGufaclum 
gai fur illuminittioii, wbicb are aS'tttH by menot of no apjiiLmlut 
in ihe eagrsf itig. Gg. I, ii a tmiwierae neciion, niidftg.it, a Inngllndt 
•ectiuu tbtieur. a. tafortlin coal. The neck a', of Ibc rrlorl i* eoaa 
by a borixnntal tube with a irrtlcal rrlun li. nt the back ol the appunlL 
and Ihie nilorl ft, ia coonctied by auailicr honcoiilnl lober, pamllel tot 
Bfit, whh ll>e neck d. ir<im whctieo a pipe t, oxlends to the cooling 
nilnsy: lh« two b&riionlal lobe* are t*»in*d punfvirK rclorli ; and 
contain* n ipirot piece of iroo. Tbe retort t, 11 nearty Gllod with 
ctiarcaa1.aBdlsiMe|tfar decompuHlug water, mpplladlliroogh thai 
pipojr.whiOi deaomanearly to the bultuni ufilie rrlorl. m indloi, 
Ihv dotted lint* in Ig A. Tbclidofthc cuulmg upjiarnln* /. haa. 
■indee nde, a )»ng epinl chnniKl, lalerniptcd by fliopm so na to cavse 1 
gas, adnlltMi into the a|>p*mtot by the pipe t, to pa** over n largo nor. 
of water, and occiuK^nallythr«n|till,ptrnTloaa tn Ha eKope Ihroagb' 
pipe *, t» llic gnKomelrr. I, ii B ty^iOD'ptpe. for earryiiig off (ha i 
waitr of tbo oouling nppnnunf . (, I. ore Qre-bricke to protect Ibo 1 
from ihcdimt actwnaf ibeiaoei nudiB,in,arc opcBiiiga,oondi 




THE CIVIL ENGINEBERAND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL 



as. 



I IM MCh lUe ml Ibe nlort^ ud hratiaic U^m ^ rvfirotion rroia (h« 
roof >, of ihe hUMca. oMpoird of lirr-brirk. >. ia « vch«I eantaiDtaic 
vMtr. la pntKl Ibe fm-bara ft. fram ihr dntrwilra mMm of ibr tie, and 
bj ih« tmn hWh (bmtfivni la ie«rca*c (Iif c'lubaaUM oftbc (acl. 

Tbe MO^ vf working will) Ibit ii|>paratua U iu Cnltoiir* - — TLc eoi mt of 
ft« pantjiog teiorii an Bk>I iiMiirrd and e*rr(ui\f laled ^ Itaa raUwl A, ia 
anrtjr All«l nilb oAa or «harco«l,aad ilt co*«t Mcaml and lotad ; a Grr 
1» tfcaa U^ktnl la dN tamMe, l» bring ibc ntort a, aad purifpaK Tvtona 
(d a cb«n7*nrd beat, aad lli« waler rclort k. to b biidii rrtl Imi i ond 
vAa Ala beat I* attalaad, die ratwl a, ii ctmrscil «• ith coat, aad wicr i* 
BdaiiU«d( la tnuQ quasUUc*) into Ibe retort 6. Tbe acli»u o( Ibe Iwat 
■pa«lba«Md<lu*^MMgaa«tiia(l vilb tar, which pa*(e« iata Iba ir*t 
yatiyto y nlB»t,aad iba aulpbarXlad hjcirDpa coataiuMt iherata ia dc- 
iwmtfnn il by Uia («tl of incuiiiltiici-nl iron ; m( ibc Man limr ib« tar undar- 
(riH R aaand dMUIallon » conrrrlc^ isto gas, and nrixn vilh thai 
nsiUK'dlRcl tfomt t!>« tva]. Hie :■■« wLicli it now mure Jcaia fnm JU 
CBabiaaUuo oidi iba carboa f«iiUincd ia tka Ur, proceetU aloag llw 
pvrifjing rrturl, until it airiM« at Ibe reUol fr. wb«rc H niica wilb tli* b)- 
rt i apiiii niiiliim final itii rliinia f i r iriin iflhr— nlir lij Ifaa J ne aadaa ca al 
Boke or cbarcoal. and paiaa* lata tba wvond paTirrinB ratorl, t, carrfjai 
■Mb •• Iba nrbOTMiad *speun mi tvluilc «tli wbieb nai Imfc nic^ad 
^McmtpotiMm, but ithlchi ia tbair Mane alooE the reloit r, becania ^• 
MB^poanl bf <ba biBlMt coR <f hvo. Uld give out thrir carti'm t« th« 
bydrviira. Hj ihia »«aa« iba hjdrogea bectMMs c^rbureiloi wilhaiil im- 
pimri*bin[ih«fttbaf fu. Tfca gat ibca procaad:* lliraugk tbe lupe t,to 
tWeaabarappMnUoa/fRnil Ihracr tbr«af;h lli« pifi! A, lo Ihc timanHm. 
IiHttad of mat, ratiiM, Kbiiiiu>,citlii, fat*, aixl ilniiiBr »nlnUukc«a.aa]r ba 
iMltliit !■ Ibia aprparaiin ; aad, ptwrided tba parifrinc lauMta. wtab ibc 
mOi flf Iron, arc idahitd, tbe kw any be diaiilkd nd pvrifled it an 
a, wlihoat Ibc etapkijiacnt of a water rebMt. 




luvcFACTUiut or TILCa, 

Rtni^iti WuLER.of Cajfl. n'nr norklni, Bricfc Biime mmwn^ctanv, 
tftr "laurrvrrMrxfiMfAciBdsV'iffbrtv/dfaUiaatlatAff-MIca aarf fj|tca."— 
Oratiteil Mar<:b XT. IttJA i Ewvilail A<i»t. 2T,IIMS.-(fV)U «a facriariar.} 
—fUfirM la (Ac llrp<rl»rf, 

Wafaiaabri^filcMripUanafttiaiaioatina lut Dee., wklrh for waal 
•r drawing was ant properly oBdfTatood. wr BowKi^aaawbrrdcMriptwa, 
With leCciriK* lu ike cliAniB|;a. wbicli will mike tfac idiealioa lalrlligiljle. 
Tba taiuCao ooatiala of iiuproTrineiKa la amagia: aad cniuUaainc 
— ctiiaarj fur taciUlalMg tba vakiag at dtaiii. aud olbcr tilca and 

ttttrifliM ^Utt Z>r«M*f.^Flc. I, la a aid* viaw at a aacbiBr. mn- 
Mraatad aad a ii a a g rt MeoMlaf tolfaia Inwirtiua. tig. S, laaa end view; 
■■I. Ptf. 1, liaplanof iheDtaeUm; aad lb« otharftsuieaartbadAwins 
•haw daWta : aad la all iht tlfiim, tbe aaue triicn are uitd in indicate 
At »iB« parta of the BMuhiocr j. a, a, U tbe fiaaiiaK of the owchinc, 
&t aatura vt wbicb will rraUil; b« Uaccd on exsMiaiag Ibe *•- 
riaaa i|KBiwa af Ibe diawiaga. Tba aMebln w aioanmi o« tmnt whMlt, 
I la hcilmia tba (raaapatl fhwof ftaip ptiw ta place. «. (. am twa veiwlf , 
ViMa wbifb wvrlL pUloat. far atiireilfnc lb* claj thmugt) itica or naald. 
hug orifice* at the enter «nda uf tbe rf lael*, b, b, aDd tbe nuncliDnj ii m 
•CTaaaeditbal wheo «m af Ibe Tcweb (, U hatinc ihv da; exFrcHwd 
fclaa&uw ifarau^ iba tMniitliws viillcc or die, alixod Ibereia, Ibe albtr 
amtl, b, I* bruBKhl ial4 a pveitn'ti for atfowiaf; tbe miM) U b« flM wilb 
iiaj. Tba *«aaala, », arc of a ejhailrieal fom at tbeir npper fttta, aad 
fM at tba naihr parts, which will be feuad to be a rery coaaeDtant bm, 
Banicatatlj wbnnakiacbalf cjtiaiktmor IkdI tilea ef larce diuacler, 
Mia[iared»illblbaAMMlaro<ibet«Melf,b: aad,althau|AilbbrlirrcdtbNt 
il la bcUcr to baia uu w m iiI mI OKhc ibao half a cylinder n fbowa, ret the 
ritkfc »«r ba nrii^, fo koK ■• ib<r arcliosal tgnn of iha t*m*i* t, be 
HWpeaedura ear** aad a«lnii{[hl or Knriuntal liD«. The veaaela A, ft. 
■ra ■anntad en nacka oc Uaiuiinai, *u that Ibe) DM)! BMta la baaf lag*, in 
•acb ataaoffaa laaMniiwai ooa Lata a htifiaDatal, andMawiberta •«- 
•ioal (lOHliaM, by wblcb, wbeacllfacr of ibe Ntads t, baa baea af U ed bj 
Ik paMua or plaaiter, It naj be turned hi a paMtion lo be a^ala flHed, 
*, (, aic tbv tn'up»Uiu> or pluoKCrD, wbicb mpectivelj wurb in ibe two 
vaaaeb k, ft. Tbvae pMtap* am dtcd tu tbe twu endu of tbe bar, d, wbldi 
to SBppurlnl, a»d aliileaia aanilablc brariag in iLe bridge,*. On Iba 
■ndei itufai:* of ibe bar, d, ie ronncd or albietl a (wttiad rack, wbKb m 
Vurked bj mnat of Ibe plakio./, oo tbe an*. ;:. ouvh alia tvKtirmn BO- 
tloa, b| incaat a( a IcTCf bcreafiai doasribtd. lu each uf the pUUiiia ia 
•a opeaiuiii dt«( which li placed a flap or valve, A, whicb allow* vf tbe 
■ir pawiag bclweralhcpi«lv«*od Ibc «ky, when the piatoahdrawn back, 
aad diiia ■« llwi drawiBg back iif tbe (lisloa facllitJled. Oa tbe upper 
•WflKBof the b«r, d, are formed ft^rruwa uf nilclirt teeth. Inuranabciiif 
fttranl ao aa tu rrcaiTa th« catchn ot »tup9, i, <*biih will rrlaiD the band 
ftvm goiag back inooc dirrction, tbcotlicr iwu ruw* of Iteth bi'injf f>)[iueil 
or cat ia an appMiladircclion, so a* Id nrcrivii Ibu twu cnlcli«a"r )ilo|i«,j, 
to retaio tbe ba/, 4, (ron movin;; l>9>ck, when wnrklnKin Ilin other dire^lion; 
•aritbaabjaeloftbaaalopptegibe bar, d, Is, that Ibe pwtoa whlrb it In 
wtttL, mi) ml be dri*ea bacL b; ilie air which aiay ha*e beau caupmaed 
be'.* ecu Ibe piatoa and ibe clay, n lieo tbe kvar, m, la pal baekt In order 

CI aaolbrt aOwke. Tbe two acta of caicha* or alapa, i.f, are ooa- 
logrtber as ahowa, *u Ibal, bf OMViDg the Icrcr, K, Ihim- atopi or 
•cbkhbatc bMnio attioa areinotedwulwf actiuii,aiid thM«nliich 



are out of anlen. m9 bmafbt iaio urlfoa. Hy tbia arraac*''^*"' tbe bar 
wUlbe belli ffoai retaraiax, lu wbKhn«r way il way be Muihiag; and 
fiban tbe pisloa at Ibe ead of ibr bar, d. ha* been torotd up to Ibc cad ojt 
Its invLe, tbe ktcr, It, h r«Ttrscd, wIik-Ii will cboaK* ihr [raeiliaat wi tba 
ealcUrtiUraUif*, i aad^, and Iben tku bi*r,d,aia7 be mmed in its ^ 
i«eliaa af noveneal, whicb will, by iba otbar pialnn. fore* out tba oUf 
tnm Ifcaaihar *t«Ml,»,aBd allow tba eaaia*, k, arhieb baa j«M b<<* 
eaipUed, to ba mowd In lia aila or irunaliMia. so aa ta aaauina a veriiual 
potiUoR, ta order mg^la U> be ItArd with cl^. 1,1, mn i-alcbe* which re- 
taia llie Teaitli, tv In dia bericootal or ia tbe aarlleal patjiiac 11 may be 
remarhcd, Ibai allbauKli the veaxla. fr, f , are pfafcrrad whea woasttd on 
axe* ta ba «f di* f<>rn> iliown aad deaenbad, yet ihia pert «( toy in- 
vfnlioii 1* aqaally apfilicable to tecwU of a cyliBdri<al at alfcar ibape, 
btiiB nbhtkcfay U nrced by pictnos or plunger*, ibruutibatoaliUaganice*. 
ar dleat la aiaka bin or pipes ; for Mcb veatria may, with eqptS adna- 
laga. ba movirted oa aacaor iroaaiMia. Tba iMuUliuit ariCcea an funned 
ia the *aid eir*m af lb* vnaela, A. aod ara aa brraiofac, aailabia Gir 
HiaLiatc til** of diffrtael forma iw pip*«> Mid art> wHt iiadtraluvd, aad 
therefore do ool rM)iiliw lo be deacHbed la tliu tpecittciiiijii. The bar, 
d, la aiortd to aod Im by iDeaae of tbe le««r, m, which t"** luolion to tbe 
aih,/, 9r*t in oat dirvetlaa, ihea ia tba olbrr, la tbe lulluwiaa oMnaac^^ 
a, la aratchet-whtdindan tbrails,/: tbia raiebet wbed h«*iwaa*l* 
vf iMtb eul in vfipaajir dirrctioaa, aud tbe l<Tcr,n, (Ibeaatareef whii-b i> 
clearly abawa ia tbadnwiu)c,)bwUMdnt«r*a, p, Milbat nbca llie lc<cr* 
haiidia, M, la oa oae Fide the atti.iiwill, na bein^ nUaad aod lowered, 
eavM the wheel, a, aad coose^aeiitlj Ibe ail*,/, U> inaes nHiad, whicb, 
a rU aa wdl be ceatiaoed till tbe piaion (ia acliouj bat oumpleied ill urot*, 
wben iho mall lertr, &« la U ba nmed <i*rr, nbich will laierM Iba MUva 
or calebaa, whaa Ate larer, la, may br movird oirr tu the uibet bkId «f ih« 
asie,/, wbeo Iba working of ibe Irvur, ■>, ap aad dovn, niQ auiae tbe 
axia,/, la be B*a*ad iu the typpamaa dirrdwn, aod by Iba ulhar piilan, 
it will fotoe one the clay from Ibe older vetsel, b, aiiawiag tine for ib* 
eupiy >e*Ml. b, lu b« filled aj^ala with clay. Tbe tile*, as Ihey are tantd 
dial, are rvcel«ed on tuilable "borirs" ai heretofore : aixl Ibry ancdCaff 
by iDruaffflbc w rreSi f, carried bii the aiidms Iranw.r: aad when ibr 
llica are to be puuchcd with bolca. aucb ai d^l ulea fur ruu&og parpiwti^a 
• uitalilc pii«i:b I* >i|>|>l>ed. ■, (a Itn Fnme, r, a^ Ibal in oawaiag tbe fc 
to tkwatad, a til* w 111 be cat ol^ ud paadUd tt llie aamc time. 



MlSC£ia.&lt BA. 



Aji inUtestiaE •aaenmest look f>^ar« at PeHai 
Ml m» Sacellaal. CapuTa Oad^ ■■ the atoal nceriy aadefli 
koew. vhWi mlifii. lapafc lis wucten «f »u)l tq a t^ mi In menrw 
eaa •! ibc hch* auack oa Iba BlrUei or Barnn 



Mallrr anil Ikw Iba 
ilw. Oaltef 



iiboa Ibr Ibdi Jaa 
aadeflcBCleBa •kade<i(dta(i«iWw* 
n afciW i Ib m m iv m rlHn, ihIii iba 

BlrUei oriMriin vr ae»taalniw»nileyBcar-afiel 

n> Imt nimtnnnt taik plare aa iWMi, *«t wa* eaa 
■■■I, laawpnailY wu bm m ceaTnwMiar latteMfill* tie 
I mill I tMa^acor-hOUt - - 



' aUpt' leavt 



(Iw «M RHM ]fmmi aad maomi at a ■flHt ib<u» frMi the KtnUnrt. Sfc Wnt ti 
•waUaana liiniai mnt^ Ott tH qwi la the er^r»: iliem4*arA*maN wan* 
•waMt be m bUr hlU^M «r ibidu. ami too jwta «f Ibe .«•«* tiMrn* •&»« Iba 
ivn, mi w«fB Mcnrol la tlw aHae mmnn rooad lb* vpporin nncme. TV ifm* 
*(t^ lint weaad, s V «l Ik* taiMaf* «r a dtrr or ei*tti. U pnvcnl rntnataB, Ike 
epcntWa* aow aaaaaaad w dli Wd ia Wrm :— A toaakni cvowtaiaa M». of ^a* 
pomltr. KH tiroufai utkeieoli al ww eciif w««* tt0n tncbt* of po(f.irt paaetftawa. 
«••' al!!..!- •••I Ktuitd a copter talx auda pwiKilf trttrt itpir, and w i»m ia*» ol 
quick EiAtcli Lrior aiiaibed M ttw upptr end at Uw purt-Qir, nid tin ocpoalU riinme 
liraurhlidnjufh lo llwavuiVal ttaiaba atMaa Ibinttr. tlirx mn laoltfil, hihI tha 
brralier tKinc ibnmpan hanWd aad amniad nRaf4M!tr uiulct Ike ipara. a anSclwuT 
■il tin* iciatil wiMitMl WH aioMdrJ tor Ih* haw. ut f* cImt of ttv oiait VIok Ibr *««U 
are r«Kli«> Uic powMl. vtHk' M <>l In MrUw* ■!>•*« anaM*a*4. wliea ainBiciidtaB 
oijtnalon look fiktt. On fnmlDi ng tha •pan asil lb A IkMeidaga aiirraard*. Uie IM- 
loirtac waeiaanaaJt'— 14<(H«Bi ■' "^ »i»" ^rtiuih tfan war* (UhimtiI lata auaaa. 
inili ■«• of Ihe ibdo laablDt* WMrn uji «1th Hi* unbm Tba **■• iaaii>*aal aaa 
■fi»>iiu4anpan*d ubiw dmth^ttti^al i^ jbtkruaiau, nnda* ifaa fmu of ibiclula 
nblr. iIurHiiiiorBlilcli waiilwi iheatiob «f O* apaa* na atows *• fU na Tbrw 
•apaMia*al»aM*ftlcUr aanaaaM and aallatenart. On Uu bUewInf MomlntaAw. 
WMT miiibi^ vaa aaaria apaa iba kea boa «mU of fb> tmu afan.vWb ibecAala 
nlile wound ronnd Ebem. ani a twoa aJ-iDcli: tabU Ho***- laal*' la **e kawwia. 

liw naa i^ iba anni^na Mni iba mbi » iratn'l.;^, axTrpr Ai ^lala1 | tt 

|i«w4m, lUIb. iMla* naed iiultii. TfaanwuR wa At luttl rt u waOa u a V liaUk aaw*. 
1^ BkUa *«bl> BU ihtawB te Ih- botanDjiBtf fla kmpm cx» *X*n *«■)•. Tbaa ih* 
aucieat afUMeifeilintutalansai u<% iilMail a«»l tayenaat. TUy f— 
t^iitnafljini 0<ul...wif k. whB Biid 4 r fiimt« 1* CepUla Clia*t, I 
eplnlaii u(FOn tA« Iwiiariaim at natal sttnt* a i iu wl r arqaMaMd wlU* riWMtalwa4 
»ii«i (iMipiT maituid id rrnuitriiif aui* uMiniinlBia aa tbote offmd [a U>* flltaa uumtl • 
mBOTtbelale n - f irfw i ariha. u aaW i l wlah aba plamaa In Ww M ilt w di rira.. CaMaia 
CTiB<api**iaWlT»apa»*iBa^<tt»B>— tt^a< Ilia iwai a Mii aapailaautt. aad ehlcA 
mnrivculnl bg UniUnitil Bubttt twimtr, |uiiiiiirr ileulvuul lu tbe XaOFUait, te ■ 
■ aii'b%W>Liiaiaii laitel^iaandnacamiratih^—cf- 

Dim:RiMR o* "tvta^—im tba atraeia of Druaacla Uicre in^ now ba 
aMi In tttrvtadav* ar Iba ataaboiAMif aMgv* Ma* B^aaMf ifaika BtUi lb* faimelng 
a nwl u B ui, -aaUahtr We." It afpanaa *W II ta vaiu l« IM nrt of Ibr ditMloti 
Mai Wa* ilnrta fcaaa ta^ ia|nw<t >a artw v ndlitaw tba aniTil aT iranllan at ** 
dUrrtni ilniH flf dtparlun.— " l^'OaMrnlwr." 

Am AaiRicaK BiaauF^crvaiab Citt.— Tba t*n ■naanEkciariag'canpa- 

nt*» at lama uiu a uai a a — ladry OjMO wa ■* coal, >Mg«nltW tvaa,73M»ftS*im 
uf apfrm. aiid ie.OnQ td othn oil. Ot ib> wlial* (uiwUbtB u( I.>ia-rli. fJ'X IMulia. 
aad l.fll nialia. Iinalhai I ntf. ail i mi" |ii1 u ui-mUm, iKbci I'l thi milii orna. 
anleil itllb uibinoMliaataal aalplofnianla That* tnw Xt nUt nail aUwi MQ bo«i ■ 
tkafoDiina l" iha etfaAraalOha. TEic ^^^p 1b1 ixTvc*lB4 la mmnatrnttarb^ Had ^wfcaai k a J 
enwfiituaa la n.majnt llaltaia. Tun an ■■Irla UaaaltrRti aea* t<4W.lMiaida 
Drclatb.«r7»j«&lJ]ui]r>nl(p*FTnK. Tlw MUaeeaaaid aa**MT narlaCMOt balca. 
TDcpriBiM e^NM* aiata la ui J l> — «<i leHOwB* larj*. tba an w 
alir unuimii tu mar* itian l,iOO,BaO dsllw*. aadtfwaanuM seoAl of OM 
butiDcai b>* t-nu rtbuUed Mibt md* aiatval. «t ai ^kvui u| pt* not— <"M«b*>'* 



«1 



THE CIVIL EXGINER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



The Ampbiok Fricatv. — This Mfkte of M gvaa wss laimcbed at 

WmIitIcIi nnth* I4(h Juinanr. Tli» Imlldloi MamtwdoaiW liih of Jifrl\, IStO) 
■h« hM iliiR b**ii Irtifllinird 10 tttt by I he low, ■iidOunI In iht mtfa tai ■ Mrrw-pdu 
p*l)<r ■< «n»illUrT-*r"T<>''>'*r<*'t*'^ UHn^bfta* Uit MR* u i |>rAp«r »IIIub In. 




[Fbbruas 



««■• »b( ■i>t>««r> ic It • tigftilr 1-fMfli dikI tlu rtUupoa ihanaWr. Ilir ll(iin bod 
babuilornir tiUnlUmUapulnUrWlJUim Kaalv, Btrt., ud bnMani bad nnt 
•^m Ibna •stmnllf , liul •••md tdtrtokl'f, fin itghlloa h>r sun- T* ■[! ■pr«w«occ 
•6««IUbisfuiMlltT,u>i<>(oadiblpof war. Tte lolbvlac an ter cIIbwcmIoiu :— 

FWL In. 

trtHfth of Ua loan Anil . . . . . , 177 

.. IbhI fci lDnM(> .. Ua &J 

a«nddiau«D* 43 S 

Fot unnig*.. .... 43 H 

muuldHl .• ,. ■• ,• 43 

■VpldlnlioM U «t 

Bui^nlB loH.ald DCMi**, ,'. ., .. Wl fiS-tlltii. 

new ■ 9n KI-WNUm. 

) Anphlrta la BltMl iMlk aufiniB of lOo-horaa fomr bf Itntn. UllUr. RAHnhin and 
,Bni|iirUlbeltMfln( vtnmaHfll to* ih* (tawn Mry of ihia n'mir; arlib itii vlnlf 
,T kwifuelilnciTconildcraUiriinikrUit *1IM ilM. aiMl t<ntn|iiciulr i«l tUblaMlitda- 
mt^vH bj *h«U 7W*f *rw Will hiv 11 f«H In AlftmtUr, im K<in4rh'fl ii«lnd|»lc* miihI>v4 
10 wnliiM 00 Ille dlrtcl itcllon pnaduli. trilh (oui.Cn-l iiTDkF. pRtonnlDi 4S irrolu. 
'Uaaa par bIdoI*. '!%( b«il*r* vlll 4Im hf oiulri th« w^fr lln*. tnd U* VHad li «■ 
ftrttdta be i aifarlar afalp of mr by tbc aid rf Iticu ar^aMai. 

V*LiriBLi Dnewttv.— A FrpDch nwchkiife iormed the Mnalti«t by 
anbfecdnff lr<ni'4mai to Hw (lav coMlas piixm aliMi ti kDooiii topcBliict * total 
<haaf« livlhc ualvr* «f ilkaa, « aHraad dmbI apTlf * of atim* oil^bc W Dbl&littct , mnil 
ai Iran dnm, mtli aa the iw(c fuiMcai litU, li • wboIlT aarfm aubtUMn-. ili* an* 
cwmmI M(«a>n>l T*nX of M* panarartoe uianpU taoooi bai b* mii(*r ar cwt )»■ 
trial, man npntellT at ttw pmnt tin*, whra ika ■ind Unit fonxn* of Eoflaad an la 
a I1WI111I11 iiiliaini iial* of 'Pttrltjp. Th« olii*rt.*l>>*li tb* rrrncbuan toifhl M Miuni. 
^lah wa*, to iflipkK to lran.dv*<a 1^9 cvaiHctHM and batduavt at granlu^ vtd, at lit* 
■anellina. taaaralh* nntind libonr wblch Vit h*wln(o[tho Nal atom mufrM. To 
<hla rnd li« canlriivd to Ul Um bva nni**, whIU la a Sold alala, na lain linn form. 
vblrii arra pmbnniT bnnibt to a nd htu bjr bclM plaetd aaai M n-Mntrw aupar* 
ligat a»ii>* lAhh haan (nsm Iba neuthof (h* funucai aad to M«Ur luauiBivtba 
aivirciieliu.ttHMfiriaiaaR |in»ldcd«l<li diaUi lUdo. b*t>ra«) obicll Mod It lalrv- 
i1unri.wblitil««#llkiio<ni tab* abaa condDL-tor or.lMi; ihe whalt U ttani bnuihi 
^aln loa flov brtl. •»'! ^n libt aaaiiDtr a^D eo4lc*i iiif. II7 tlil* Lii«<Y«J>frra1l ]■» n*. 
WtMri. lh> li^aalou* dlitoraici luw idCcovIM In (onrliir jiAvlnf.aionn. flmi, luji* 
biiUdlnn-IilackB, uii! arcn ^Ti^i. of any f Inrk JMm, of « drfrn *t hhirlnrH t.ir1 p^^LLkb 

Sial, If ODI tupctlar U Iht bat btma nalunl |rui]l>, uul it iIk moii tiUUnic can- 
rahla cotl. 

Tiir. M.miTArmiE of Stdei i» Spaik. — ^The followiDg porlionlara, 
loiwcUnc ihf [■UTnllon of cail-alnl and DaoiaKm atnl. at Uw (anm otTulnla, la 
SpilA. intT |i<rhip* bt atrm*i lat«>taUii(. Il hu ba«a fsuad Ihsl onna An not t>n. 
dan a lalOclcol h«l lo mtll lb* Mfri. c«ii>«qiiniily itiiy ban b«m«t>[lRJ la conitruiri 
ftwjtti . and the mrul 1«|i1i»H In (rnrlbl** «S ptdhaawart^ Ituu olllwlAiiil iht irmtni 
^wt' Th* All pfoon* u by mialngllu ciTilea und bTiqgvW Iroa In 4 i:tfu<]Mr. whirls 1i 
plMtdln Ibafott^ hniaO by cbonoal and ciiuUnurtl Hllh cok*. Tlii iiucllili li k(]ii 
«b«>H half an hoar to lirafiitiaaaa tobacoair a dm rtd hrU. ftTlir -ablih It ii (ipotrd 
•• tiM air to cool. Tbtncmima im i n l fuili>n. Ij) ulinf IIH) pirU0ltbli(r)>iaU>«d 
BMHrr. Mid mlilnf It nllb 1W pirU irf lion fl)lDfi.w)ilch. ntlpr 1x1 ng FitioHd la Ihf Or* 
Ikir one hour and a bald a xct pun D(UI li obiaiiied for fur«lo||. The ■"rRinH ef the 
iBetted meul in iiit ba dan* dtli great caiiilon. and it 1 ilrfreeof bell lir Mini Unflil 
tvd. Wh*r» It baiB arqulrvil Xhr tenriier iiv<v*4ury. U it 'eJui-ed laorit <jwlvr lu slii* by 
■MiMantafliMty tuiniiii*n.andfc>rTnrd Iniobua^aRet icblcli It I* Died al esili end. h 
a« Cu amilibilf II laiif arinil and poT iimliCy. aud the entefited Mrtpfi t*» tr firi-n it 
pinaar*. Il l> re.Iiecud. ud l«a>peittl ii dmii rrd belt, aud mbbcd nltb *-». olilch 
«(Bpat*t**. tt li BlTprmrdi iwlnheil irtlh piiinmlte Mon*. and, lo auvnaln ihil II U 
rraefroia |p-ik, 11 1> mtitfi In pnn irMei, vhlrh aiDHtr* M ■<■ •urfun 1 !S I* thee 
tf ppMlIn arliliilaiHl nier. auit lorerad.alter iHinf irrll ilrird, rllb oil fur aftay. Th* 
bbrlrailuii of Pmuwil* vi«I la (ly pLvbif fhrp« I1ti*i of eaat>*t*«l oat nfon lh*olli4r. 
■fid KntlUR ihrm iDftllier, 10 at to flnrm but not tilailr. The csnpoilUDD It SIU. o( tuft 
Iran, JM pitiniiie* el uol'ntn, ■ud 144 dlUo ot cariunau of n*ainui«w, which Diik«a 
Sin, Df One Dunamu il«Ii iinlterUtd alclnl la alautiitd, but II mini be pwt tiid tm 
inm araenlF— Ihe beit firirl It that lacaltvd (ton Oerlnanr. In (Mn* tlw tieel cha 
•llHeKiil (oliw*. Il ti (lewiid tf nil (pvue, (Bd im<ri«l isilbllllcd MViir. biIitJ wllh 
malic uld, vbicti nuM» liie rvloai rtliia In U» ilatl to appear. The niklntt of luel. 
(> OBI of (lu fmteti faraochu of 8|ianl»U cuaniMc* la Ola Won mloluj diileleU wtiliti 
sIiavDd ta wiM and tMl. 



LIST OP VSVr PATENTS. 

oaAMTED IS Rxci_#>ND vitou nicxMBVK 22, lBU,ro JAKTAKr 27, 184C 
Sur Metttki aUotctd/or SnralmnI, un/eif olhmrin rijirtattA. 

yitnnVKitniam,illMirta',s\t'tinSt'aKaitTtt%.<ttri, Im "a cirtiin ImiimrBrBl amr< 
tala tinpKm«i*Bi> lo tppantoa oiad la mihikiIod wllil irrltiDg, and alio In aiu.ibli^) 
po>iat» tlutiv aaiim«la." 9fiwi l>(<i(Bibfi 3>. 

Jubn rala.D'Oreeo"'!^''- '" tborouety of Kist, H[!nrer, Wllllim lltriree. ofRretn- 
wti!h. lic*>ni*l"f>roi*nt*'. andJoIui Kallheir, Ibr )uuiiiei,o( tbr um: piact.eiirlnFer. 
for "cintln ln|ira*>aiiata In aiatn fogln** aiwl mirhlnery fnr [vropdlln; **>arl* 
wblcb Im|iraTeoienla ■(( alio ipptlablt for oiboi |iui|iDMa." — I^ecemWr '.i. 

Wtlllvn Cult, ot Conatry. wwabouaeniui, for " ccrialn luptarenieuli (a totn*."— 
Dmanli*! 21. 

Joliii DttrmlD Uunnldlffe. o( If rutin ghtm, 1 are iB*cofcctof»r, ud n'lllliin Ball I>m. 
lar, s( iht •■nit |iIk(», lirktr. far " ImpioteiDau u lo the oiuiuraclun ol ir*>i> ftbrka." 
— Dnenitori ^1. 

paolrl TMoci HT.r.n. af It tab Kid*. SoaUiMrk, Of " iBpfONBMita In in* irMtmaal 
of line ore (ui Ifie iiut iiLut- of prodiKloa ilftc lOBMai wblcta iHultinwalla uvappUcaUt 
tu (tw redadim at otber orei miri miPCaL" (A cilDniUl(MlOfi>>Ilr«nnlier It. 

CbarlM Will'*'!) Slemen*. of rmbiiry s^uarclii the cni.nly of IWIiIiIlnei, enilnacr. 
rot "iDp'^'*^*"'' '* •'■■'" »>g<n«. and ImiirorrmfnU In ifgnlitlrf lb* f-a-nt aod 
»tlOdty of B>KblBai fun-uminuiiliallnj [lOwer."— UttiiDbK SI. _ 

WllUin Georrt Tu rni(, uf CjirabdJ, t« ih* cmmfj ol Duihuo, il«[orl(n3hll™u].!iy_ 
far "aDlBipKiVNltniKl* of (ml1n( cuiDO for llie v»'P°*<: <^ obUlniQC cbcialcal ion 
(>guatft Ibue'loni.*'— Dccnshtf H. 

Jotm RiuMl]. of Uw Cllr 0' EJInbofgh, Mxaaataal. fir " a maao&Kum of |Iata HW." 
— llMeinhft3AlM>. 

TbomM awUilnira*, of Unroln'a.liia, Ex)., for " IiDpronnniU la rallwKya aod in tL* 
atatit (^prupeUIng anil DUeyiBiIharMn."— January .'(. 1A4C 

Anbiii Elitfad U'tlVer, of BDurerie-aliTft. Uiulan, (agtmtr, lot ccHilB i" liifror^ 
CwM> IB mwhlurrj /at M»>iii(."-Jni^*-y S. 



Conrad Ramtain DmnlMHt, of Nonk StiMd*. inrtlaDiaB. tor " tnnpoe^HMo !■ ih. 
rooMrqrtloa al I4ll<ny) and rallawy cair^B."-JaiinMy 6. ' ^™™ "■ *" 

Haofy U-*iB(.H, of !>e*>«ill*.opaa.Tynt,biaM-fOiin<ln,lot"lap(Onvnu In »ll^ 
drarlDit ait and eaiioura fran luiuat«a, or olber apparaiuj, tud la nur^iilai — ■* ^ 
IilO)lai tuch rapouri."— January & " ™i»~. 

Joarpli Ramiiild Bonk, of (.'tieapild*. mtehauir. fnr " ItnnrOTfnmla la ihaca^biH. 
lion and apL>b<oUan of rkitrdad c4rrla|^-ivbc«lt."^^Aaaary c. ^^ "■ 

WITIMm smith Brown, tb* yoUDger, «f Uraad ■!,»(. nai<lllTe.«vat, aaDnater tm 
- Im prowneiHa In ibe maButac lurt of wjuara and qiudilUwial id^a. (n ablp* a*4 Mk« 

Jcwpb Doodaa, of Cms Cbtaplnr. rurtnlry, rirnlihlnn Itannoiiaer tut " Ibbtoh. 
•cUlsltu ivlMimiuHfaf u tint iiDd loC44Un,t bmI»1»."— J^imry i). '""'•" 

Cnarln Cblnaork. of ronk't-Btounda, Cbtlui, fur ■■ 1 in|>n7nniroli la iba m^i, ii, 

■n'lnieitic(Ji»rr.l<.,dlnt an.1 rninj,.r«i.,|| ..ildet of fumlioee aail donMtlr —T^Sl!! 
applltableUcuUrtr.wttiliineo'BiouJa.oiniknrt. blind*, tbulUri, and ilnUH iwdui ^_T 

ChWlM Kanrork.or Gmtnnia.i>l»tt. caalienan. lor ''wfalii InpranniBiBlBiba 
iiMtiulW'tiueofriiUlierfba, and lit appUnUoo mlem. and to cctDbliullan wlu bIIm 

nrUT IfcblM*. of riij(binT.Bi)oue, (enltmaD, fyt ni " fanpnrad liulnimFat. ar la. 
•ttuoiniti fiw madnelaf ir>ltloo."~J*iiaarT li ■MmmieBi, «r U. 

JohnSa.wird.ollliaC.B4llr«r.«.r»^enBtn.ar. |Ier"I,„pm„„u la (be UMm- 

eBftiw.aniBlo oiacMaary for ]irop,ll!n|[."*— January li. "m™*- 

plSi^^wl!!^ »*""'''*'"■ '""""*"• '"■■ " ''"P^w'nfnu in aum and On. 

fti;";.S:«/w;'s:'.^i'l ■'*'''■ """^ •"««i'^i"-.»^'"i»p™,««ai.i.t™.*., 

Tbwnaa lloorcmft Beolww. of Binnlnihim, niTReon. f« ■■ Iiopr«™.at4 |a IWm. 
inca n* anrcltal Bad odMT baada(*«. lu.d i.n ai Ikin rf dUi.."-Jana»y| ™ '"'•■^ 

Babm»fwlokLOBp1da*.ortb*Srdltn|ilnMran.«irHBearUproiIti Xm 
lattd,lBraa"lmp(*TcdlMV0etlri inglnt."— Juuatf Ifl. 

Jonjih Haadilay. of tb* ft™ uf M.iirf.l.y and Paid, of t*mbelh. euUiHm. «> 1 
ronoMiiU In iuDpellla( and pini.cllinB niiich[neiT.--^iniiu9 IS. ' 

Rdmund Lnty.flf C<»k, Irrlanil, Cl.ll i:4iftiiMT. IM " lmnfanm*frfa ta 
camj(iB, InUndad tt> U roiplored an ordlury road•."-^ru,wlry U. 

Wl])lin> Benaon, orAllnwiah Hmw. llaydeD- bridge, Unrthiimbwlind tcnll 
™'"™» ..J"l"«""""» 'n oiMhlnea lor U» Daoulaclvte i>r um nd oUlw | 

Wllllim Clark of Noliraahatn, and WlllWni Vlck»r» ibe nRinger af (b* ^_a ■■ 

"loiproeaiDtnitlD iht cDuilrudianufiiichara."— JkDouyr. ' 

WlerTa^^.oi tl<iill|.H-«.J.ne„UaMheal»f,m»i:hlnlM,(Br"«i«rfa ImninrBintnla 
lo narblnery for i.rop<!lli.» ntteb. omaRM. and nathltiM. mS ri -hiS Uma,^ 

Cirud Andrew Amty. of Uer*-(lrttt, llarknri, Knllemaa. fnr " tmniHaBunla 1. ih. 
prepurailiuoof pl.il„e. ^a inproeroienl. In BBl^i „, ,l.,lf,!a( "oiSJI-IJSw » 
Joho Br.Hbii>r.lW,ollle<llort.Squat».ClMI Kuilrrtar, fur " InoioeroieoU fci fc-^ 

UMlladi Vlnwiil W*nnlii|itim. of Comi* Iron wortL RbCord: iMBin faerMila 
ImpmnoiriU l,i, or in.pro.,J m«l.«l. of fau,,^ pl.u wi<J tbecllV^-jTliWl* 

iUiliar<i:*irlilWlrtBriwin«o.<ifFle.u,ir«(, L«,cl,t,,caU.«ui.for«rlala"lMB»r. 
m.= .. In ..it~.r and ,on.«i„u r.aJ ,ar,ia»a. (A rximiiStetuS >-J«a«? » '^' 
Milllm MtllB*. of lJ,o,i,.,i Ho,™ pl.«, uribo. aid Wtat " Tlrh'imftil 

Wm»inWeatao.nfCIi»iiPeryUne. MWdLw.. Clell Enolnwr. f^ te«laln "leaiH..! 
ni>i.ttla n,.nul*Muri», pUnl (■.l.H(.,-J«,o„y «,. (A iroSmTolcaUaST^ l»|W»- 

Jokn Nolt. of Ih. city of Cor*. ,.,itl,m4„. fo, cr^ln '■ lu.pr»«n,enl. la Ue mwaarf 
ci>niii>oiik-.ili>H InielliKaDre fiom „u* pJ«e la anuilirr.— J.nmlry 107 »"»« 

XfilUMH a.iity Butlte, nf Tui.e,ih»in. genlleKnn, foeoertalii "'11.111 i_i_.i_ 

io«i«ilacia-tur».1,.U, wlitchB..,.ifir.|.„Jr,|. i,* SidValr anJ wSESII!? . „^«^ 
U,.m..ert.l..mpl,,„n>.r.ln,M,.n..,:,M„^-l >vhni«r.?.erbS^,ni^If 
pioJijc*eor»rlB(Bfiirret*eilott4p».liy---JBiiuiri20. " inwDOeow 

Andrew K111I4, of Nt. Hcl.i,-., L..ir,n,,, u..niI(4cUrfiiB rheolliL for ren.ln l.n.i.i.i. 
r»tint or rt>n.<enirtllD( .ulphuric ..l.l."-J.„i,.,,- so. 'uemnui. Die anawin. 




■Utinltli, Ibe *i^ttini 

John Spentel*}. vt WlilUUble. In tli> fouiiiy of Kmt, Uatlee fllDc»i«.k« a.. - 1». 
proermenu la Ih. «o..,ar.lou of tl.l|„ .nd a(b„ wa-Ja. "STl " 1™ !!1I1™L*! ..'.^ 



proTtmeoHiniaacoaairBriiouof tlili.i and atbcr nnela. nid Ike in>nM..»lJu. 1. 
ptraiu. to he UtattiBd u> ihlpa >od oibre ve«.l.,"_j;^u4iTM, '°P""»«>" l" 




Ua,eoo=..™ciloo,ndi^«ikl,,g„rr,i;..Vr.-C};;",Try'l^:'-'"' ' ««"" L"P™«>-MI 
JMcfliCaoiitr, ufd.cix Oh«i(.,i,rtt. Hoiicii, ttirmlil (of "40 Ihhum-I , 

"fir''^* f^'^?f "r """'■ •o"" •"'"'"' W^ -(..rulB ;,l,Mbl, .JSSSSl 
wild ^artt l)i<r«>f."— Jauu4ry 11, -n—uii ■■iniaima 1 

■V^.U]..Wp™,-OTl.li.obiddn(aniU,ijitJ;,,»™^[1„7u^.^JSJ?",S^ 

tl.mlel llj«.ofao«h.«(r«VBoBlbir4rl., lianaaoiiliclurer fnr "tmri— .-TT... . . 
m*i»rffttliusofBalo."-gaqnaiy27. . "« =i«niUK:[um, (or IiDpro(«m«ati la I 



COnilB»[>OND£KT9. 

TL« ■ppcw.nrc of Mr. B.»liforili'. Ictfwprewnii ui rfoin ia-itta.i 
tjry 11181111.J.U, p,per ou muospliffie ImlUin, recBiml lBttw««rliM ' 

01 IhB DKllltll. — ■••» 

£»KATA. 

Intbonollcvof the Uodei olthe firthntoo. In Ifa.rrMn.i n™i_ -..._.- 





IDEA FUR THE ['\C'ADE OP THE BBITISH MliSEl'U. 
( With a EtgT^itf, Pta(* IV.J 

Llttla bu Ihas RuutvltoMJi i* it — certoiDl; ueoMnunUbk', ihatso in- 
■, itruclnre ■« lh« Brilidh Museum— thr in«kl public «f kll frDt 
^Uk v<IUci>i bcouKF lb«l kt witkh ik« public haiv frtr»t KcccfS, ihvuld 
b« tvfu4td b> ilie (luUk mkJ tbc public prcH wilii »o nuck apailiy ami 
tadllrreacc. Or if ii m not lo Iw mtntiutnl to Uiwr miliR#ivo», tbc mI1«d 
■iI«M« which hiu iut«««(JiKl to Ibn bitter reinunilimiKei node a(aiiM the 
iruja f»r llto ir'a^xde tt tK« time lb« *ork.) fur it wvt« fir»l caauoroMd, 

(i>«« doiiair, ikiiil iLe uuliiiii|>]r conticUoa Ibat *ll (k« rvMumrt/vMCf in 
OMtU would bai« no rfrcC upoa llioMwkum it hu bthoicd le oon- 

er vctj KtiiNiiily tnbal Ibe^ arc abnut, mMl b> rrcooiidfr thv deilio 
loipi«d (if ibe Fa<a<l«,(fe )ib« allotMlierioolAtP. Puor M il noaldbe. 
[would Millbei.*iiui>oni>r*tiit/aciwitli> b« lafomtd it bat It Is Ibat ba* 
■■■ci»J«<l llie (letiKH in S9*>t>v<i( wdal •» Ibr jiurtKuUr mrnu and 
Ilea difceraril ia II, aud ctalned for it. IiutMiil of wbicb, mO ibal hat 
hMa (liil alKKit ibc iclendnd Kiful* li«* b«wD iironglj ACAixsr ii, withuul 
At *ligblr*i Kiiraiiii buving been mwl« tu reconeilaaa toit, by Eainaajing 

I OOO of ll>v vt>iPctitiB* nlitch hitc bcva urged ID cvQJeBiaaliua vf *!■ 
F ihcy oaa Cairl; b« art aaide, Ibe acfk-cliag to do »a Iwika ntucb iD»rc 

'•oorn/Qldlhrrjcatd nf i>«b(k aptaiMi, Uiaa like geiwrDiu furtwarua. 

||4H*«i«r ia«U«/* i<f the kiail aiaj bare burn buibkkI tenn9r\j, al ihv 

pnl day, «n liat* M>aia riglil lb rsjiocl la b* t'^lemblr nell Mliffird 

rbasd that a vroifc of lutb uagiiittide Uid iuparUncep nill b« huad 

fcollT BatitfacliK'j wbeo cvnpleted. 

To bill u( wait— 10 auRprDd mr Jod^rai unlit we abaU bare tbe ealira 
fafadfl bekn as, it mrrtl; idit eraikin, Tor tlwt Mud«l mghl all aioag 
Im»« b«#B cxliibtted Tor jirn«ral iaapeefioa iii tba MuMuin iltttt, lafelrad <tt 
briflit L«pi »>«(« uadtr luck and kvj, jc4l>'<i>lT accludrd frou all cjh bui 
itanMof « privilffcd fcvr,— rjfM likelj tu be furnaiF |«rtUl aail iaduU 
ftot, tbau at *U critical. Diwetucb itrj caultuui ri^ tlaare bo^mak cuia* 
brtablp raulideaea— w«ll-cnMinded auarakca ihat Uia in»d*l JumiIW what 
■aa Ob Ode ooCKiica laid of Ibe deaiga F — but laid, he it rcniarknl, very 
lBa8*S«i "ticn tlia namv of il* Nicbit*^ »i>iucl irrj much biKber in fCGoeral 
Mtioutton Iban it duo at preaeai ; aud tbat, nut becauM bo bunMir baa 
fallen i»ir rrom wbat he obce uaa— mi tha coulr»r]r. ba nMaina jmtt the 
AiH u hit alwkfs waa al> iaifia. — but b«<aate oibera bar* far ouialrippcd 
lira, aud bc<*Mt at'oral *t/uclum lta>c in Ibo iulrriiu ariaeu boUi ia ibia 
■tad uliicr cualtUkai ia cioni|iiriMia witli wbich ihc DrlUth Mutcuin nill 
«b<ra arcndiaslj )Hiiir, — rctcuc*! frun iB>ix>iidmiic:e uitl| bj lla ui*r» 
tufaUmle ni a buiidiuz, aail oo tt^al nrj acouaDi all lb« niiirs diiXtrtt- 
t^l uii«al|-fH<li>rt, brr^uf* IbP oncMiou bMi dcesaaded, and afforded 
«y^rtuail; fur tviiu^liioji ialliiil^lT auperior. For that lo b« norrtlj ftn**' 
aMr. nlilct) Mushl lo br tjirti-roit pircr nf arcbi'cclaie of 111 kind, aud U> 
dM|<la5 all ibe orjr liol qualiiipt iif the atjla aduplnl Tor it, anoutati to 
•oihiag 1«^ tkao failarv. W't ar« aunajcd bj ilic di*a(rw4>atil« coMrait 
obKk iaitweMc* itM>tC upoa «■. betw«m lb* what m and Iba what miglU 
iair Wen, aad oa^Al to kaet Ittt. 

in thr r«*c af il>c Itiiiiib ftl iiituni. ibnac vtho mil bave to anvrtr tor 
lb* dlMtppotatiDMil vhicb Ibe buildiiis nill create, Mill hAic left ibeRiarUf a 
<<r7 Util* •una* for ibair error. Th*; wlJI la a maniitrr bat« made tbein- 
amlir* douliW rr«|K>iitiblo by vraitinit ud* all intttftieaco nbatrver in ibe 
•bape of opialon. mnvaatraiKC, or Ibe rspfctaivn of wtah tbal tbc tMiililiug 
•biMtId proTcat Icaal niit inhrinr to ulbcrcnatrmpurarj uovr, id tba u««or 
m Muliaf aiile. InteifrFreaca of dial kind beloK totally dlarticafiteil. all the 
baa acrupuUina naiad wa b« tboat ipimkiag «dI ijiiile fiwaly, bakng well 
Maured thai am r«BUkrkJ will not in the altgheil degree dwlorb vr peiplei 
cilJi«i lh« anbtlen bimacir, u( ihaaa who Muictioo liia trealneai vl the Bri< 
iiab MtnMin facade. 

ThcR la M BeoeMiiy fur waitlkg loader whan iIm nliule already exhibits 
Ifacll aary eUarly to an arcbii«clunU cje. ih» ««lira tuaaa balttg shaped 
a«t,aad a* isBch of II complelrd w toy diitiacllj abawa lb« prcciaa 
•tut 111* «f ibe arrbitecturt.and the d«gTDe uf fiaiah and effect. Tb«r« la 
riir; ir.^ at all diMibtfuU— aotblDcIrn fuf oa^>rclurc : h« cauai Salter our- 
\rhrt with iba poaaitulity ul bring tniataken m recard to any of Ibaarehi. 
I', • > •iileiiiiiuil,or with Ibe bope of bfiaj; taken tcrj a^ri«ablf b) tar- 
pciM by augfat lUal }rt rvnuuo* tu be duae. Etcb yet, lodeed, Ibtre n*- 
■alna no itpiMnuanf fix redeemlag the Fuf«le by introdaciDg into It a 
nu^Dlllcent tculure [bit ibwvM ba luperior to eitry tking wlikh w» aew 
have of the Mm* ktnd. Ws an not tberefore exactly too late, Ihotigh cer- 
lal&l; nuCal all iimnaloni la fubnittiDgan idea uf uur uwa ; Ibougb lie 

N«. i#a.— vou ix-makcu. ibis. 



being ia aaAideit lime lo allow uf tls being ftdopleil, make*, we are fally 
aware, do diSarenc« wbaleier. lly inne, perbapa, it wimM becnntidered 
better lined, wore it ta ba kept back naiil the poaatbilily of adopting U, 
had altugellier pa*>ed amy. We «f eourao lay 0Dre«l*«« opcu to tht 
charge uf praiinnptiun in ptatending t« etrrttl the arcbilcci'a (lc*ign, son 
■apeckJIy aa it it one la rrgard Id wkloh the lloraltan precept of A'eaHni 
;>marKr in Maaaai baa beta obaaned In more than il* fallajl nteoL Let 
m be d«ented a**r ao prcaaBplnonf, we will not ikow ouneUea iBnakiaj; 
bIm, hj geally pralctting that we fcol eicccdimtlj' dvabirul whether our 
variattoo would be aay ioiproremeDl after all, — iLai we b«re prodvea II 
niaet beaiiaiinglri and nluctaally,— wi;b miiay otbcr pretty pprjarlea nf 
tkekind, which if Jnpilrrdo^a not laugh al Uicm, ail >ea»ilile rt*dera will 
at oBM aae Ihrougli. All Ihat we ha»e lo obicrre apalogetieally in that ike 
aocaaipna) tag £Utatiaa (t«« Engra*t«c] parpvrt* to bo aot locli a deeiga 
u wc could hnre wiibcd to aae adopted, but nwrely aa alteratiou of th« 
eii4tiiiK one, adapt»d to the F«c»deai already thaped out, «o aa not aiall 
tu dliiurb the atniclura iUelf, ur in auy way iolprfrni wiili uhat ia aetnally 
done, except Id to iNght a drgr<>a oa lo be of ao momeul. 

Nuthikg tauen iruuld be tTijuirvd Ihui to «iilargt Ibe plaa of Die centra 
pD«iico, BiakiBg il of n diOcreiii order and upoa a larger acale ihan Ibe 
culoauuin alnag the reil of lh« farade, wbemii now that pnrltcu will be 
nerely ia mntlanatiuii of ibeoi, aud nol oiherwiae diiiinguitbed to lb* 
fenrral Miaa tbao by tha a'kliiiua vf n pedlnteal— eery latuncieni to gi*« 
a decided eaperMiua of luflioese lo Uie cenlic of Ibr tonpotilKX]. Fvr the 
colganadaa alune, aa aabortliaalc lo the oaaio feature, the prcai-Di lnnl« 
unler may be upon a svSciaat acnle, but il will not produce m portico upon 
a acale at alJ oDore aiaieadc thaa mmm which we already ixHaeaa—^ot 
eooiparable In tbal reaped— or iodeed, aoy iilber— with Ibat of Hie Royal 
Excbaugc. ProJcclJag only a tingle ialcrcoluian ia advance of the lateral 
culoaaadea, it will Di>t di^play iisrlf at all advauiiu;«iu>ly. neither will it 
beofaulltciciltdeptb within to be alleuded Mi:a much arnhiteclural eff>%l 
on Uiat ae«aunl, or prujM-ily to aaawarlbc parpotei>fa I'arAallr, or open 
coloonadrd rrtlibule con lata lag the «Dtraoc« lo Ibe buildingi beca<i»e it 
will he in a nmaner choked up wllb a secoad raw of oulnnuia witliia oor- 
reipandiag with Iboae iu front, aud dividing it Into two apacea ni>l at all 
wider Iban the other colon n ad ea. Great adeocalea ai we are f«e Ibe uMof 
■atemal ouJumna in portico*, wa are far Iruin appruviug uf Ibe arranxemenl 
of Ibeiu in the ponliM that it to be, of tlie Britiafa Muacun. A ceriftio ile- 
gree of richoFM will, nodanbl, beao prod iiced, but, il oiajr be apprehend. 
ni, il will cauae the reit of tbe ealonimding to Iih>1c lueagte aail tcaaiy, by 
coaipariaoa, especially at the aiiemal angtek, — nbere w« could wiab lo 
have a-oa aqaa/e pillaia, if Mtly in ordt* to break ilic noooiouy arliing 
fnnt each a number ut coluiuna a* there will be, and tiolbing elae, The 
whole fafade will ranalit uf nothing luor* Ibaa coluauiialijo put up in 
front of a fanealttiad tmeinn. Take away the funnar, aod »» tar fn>a> 
luaing any thing eueotial toil, the re»l would reinaia a* good a* et«r, with- 
oat tLvre beiog ought lo >how tbat tiiere bad bccu ci>IuiDa», or ilial the 
alruriura wa> framed with referpiice to tbeir betouilng cuoaliiueot [lana of 
IL Were tbey taken away, lb<^re would be no hiaiuseei on Ihn deoigu { il 
would be ouly rendered aitylar, willi a aiagla mage uf wiudow*, itol eery 
diaaiuilor from lbs Hall of Comarm In I'hreadoecdle Sirrei. eicept thai 
il would be aooiewliai leaa urnale. Urer-decoralMU wilt certainly uiX be 
Ibe failing of ilio fnfade of the BritiUi Muaeom : Ibe abtence uf teulpiure 
aad alli>[Uer urtituo eatbelliahneat inay oblata f>ir II tltr repulalHin of 
(iiuplicity from thu^ wbu baea ao have no other idea of aiiupltoity ibtw 
tbat uf uudityaod barrneM ; yetthe ioacripiioo of" llntiab Mumuiu" will 
br necetMry lo uppriw airaageta that withia auch urnclura may be forod 
(oiae of tbe <iio»: preeiooa retoalnt of aneieat art and Halpldre, and tha 
■hcnIgI of tbe ParthenoD, to boot. Eiro ilie order itaciris uoi* lae ditlia- 
gaished: it wa fair ateraga itsainpteof Oreciaa Jonic, and nothing aiorv. 
and exeopi that the ihnfta of the colaMini are Cuted, it la i{iiite plaia. It 
ilia fact the eaae eiaiii|il« aa iJ>ai euplayad for in* futi-uiflee, without 
auy auenpl at diSerracc of ckaiaotcr aod cipreteiou. It* utrrii ibrra- 
fornia merely of a aiecbanical kind, fur it baa oat mat ibc architect Ibrci- 
crtioa nfaaiagleirctb Idea What will tefrr for a Puii-Ui&ce,wi11 tatew 
It aeeme, e^tialty nrll fur a Muwaa) ; alihough ihete had need be aume- 
tbiog iiMre than ntualty atrlklng la the order to ntukc aati-uJ* for tbe Uaie> 
oca* a4id wuHituiiy of Ibe geiierul de«iga. 

la (Mr allcnd icraMin of ibe Elcvatiou, ths Ionic order beouoiea a ie> 
eondary oac.aod u aoeb cunlribuiaa Iu c<>«ita»t wiih aad artuif thoCorli^ 
ibianoclutyle, which though coutidcnbly lufllnr (lieiDti *unoMlial higher 
Iban Ike pvrtM« of th* Qoyal Eicbttiig*) nootd tu* in ita turn bare Uwtf- 





8« 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



M 



(-■etuf dtmiitinhlnf th» ^tkar eolnune b; n(ii|Mrt*oa, lh« tiltar brlns mi 
qnlU tit lart;t A lule os k« it* »i;<imamedla. B; •sc««cliDg that Kale. 
•Bi] rialDH; up htglin' thaa (be lusla ooloa(iiide*, the ocotr«l portico wonid 
eoalei dienily on thit whole frt^vle, ThnI iiich cdnibiaaikno of two dif- 
.VfTDloNkn ii out in itlrtci nceanlauoe «riih <(r«cUn pnKfilrui. ti obal 
ytt ttfttl nnl be told; ]r«t it M«ni« loui lhit,intlFa(l of rci|U)riageiniM, 
■ucb d«tiA(i(<a fnmi Ui* Mter of GnvL krcbil*«tunl Imw, woakl mibrr 
lend to «icut« thoH vIolmloDi of It which Uierc will aow bo, b; pro- 
daimtiiK Klonn (hut (he hoildln^t dora lot tfect to be >e*ercl]r GrecikS. 

Tlie CUnaPoniiMUjringllie E1I^ntinQ, thaw* the Curinlhiaa ixluljle 
to b« hr«iif;ht forward two Intorcolumns In ■dvtnc* of the adjuiaiiig eoJou- 
•ade* ; «wia{ la wLich it mmuM bo r«iidi;n>d uau*uklly •pMcioiu, ajiil 
would cumtUute a n&tt alrlhinz piece ol Brcbilrclurv latcniHl); i wblle 
•DQther titrtniaKe wuuld be that the ponicn would dinplHT iiirlf mure pro- 
miaenilj In aa oblique *t»n af (h« facade, la Ihpetlrroal etixmiton of oar 
CvriatliHn Portlw, Ihtr* U BAUiinif «l(liav ■nmnntiiij(lod(i*tKn, tha tkitfJi 
nVfrlf iodjcttitifc Ibc order wd thowiuK Uinl tbe fitese Qfibe catabUtiiro, 
■oil tbc prdiiBeal wMld beeorlctieii with iralptiire. Bill pertiapf) some 
little deffrcR oranvtltjr luj b« eluimed Ibr ih« aniiU is which ilir pnrlico 
it coaa«cM with lh# lateral eelonakdM, which IuRt are eat^red Umogb 
opao duorwaja or pt>rtitlg,aiMwcriag to the cilreme iDtrrcolumn* of ihc 
ocUutjIe. Thui treated the porllcu would h« belter eocluMd than If opt^a 
at ita endu, into Iha colonoade*, nnd a peiiler varietj of effect upon the 
whola woald be produced. On« other ibing thai may dnwrve tn he 
pololad odl ai partaltinK uf dotcIIj, i> liii^ poailion of tJie two nditueiagaiutl 
Mob tit the ettnine colntna* of ihc n(lait}le, la which situatina »iic)i 
OluFfa wouTil, we coaceire. tvll fer? furcitil;, and Ihrauv afjucnl deal of 
plaj iBbi the anchtltciura. 

V* are aware thai siacb a portico na wa bare intngined could aot be 
applied to the building in it* present itiit«: It would be oectMarT In 
carry up tiiir buclt wall tif the purlici) bigbi<r, and uIm to raiae the veotro of 
th« roof to die pitch of tLe jufUar pHimeot. H'hat ihenP there would be 
BotbinKofei'rr awful or unheard of oitraTagancc in daiojthat; lar b«1t*T 
tikat, Iban In erect what m»j K>me line bene* be doomed to he (akco d^wii 
again to m*kv room tat foraeltiiof man di|;al]l«d. If Sir John Suaiic 
bolli the (ftlerior of his Law Courts twice oier;— irifae widf^ibai were 
Aral put tn niir:lclnj(hsni Palace were no aoonar up thaa tb'j were lakea 
duwo ai^nia, the mere eonalilernliao of a liltle more cipnna* and a liltia 
nore delay, oujht not to deter rrom eflVettag ettt al Iha eleventh hour an 
altsratiau greaclj fur the better la the fafadeefihc British Museum. Thai 
wv oursclTca cnosldcr It would be one xrcally for Ibe boitvr k* eiridool ; 
and moat peranns wa fancy, wiil tie orihe nmo opinion; *tiii otbors may 
thlnlc *ery difleranllr, In which case tb(>T are bonrtly welcutue lu lie 
aa fro* i« their slrielare* apnn n* an wb have b««a in speaklag of Die 
dtsigo whlcb li BOW bciag carried ioti esccation. 



DECEPTIVE AttCMITECTUBAL MATERULS. 
II. 

Wnpublithed last month a long letter suti»crtb«d "The Vriter in the 
Co«npaoii>n til Ihi* Almanae/'cunirnverllng certain crilicitniii which ha v« 
api>earvi] in fiiriiirr aumlicrs of lliii Jvuraal. ll i« not north white to prv- 
lonic aa uniuKTrstiuc and unprofitable controvert; l>r repljins catrKorl- 
cai1y lu Ibc Idirr; at thtt same ttraei there are rlrws sugj^sted hy ii on 
one Hb>Mt— that uf deceptim oiat* rials— which are o<>rta!nly worth ec- 
Kmining. It iaaointter of very g«iieral inlereai to arch iiects and those 
who employ them, thai lb« genani qnectlan u to the prnpri^iy «r nsio| 
deoepltte malerialt, and atao lh« speelfle quealioft* a* to wtial parUcutar 
materials arc la be cuosidercd decepUre, alioald be clearly and dcdnliivctj 
anawered . 

But a mere unsupported rfii-luin will nnt be a iDflidcnt nnnnnr. On 
anbjpct* like lhr*> the rcailer cliiimi the ti^ht of reasoning nnd evaniiniiig 
for himself, and will aoV 1>« sulislicd n-iiJi simple sialeiovDl* ofopiiiioD, 
bowntcr aulhuritalively pruouunccd. Il will bo tKCcfMry ibereforv to 
ulwerre soin« aurt of ineiliixi in cimtidcriMjC thii question, and a* we bare 
already a wignod in Uia furuier |iaper wiili the tame title aa the prvaeat 
ooe, the abstract renaons fur eondemning architaolaril dereiiKou, we now 
purpose to ciamiue the tpetiilii applicaiioaa of the genetal rulp. 

It may then lie Ani rcinarhcd that orcry rale of art which is of Ihe aa- 
lure of a nslrictioa utusi be applied more alrjclly to works of the highest 



ord«r than to thasa of a Irtvla] or onpreteading character. 8d (hat, in 
condemalng arrhltectaral doArplj»*ii>, Hi* condvoiaalivo mnat be coo> 
sidered to fall far laore bea*ily wtiea jl niTccts iBporlaat pabUc tdlicsa, 
chuttbcs, collcglale buildings, Ate, lliao when it rrfcrs toordlsary dmwa* 
Uu anhitedure. Thcrv would, fur inaUace, be oo diipnlo aa to the impra- 
prieiy of making the great doart of a cathedral of soma coamoa urood 
painted in inilMtloD of oak, hut it would h« n»cr« aflcctaliou toubjecl to 
iSe use of " grained" deal la ao ordinary dwelling ream. Neither, n 
presume, nouhJ there b« fuaod al tlit prrsrui day many defenden for aa 
arclillecl whncouslructed an elaborate r>K>f likr Uml of l-|eur> lb« Seventh'* 
C1ia|tel,or*uni«r-eiiipnl or stucco r^fsembliog »toue ; but il would baab- 
BUrd to ooaclude that there wai any imprttpricty la using pliuicr eeilia^ 
In prira!* bousea. Neilber, again, woold il be possib!« tu deuy diata 
cbinDcy plee* of wood pnlalvd aod larnishrd to rcMniblc marble wmiU 
appear cuiitrmpllhio tu a nablc tMuqueltiug liall ; but it is i]^iil« po«ltde 
liicoacrive iuitonccs wliere wood psinied like niarbila uight bo introdwesd 
wilhoul any grierous olTenca la good taste. 

The more iiuiaediste uceasiou of the pr«sent ptpef arlaoa from the r»- 
marks wbieh have bi:ea mode in defooco of llie uic uf vnritUlud deaf, and 
aa thit material baa of lute been very frrqneodi u»ed iu buildinjs of (he 
highest pretcoiiiini, li Iiecumea B natiei uf gn«t JiiirrBti to lh« aKkited 
tu ascertain uuder what circarngtances Its uw is JustiSabl*. llUetcar 
thai an reason etisU for Buking it an otci-piioo lu th« rcmarka Jaal mail 
r«s|ifctiog Ihe oaiPB wliere inxiatlio matorial* may be allowed, and ibiMe 
remarhsarc urtbemareimpunaoGo «llbr»pecltu vnmlsbed de^l. bccauw 
tlicrc arc method* of uaing tliis substance by which it allog«<th«r arold* 
Uie riak uf tiring rauked auMij: decepttre materials. In maay of |h« aU 
maotiuns anil seals of Ibft nobllil; the Woodwork is of tlie Norway pise 
timber. vaniinheJ ; and this wood from iU superhir bardnrsa and rioaaMM 
of Icxiuro compared with commuii deal, admlla uf cniiii durable deUni} 
and Diiauteoess in caning. The grain uf the wood alto is trot ftoni that 
coirseacM which rviinlrr* deni tPiivrall) Mi.ipplicMble for orvamealol par 
poiM. Tni> colour of Ilia Norway pine wu«d when Torn Isbed Mcne what 
resemhlct ibiit of pi-«r woim), and produces a very agnmblc rfe«t; Ika 
Tjruisb also improve) llic apptojvnoc uf the wood by dvtelafiag ita mtvta 
and " b'iuging op" the gmln, which often eiliibiu conHiderable delinry, 

T>il« point however la particularly to be noticed— that where the N»rwty 
pine w..()il ha* hreo used with go-.d effVet, lii^ru has neftrtrca Mf ttlfimpi 
U pntduct Jtetftiini h^ urtiJtiiuUji JUguUiTig l.W mrtantf roloar »/ iM 
ttaod. This raiiiark Is most Importam, becausr, otberwlae, all atiempk 
in in^irorc the natural appeaTaBceofarcIiili-ciural materials Oight be <«•• 
liderril syniiiiyniout with architec [tirnl divrgxuvn. ll is very ■ecvaaor? far 
(be ronsisteucy of onr argnment, thai t)ti» di.tiudiun should b« Clearly 
made; fur oiherwisc^ it mighl Ivad to most absurd iurcrenroi. AOM* 
thinking person migbi, fur iniinuce, coad>nuit the polishing of aarUa m 
thn nn-re gninnd that oiarble whun pnlinhnd pn'si-uU an appeamico dto> 
gether diO'ereui to ihil which It ban in iii natural ataie. Bui th« aaaealU 
diitlnction betweM Ihi* im prove men i of natural m.tUTiuts and arehitectiiral 
deoepiioos U— lh«l by Ihe Uller, « ^wt and cheap material is msule la 
look like some oUicrwcll Lnowu nmlt-ridl, which is more raraUMl CMflt. 
3Iurblr, by being polishcfl.r'iiinot be said tu be mnile lo re«erofcla uylAiM 
morr costly than ilaelf; npither can vaniished Norway pm* irhe* vttHhti 
be supposed tu tw « tjxirlDU* an<l dccaptive tubstiluta (or « mora O' 
pensive wood. 

If, howvrrr, Some cheap votnmos) wood, such aa ttie ordinary pin* be 
sUiurd of* dark colour, aliogvilier diiTnrent from it* natural h<te, aid t 
moreoTcr. a* in the case of llie timber roofs at Llnooln'* Ian, the ataiocd 
wood is p\»t*a ai such a beiifht that the eyo caonot dutect the poimy gf 
the maleriil by its aba{>*lM» kouta and coarse grain, it ar«iD> impo«fMt 
fir an* ob<' hut a otrra dispuler about woriU h* deny tliat In auch a nm 
varulabod deal must (uirly bo reckoned in the list of deoopltve waleiiak, 

Il d\>ca n-ji appear any answer to our objection to tay that in tbii 
the won! i« nol puinled. Of what canariiiieDee can il bi< whether Hh __ 
cepttoo he prodae«d by painiiog the wwkI or by staining itr Tbe ol^ 
oflhedi*e-w.oni»loasccflai(ilh»/'ic(of lliceHsienee of dcMpiloB— iH 
lhcM4d< of pruduciug Uic dcccptboa, Ha lung as It remains undUpaM 
that a commiu material k» made tu look like another, biUer aud uv»n es- 
p#nal*a Ihau Itself, it rMlly w«ma wholly immatoriol to dispute ab«it Ifca 
speeifie laeans by which llie deceptive rrvesuUiiacc is tlTected, Thi 
of eodiog al ImucoIu's Uu, copkd Inio out pages ftom Uio J 

■Uied tlial the wood was irelatasusil and then *araiahed, and 

colour of tbn w«od was entirely ebaagwl ; tbeae faeU ar* prrfecUy « 
cicol for our argomeai. 



LlA4fl. 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND AKCHlTECTS JOURNAL. 



«7 



^^l 



Ii m»y ■Ffxar ptrbapi th&t we »rt prolix uid ■■iiMeiMrll; aiioutt an 
• pqrtil uf coiopMntirplj' tillU taportaoo*. Tlilt b4W*v«r la ovt tlio r*M<, 
T&« ptniuulsr kioil or dRCTptinn irhlch wo *ov noikc vrcm* crowiiiK mta 
(uUoB, «ivl believing, %t wo do, ibata s^at— if mil iIl< rrrggnaim — 
hvrtfr la the Hiipn)««tMM of moJera archIt«oiar«, U ll>« Iciulenc; wbleh 
l«*»eliappilr enrptln oraMii|[Klt kindiof Iricts Ant] nrtiAct* uid mshe- 
beUcf*, wc ilo D'7i ibiiik ilial wo can be mitpCDdinj; the tioK «f our KOrikr 
tij cadrarciuriat to wt hnit clew And eiplicil norions on thr lubject, Bf 
■oraniclr fiplakolof ihe oalora of one arcbilrcturaJ dr<tplioo, ire, \tj 
fnplicatiiin. iMrnitiMlheaatarvaf all; nnd It na; bo aildnl Ibit it la the 
«uil <if «lriir »olioa* «»lhi* lotjvct, Bod not U« aul^cet itM-K, whicb lia* 
orcaaiiuK'J lU'itr t\»fgrrmlc'i infrr*ne«^ hj wlii<li •Itrmpl) li«»c been eundo 
la thruH ri'llcuTc fto ihe isiporiaiit rulis af arebitKbiral critkiAm now 
■ader craiki'-riaiMn. 

It 1* am VK5 <ra>; to m« rran wlial caiua ha*a ariirn tbg loud rnmon- 

tU«aeM«rh'<li bat* br»a vrgml b^bsI ua la (uiUfieatiiMi of architrctvMl 

dK'Citl'iiii'. Wrr« uur cODil«ai«alion at lliDni an allogctbcT Dcn and iia- 

be«f4-of rui«, ii miiht ba anticipated ibal ol>Jeelion> nnuUl be rBi»r>l 

■(Blaat Ibe dadiive, wl un acoouol of aa; inberpol dclrtla in it, h:]| aim- 

plj tuf ita n>i*«lty. But we da Ml tlalm iba iimtiI uf ouielij. Tba doe- 

trioa aaasned hj v* hi* bMO aiMaWd to by altaoat tvrty iliinking nritcr 

ardulrclunl lubjicli ; il wac rigiJty obtertnl by all Ihc ascirnl arcbi- 

t*, ttnit Claaiio aod CbriMllaD; aad wc nuy ofaietTc llial Id woibs pub- 

ipd at Uii^ |irr«ent itay, which Mtilain •rcliitccinral criliciiaia. Ihr mim 

pnodpte I* uDiverull] recoicnlnd. We qi)ot«0 aol Ii>d( B^ toma r» 

BitHca froiA iba page* of Tht ttmliirr, Maprciin; the church bulll of i«r»- 

lAtiB. Donr Maachcster, ll>F tvaArafi of tk* t-ilrMrt bnag I»(1mw ibaltucb 

abaildiag vit^l to be condmiocd, doI bccaut* ofuciclfnlal fftitanr* in the 

■ □rktsanahlp, bol ftr k at aa Bilentpt of th« wont kiitd at arcbiteclural 

^^^capUan. To Ihia iniiaiMuy vte iuieM add Ibat oftlir .l/irawaM. aad it 

^^HiMtU bfl impoaaibla to rrad a mdhId nunibrr, acarccly a (iORla pagvofibc 

^^■Kbifalofitf, wilbotil mccltag wiili»u«eron> craaoK* ortkc enplvyniKX 

^^pIliDllUiie oiKIeriala. 

1^*^ We rapMl boUIy ibat ihtir b acarcety a more fatal nbMBcle to [h« ad. 

TABoetBenlor arc-hlKrcluro llian tlitt ayiteni tiun too pretalnt of bitlldinp 

tlMwily, ifttiMd «( wall. Tti«fe ii oa doubt Ibat ihuM batldtr* who harv 

bacn tralDcd in the " Chop Qu4hic" acbool will fral much ddVoJed lo And 

their ■oahlmKaanil nulliacia of pnteal ccmMit, Ibctr watlr of aiaero pa- 

M<led lo raaenbla nuoory, and Ihrir ahowy-toakiBg cvitinxi of Mmloed 

Anl voodmMitd fat o»lea>aiioii» Tult^ariiy, bul Ilitir diaappumlmmit don 

•«! awak«A oar pHy. From iba dayt of E«ap, Iba jackdaw b*f berD con- 

ilanBeil for eiceaainly bad luta in arrajiajt bimacl/io the pIwuBge i>f tbe 

peaaock. 

ll U far helitr laatr to uM boa«ly maietiata hunnily aod without coo- 

— eattlniMl, Ihaa to irirk then out wHb a Tiller iii\rval aiagnjQccnro. Tb«r« 

^^h ail liitEir*) ai»d tubalaulial app^araaca la good dark brkkwurk, wMili it 

^^br picfivil Ic to the aplradiitirof the beat m«ch maioDry ritr cbuaintdevl, 

^Hpf tb: [urHMf malcttal wtue of the Dutitral and oinil slairly adiflm hare 

^QliMI bolll — Sw old mintinni. aocirul gvlpwayi, tiulU anil lowFrv; Ihe 

taUar i« tba type uf snburliaii I'uckn^y nnchthvliiTv, II gta')<ieoa the rjf* at 

Ulifrd li«4«-mra,aiiila-K>rla well wilblliai^ nalionaof lh» b<>aultful vbicb 

arc IchmO al Ibe cuonlor or in lb« ooihHiok-Ikium!. It it pnfccily coo- 

geakl to tlte laate uf the furatiiing aloclt-bn>k«f. who prrfrn Ibat kki 

raj (■ luht with its paicb of (carden and amvi aannner' bouse shunid Imk 

^net and Iriak, Juai likn Iha b»W proprietary chnpi^-nr-raw oVfT lb« vnj ; 

wbo aara DO beauty la th« aid •illage cbiir<h wllb It* |[rrai Rallcn tuwfr 

aad db^ rtoi>iiiDebutlrp»*cg,aiid pn>aounrre Ibe Dtichliuiho;! bamntal 

hsD (which ia rucvwl) a dull, dark, solemn plan-, nbicb be would not li«e 

ia far ibe world, for frvr of (mwiaii nrlaochiily aw)— ruanunllc. 

Now Iboagh we ka«« iw aTpfelallini or detir* of cooifninn latb a 
uilia. Ik mdtn lo whon we aow addrew o«i«rl«M clalH ibui rc«prtl 
by eil«cattaa aad profc^isn, ihal it «aaMt b« a mttier uf iodifTemce 
wbelher thou «>i;«mii In, or dUtrot fron, ibe vient berc laid down. Ve 
MB here ou (rar Ual ran, who aro aecffannly cvmpflted lo alanine Uv 
laas ibr princi(<loa of pure iHalP, will cubdenin Uw bun«at rmi archi- 
vf Ibc Un^MD tamptea, aod our own ^loriuui calbrdraU; th« oaly 
iBd of apprflii^itMio i) that our ridrs mny not b« cxpmMil with tvfli- 
I clearurat to pretrnt eaBi;i;Fral*d aad locnoeUaant liifrminFa. Tbe 
* crilarioa aa to Ibe ilrrrpllic uie of nalrriali la— ont ibnl lite aaliirtl 
apivaranc'e of Ike ■Bnlrnalt U iwprorrd— Init that an aitrnpl ■■ nuiln to 
•fe««t lb« oya, to iBi|ini« the belief that wbai la lo reality hourly aad uiffn- 
WKtt ia Bom! wrll hoova tnbttaac* of a aiora cobIIj drtcnpiioo. Tbe 
tfttcrioii taaltoirllttr IrdrpcivdeiilDf Ihc panic aUr mcibud by nhich tbe 



iI«e4plioB 1( pradueed, and it la alu IrrMpr^ra oF Ika llffr•««|fauK(at- 
/■)»Jio(Ib« itccep'iuo. Iti* no p*lliatioM, Irat raih*r an atgrataiiooof 
the eril, frhca Iha IniilatiM ii cIom aad auanlr, beoauM in Ibia cnaa the 
UDQiiat ofdreeplioa la only incresaed. If a naUemaa acre lo np^-ax at 
agrealpablia aoknuiity with falae Jewel* io bii iuaisnia, benouldoet* 
lalaty be nakioij a ditptay id tbe wona poiuible Ijuie, and ihe *ulf(arii| uf 
bia oaieuialtuo wiiuld nut bit dinialibed, if bit pa-tladiamoadawcMM n«ll 
aaJe that tie; paMcd fof real. 

ll ia well wonby of remark that tbe art uf i«itatioa has alwajs been 
niu*t tucceaxfullji pr^ciiMd la coualrira and at tpocba dliliuKubbrd bl 
tliodtb'iaemeatoflltBBaaarla. A paietcr who <ould ptiula joiiil of iM>al, 
or a kaifc nilh ail Ibe niaaleoM* of ivalliy, mlfbt oerUloly cUiiD iha 
credit uf being a (owl cQeibantcal imllatur, bul wuld acartdy <ahe bia 
rdnk aeiou^ the diaeiplti of -'hliih art." luilatitio is the fatuity uf iL« 
Apr, atiii ta looit otxarrabtr ainnnif nalion* leaat rleiattd li> iLuril aiiiJ 
iDtellKtiial rurg). Wmidelful ttuciei are luld uf Ibe laiujIeiiTM irtlb 
wblcb Ibr ChiaeM and Jdpaoena lioiialc nuhiral uttirctt, but avte of Iha 
I.Jty tH-Buly of Ibcir tetilplurF, paialiog, aud arcll'lfi;ii)r#. Tba auMetlc 
fac«liy iaarldoiR prcduminaui in nca of urtgiuKi (Coiu», and it uc*i'r dit- 
piB>o<l in their KrcaU'iil wurkt; lb< tubaiiiuliou o> ih« Gcuiiiiut fur the 
rral, ilia niinnui for Ilia brautilu], baa uDifxriulj beeu finiud to prtaajo ibe 
netileelind tp«edy drgrudaiiuo uf Iha Fiae .kru. 



ST. MICHAELS CMUflCH. I'IMUCO. 

NotwiibalandioK the rapid adiaocvincni of cberch arcbitctlun durio} 
tbe bul fitw year*, it moal be cunfcned to be aiilt in a iiaie uf iraatitiia 
from Ibe barbariam of ibe latl age, and lo hafeaa jcl bui imperfectly rr(,itDed 
M* anginal purity. A rhara«lrri«ltcdcfrctof nodtrn Puiotird architeclute 
ai'iitan lo ui to be iba want of ibal bu'dacia and aiattl>cii<*« whiib dia- 
linfuiahod tli« arcbllcclurc of the fuurhi-utb ccalury. There ia lo ojodcniul 
a ({Titeral lendrticy lo whnt may ba called, for thr want of a IwUrr Ivnn, 
prttlyitm. Tbia aiTHiaiKia of anootbDeai and delicate ornampat it rt(«- 
cially ubaeTTabluiaaculpiureaad arthlkclure, and iu npithrr vf tboM aria 
bate we tbo cDcn(y and bolduaaa of tbe old artialt, M'e accm altugeibac 
afrkld of excrciiins tbat kiodof Mnirasr nhidi produced the alronic simple 
line*, the bold aalient aaglei, the luddeu alternailona of N{hta and abadotts 
which distlngalih U'eaiiulnfier Abbey nr Kinf** Cullrga Chapel. And it » 
tbe mora to ba regrrltrJ ibnl IbrM umple mcaai c-freodcriuj an-hilriloro 
eflrctiie fhuutd be alloftClhrr niiaicd ii) niodera buildicKs, brtaiiie they 
arrni tn be the Trry nieaat wblch sbuuld be luoM laluablc ui a iiitie wben 
nrcblleeia are eoutauUy rooiplalnii^s of the pafainiony by wbicb Ibelr 
eiroriB are reairlded. Sp(iakm|{i'«ooDmlcalIy. il mati be clear that bold 
almple orDtinenIa mud be cbeapvr Ifaan ibose of mure d<^llcale workntan* 
ship, and llio architect can complain uf ou one but bimrclf if fur nact of 
tlie fumifr hit work* appear loclfecliic. 

Tba nrw church of St. Michael'a, CbrMer Kc|iiare, built Iratn the detiKoa 
uf Mr. Candy, poaiNasa in a great uieasuie lliai neei^Mary pluy of ligbi anil 
■baduw nillioat which tba 6rtl and di*taut lirw oi * cburfh can never ba 
sati* factory. The pha of lli« bnildioji ia (ru«tfuru>, iLcrc ia a bold tower 
BurmouDlcd by a lafly apirc, the rnofa ore of high pitch, aud ibe cxinibina- 
lioniifiho rarioui parta pmdnoeaa very piclureaque apruiitieo of ihe *ijle 
adopted— the Decorated. Tbe catrance li uot al the wnat, but beneath 
the lower which tlaod* ua tba north *idr □■'ar thn nurili wi*it angle, aad ta 
attcnglbtued by butltieart divided iulo three itugri, and panelled. Tba 
bntlrrMTs are anrmotialrd by piunnclc* with cruckeii nudflniala ; between 
■ Iteae naet the tpiie which ia aurniuuuted by a vane at Uie hnigbl of IM 
fMt from Ihe ground. Tbe rooft of thn church art aUled aod bave dwiaied 
create* at Ibo gablet. The whole of tbe ex'rrior it faced with kenliab 
roxalone, with Uaib>»loiMi dteatiuga oiled lu rrtiai Ihe elTecl uf Buiaturet 

The euUaucu to ibe cburcb » bcM-alb ibr tower, of nhicb the lower part 
in entirely open, und fuima an archrd portico. Similar rianipiea ciikl at 
U'e»t VCallcD, NoKolk ; at Dedhaiu, Bwci, aud in one ul the churchn al 
C«aibrid|^. Vt'itliis the ehur«h lltrre ia a(coi»ii.ad«.t<uii lur IJIHI p«rt*>ni>, 
7iW ID pewaand AM iu freeaeaia. Tbe roofii <>f opea wovU-Kork, and u 
uippurttd b) pirrabetncco IbcnnTrundaislea. Tbclbnlnbichiaaltbt vtrat 
end, hat a cuier of carved wuud, UQil the polpit aud reaoms desk ate 
loi*,aad aiaiid no either aide of tbe ■'coinmuoiun receM," which ia paved 
wilb cocBMtlic titct. The commxndaieala a/e wrttleii la paucla bcfl««lli 
rich cnnnpica, and on the gtiuth side are arWJfia. If tbcac ure to b« Bled 
then can be nuubjeniuu lu ibcui tn an architectural puiat ufiiew, if bow 



49 



THE CIVIL ENGINEI^R AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



•tar ihey be OMkM uaA u« merRtj- fur >lK>n, ike krckheoi Mould hvta 
Mrlkialj dons ireW to hti* aii>llt«d tli«m. 

Vihen tfaere ii mucb la pnine It Is Tcr? palsful to btve to find f«ult ; 
tmlh lod CDDfllflevcT hnwfTcT conpil a% to niale tbai Ibcre trc miioy 
thlnp tD lh« ialcTior mma);«inenl of tho church which cannot tw praiwd. 
Tbcr* are ({■^1*')^ latrr*c«liDg the pi*ra and blockinf; op tha ude 
wiiid»iri; tlia abaft* alUcbed to tb« piert have poor Iww* wbkfa an 
bobled <i* m apocies of iiilu to llw leiel uf thr pew-Mala. But abme all 
there iiaa app«aran<« of iuirntJit]i,oli}cctiatiab!e id all kiadt uf arobitec' 
tur*, bat p«rfcctly iDd*rea*ibl« ia Uial kind which ottghi tube Iha ikp; 
titgheat and moat Iru'hfut— cbwixh archilccluf*. Th* walla of the thnrch 
and of tb« Htair<:B3ca arc conlrd nllb ploatcr od obicb black liii«s arv 
drawa to liDilate, oi ralhcr, miaitc tbc courics uf reaJ mawurjr. Some of 
tha window Bieiildiasa an "run" la cctneul, and are Iha mora dcccpllie 
b«caiiM the notUona and corbeli are of itone. Tlie »«• rrtnark applivt 
to Ihc than* altociied to tho pltrra, wbkb are pnrtlj of tiona and partly 
inllatloar ; t!ie plen ibvintrUo* arc all of ptaitcr d«coraled willi the blacL 
Uaes aforciaid. Tli* prw* arc of ilaioed deal. Of the value of tills ma- 
terial we btve prvnouooed a sulUcinitlj expllcil opialon In another part of 
«ar preient nnmbcr. It nay bi added thai h«r« (ho eoan* abap«l«i* knot* 
of ilia wood and the harsh lioaaof the fmiQ bav« ■ verr dbapeeable tlTcct, 
Tie tf aM*I and shiaing appearance of farotsh Is, to our taste at least, mj 
a^MNliMiable. This honever U merely an IndKldual opiaiao, — but tl la a 
natter efocKalnty that (tie tfToct ■« vary unchurehlike. 

Vt recret alio to Dad tlie appraiaore of sbsm windows — indentaliuns or 
■ballov rMsaaei la the ptasipr of Iha walls, with imitHtiiin hnodmonlcllnis 
in eaataat. Ia the cilEriur ot ihc church tli^rv is also n|i|ian-ntly on on. 
IrulkfalnM* aboot the western lids wliich is treated as if it were iho buck 
nf the cliurcb.Cachurcb ouKlit lu bai« du back or inferior side,) for on this 
side we Hod DoUilnfC but pUin blank wallaofmsioory without oniaiii4>nl, 
and with a (urfvcs eDlirvly unbroken, ete*pt by ana or two very small 
windows ID tbe upptr part. This d<i«cl is <«r(aialy not uea«Miiateil by 
Ibesllo of ibv church, wbich ia quite isulukd. Tbe wostern aiJe is oat 
■taUesucoDspicoous as the other sides, elUl It is Tar from beiac actually 
eoDcealad. Tticni are iadead bouaaa on Ihe north liiln, but at inch a 
iliotaiMe as to leatt pleolj of mom tor vlewiog the buildinji in that dircc- 
Ihm., 

It Is ftry tedious to have to repea' the same obviuua tiuihs over and 
over acsio. Bm till tli« Ipsmmi U prifcctly l«anied and praollcally txcm- 
pliied we nust not crave to set forth the Irulbfulucss and konctl siacrriiy 
siUoli the old bullikrs icrupuloualy observed in tbcir works. To rxpress 
a species of oicnslve vulitartty by a vulKar pliraae, there is la niudcm 
cbureb-building a leadaaoy la thoie-off, which is ollerly repugnaul lo the 
principle* of good laslc. And not only is lliis otlcDtatioD and aOectation 
of ficiitiaus niSiKuiGccacecuulrar; lu retuvu. bui it ia against prccniloDtalso. 
The old arrhitocts oniformly used real malcrisls and were iif ver guiliy of 
leaving one side of u churcli poot auJ unemtitliished thsl (fai.-y might laviih 
richer ortismfnts on the conep-iciiiius psrts. Votil our own limes tlie 
art of niakc-b«li«r dccoratlua Las bceii aiuuupvlisrd by miUiuen aoil sccue- 
paintiTS. 

Vtt muil not be understood In ciprrs* these Miotinipnls lu an tmrn'cndly 
spirit. Tbe architect ufSl. Micfauer* Church cannot b* ccusurvd for the 
Btlsicnce of a widcly-apread error which is duiug tbe greatest poailble in< 
jary lo architecture, and which w« boldly aOlrni imisl be cerreeted before 
the constradiov atta can re^in their original excellence. At the aaoie 
ttme we mtisl oaprvas rsgret that in Ibe present case llie arobitect ehnntd 
hare fallen in with • bad custom, and we siucercly hope lo see many ex- 
cellent works uf bis, as bald and eifcciirc in itcsicnai St. Michar'rs church, 
but free fron its faults iu detail. 

There is one Kood amnsciaent with respect lo Qie comfort of the future 
runErceallon of ttie new cliurcb which must ooi be passed ornr. The 
church is warmed by hot- sir pipe^, which mm contained in chaonelsin 
tbe daun covered by graiioft. There ts nolhiof; like eouccaliurnl here; 
Ihe pipea hunettly revenl (heir purpoic— ihty are nut aincraltd. but 
Ibey are put where llity du nnt oblrude on Ibe sieht, aad are simply rem- 
derod inconspiaums. W« hsic nu doutit that the tilted coagrrgaiiiin who 
will frequent St. Hidia^l's. will prefer this amngemeni lo the delightful 
laTenlinM of the Cambridge Cauden Society, 

Tlie first slooe of Ibe charcb waa laid on the 90tK nf May |g4l, by the 
peeaent Marquis uf Weslminster, who subicriboJ SOOOf, towards the 
building, and gave tbe fee simple ofUic site. Vie rcinajoder uTlbe c«st 



OHMl be raised by aubsoriptioo brfore the church can be consecrated. 
Is at preeect a drflciimc) of A.IOOI., which iocliMles the cost uf aa 
tiell sod clock, and uf inclusiug the cburch-jard. 




The accompanying illuslratioQ represents the eilcvatloB of a Cbapch 
ease rpceeily erected in the parish of Kl. Andrew, Plymouth, from iliei 
a>ii;ii*o( Mr. Wigllwitk, to wbote oourtcij we are ludebtcd for the ske 
from which our view is uiipitd. Mr. H'rgblwich has also favaunyl as i 
snnie brirf bul icry pirrttocnt observstinu* on Ilia sirioium which app 
Id the Jauusj-yand Kebmary aumUcrs of this Jiximal, recpectiajc Ihe 
nisnoxrin which light was ublalneil in lh« new baildiiig. Hesayi, 

" I do nut cxnclly see thnln church ujilicd niih ulber Uiildingalsi 
cesiarily so beyond all fncceaaful irralujcui as juu suppoac. Is It 
fair to csll the only front that sliaws '■ a show fruul !" In there uy l 
*' uarhurehitk*" in the'* arran^njciit" by wlijcli I obtain Hlthtf vis>, I 
clereslury t Srdly. The niljacoDt bulldlDpa htirmunlie nilh the cburai 
■lyle; tlie one tirinjt ■ reiidcnce of a sioipte Tudur dmracter; and 
other a Scbool-liuitiline literally brloni:lu(; lu tbe cbuich. Funherneeol 
building i« bul a Ctiniict-uf-Basc.'* 

Mlih respect lu the use of Ibe word " unchurehlike," we would 
thai it ttaa meaal lo refer, not lolhe admissinD of llghl by clerestory 
dows, bul to the finn-admlBsioD of it by aisle windows. It mnst be oh 
that when a church is lighted by clortstory windows alnoe, either 
anounl uf light obiataed must be insulHclcol, or else tbceo windows ml 
be so enlnrKcil as ti> bccutne rery prarniDPOl feature* cf the arcbileclBli 
ur a) ell evutta, lo loss that snbordlnala relatiuo which they bear in aitcfa 
church es. 

The onissiMi of aisle windows hasalso (hit dlMdvantagr,(hal Ibei 
oflhcnertliaDdBouth vallsarebrukco and unharrrd ; and this again Ist 
trary lo preoodecii, fnr in ancient ciaoiplei lurge surfares of " dead" 
are ucifurmly avoided. AnoilinrdtsndVHotsge arising from Ihe aaJMici 
Is ibal the quaolityuf light oblalaed in thn cuntre ai»le mast far exc 
Ihat in tbe nortb nnd south aisle*. In Christ Church tbe lateral ab 
(ontsio galleries rslccding from tbe walla lu tbe piers of the Rave ;* aiid I 
certainly agaiDSt uMge that a lulrrnl ai*)e of a church should aalai 
oasobediiidod Into iwn eteriee nr eunipnritDeeta, each of which coaati 
a apacious « indnwiess raetaa. 

Iiight obtaiDcd fium upper windows alone produces an effect very) 
fcrcal ki thai tu which we are accsiatoined ia Poinled Archltetlui*. 
lichlA nnd shadows arc, so to apenk, reTcnied. Tliia may Mjem at 
sight an auiiuportani rooiark, and one rather of aa artiibe tbaa archil 
lural nature, bwi if the reader will eonpsn a buildiug lighted by 



• VttelriFrsMflyiK>d*TvteedltiMIIuw(idJmt*iiMl not isieiwcl lbs ptaa.'] 



* 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



68 



tba roof (•nch U the Nktiaiwl GaSltry, tiu Elgia fiooo of the 

lawitim, &c.) with « cliuub«f In nhlck Uinv is a Mntj of iitir 

I, h» will we that tba fllTocts pr.xluoad an toUUf dtflfarest, nnd at 

Uy of ChrMlikB ArthiUelure ile|)«iHli noM nsteriall; on Ike i)m> 

vl llxht «n4 tktidaw, \hw ooaiidvralinD i« bf no ni«Mi* lo Iw ik|c- 

W* never tliauld «xpcet to m«ct irith an onJioarT t/tylight iti an 

charcb ; Intfaktcuc, H it i— iiJiaf «l|r abrioua that tha effcol wnu I d 

■IT to llie fpirit of PoJoted ArcbiMctsre. It DMdt, hoHever, but 

rciiott to be MtiaSed tkat there I* a ilntlir objecUon to the 

eaplnjseat of clenelerj wiodoire. Bj lli«amuif;Mn<Dt n( Min- 

■r to ibKt 1b llic NatkMMt CaUny ibo lithl is m gcoenllr cUAted 

wbcfe cols *ln9$ Uar^tjitAotd ibaidotrai this amagtaient 

nrj Bdiuilageotii iu a MiuMm of Art, but tba eJEact produ- 

\tiiaf wraUr, asd very Jiflerrat in Ibal " rallyiooi lifhl'' 

M bMUtiful a «haMct*ri*tie of lb* MeJis^al churcbe*. 

»if ever b; bo ramoa aeceaaary Ibat a cburcfa ihovlil bo baUl In a 

iMisM tHiMUoii. OurDobletf cMkedmlibtre att>ch«d lo tbata 

y bQlldinga (Cloliten, Cba|il«r-lkM>a>, ttv.) of earHapaadini 

»nfail«et«r«. Mu«b iojurfbaaiadcad boeadoae bj Ui« iajudkiov* 

ofraodBra "mlorcn" in their ical to iaolata ancioDl clmrcbea. 

here p«rlta|M refer to M. Oiilruii'e Trbcmml denuucialkin of tbe 

W Mhlcb haa rvceaily dcstrojed the Cbapl«r>bouM at Troy n, tad 

WMoislatea a sinular dettraelioa at KoaMi nadcr Ibe prvteil of 

I tW be>atie> of the C*th«dnl ilaelf. Bat thoagh It be frHttOj 

c, and hmucatlr dcairable tbal a cburcfa abould have dvpcodent 

• allacheii la it, tbov mcms do narruti wbotcrrr for eo pUciag 

iMIags aa lo preTeal Uw adinlMka of ligbt to Ibe church by aiak 

arae tbeae rtnark* mait bo coaiidcnd pcifocU; cranal la Ibtir 

I il vunlil bo sb»unl to ocncntc the anJiiieciart of Ihc new diapel 
.b tjBcauic the ncchiiral havnoi perfumieJ phfiical iiupoMiblli> 
a the ooalturj, there la vverj' reaiou to suppoM lliai his eipedienl 
try bctt whicfa the cir««nHtniit«» of Ihe cue Bcliiutl«<l. At thr 
10 it io me wbich caa uever be defraded, except od tbe Krouud uf 
DMOMlijt and ne rrrtBloIr tbould nerer feci di*po«(d to approre 
ilnlon of aisle wiodowi, ddWi Ibe qnr*lina Uy bi<lw(«a buikting 
ok vilbont tbeM-^r not boildiog it U all. . 



lALGAUATION AND LEASING OF RAILWAYS. 

rttwiottwt of the papers aa ibb •ubject, Uiat appoared in ibe 
Ibr Ooluber and DeeeintMr ISU, nj oolr apuluity ia tbedlBetdt; 
( tfciadMenptioaoTiafiim&tiaii aAer uaiil tk» p*fiad at which it 
JIa lb« pablic paper*, and allboogh Ibeae papers loajr aot dain 
Iflf original ibotishi, jet tbelr cumptilalion at Ibo poriml of Cbo 
Ferer of tUi, lb» «dr pmbut and the olher after the draadfd 
if November, msj in llielf b« Mao mnrit. In lb* Inat pappr 
ID reference Ivlbw unr infoejnu of linvo »fllte •oMtni of llMS,«ad 
of the refltaaaloftlicoevr line* Ibat boa not formed aayalliaacv 
old cotnpaaloa, an alliance wai indicatnl a* probable, and 
laa alace taboo place, at nUI b« touDd In the afloc pan of thi* 

noal a( linn aol Tcl allied lo, Oie old corapaniea I* reduced lo 
■ad WliidpciMtre, ('ockeciniiiith aud H'arki»slnu,Ke(Tpor1aDd 
ol,We>tr Valioy, EljalinMad (8urr«r) awl Leeile aod Think and 
laj b« further r«du«4l aa lli« latter liar, end Ih* GrrnI Ntifih «f 
liare WM to an underilaading i« a* not to compete, and tlio 
tHny BMf be laid to Uatc lb« lame intcreal aa tko Slucktna and 
Aa recardR Scollaoil, tli« fatloivtoK are the Rntup* into 
icrailwa; inMml haieDalnrally dliidrdthlaeomitrjp eeUretr frnm 
Cuaiti we b*>e tlve North Rriliah, Riliahnijh and Hawlcfa, 
fh aad Dklkiclb, and ncetioft with Ibe We«t Coail lolcmt at 
I, latikh raay be coiiMdrred aa a Bud poiul. Tbc Wcolem write lo 
il frgtn Carllflte, Ub]illieCale>l<iDlaaLlne, UT mile* Iodk. which 
I «tlb tb' ClfdMdaU Jnaction, Pollaek nod (rovaa, Gl«ac<*w aail 
k, aad Caledonian aod Daabartaaihlro Jaaetioo, and WmI of Um 
of Okatow. and Nurtb af Carlbic, i* the itroiip propoard lu lie 
lOroal Sooth Wetteraof Scmland, omapaMdof ibeGlattcnwaad 
ik ; Gta*ZOw, Kllmnmnrk and Afdraana. aaal Glaneonr, Paitlej, 
and Ayr.Bod Clucow. Banbead and Nelltlon Drredt, and 
paralltlof Ediubnrch nod C)a*C9W, we biro ibe Edinburfb 



and Olasicnw, and lAoarkihire Linen, viai Ballncbnej, Slanaonnn aad 
Uoaklandajid Kirkiotillock, alto tbe GUifow JancUoo.bcuiiiih Midland, 
and ScotUah Ceatral. and Coupar AuKuiiaod Gtnoiaili; and Eatt «( 
Edlaburgb, and Northnftb* Flrih,i*e hare the Kingdomof Fife (tMip, 
Ibe EdinbnrEb N orlbem, and Ediubui^b, Leith aad Graaioo, and frm 
Perth Northward, wa have the Dundee oad Perth, awl Dundee and 
Nowtflo, aad lt> eootkiaation bj the Doadee aad Artarwaib, Arbroalb, 
Korlkr and Aberdeen. 

The falloifiog are the (Toopoof alliAncex In RD|{Iand. South of Lendoo, 
aad lo tbe Gael, we ba'o tli« ijouth Katlcrn to the Weal, |be Svalh 
WcMera, nod ialcnnediate the group of Linao c»aipr«Med ia Iha Lnadon 
and Brighton. 

Tbe diatrict ittma falrl; a>ai(nnd lo each, and Iho throe conpanien are 
on friaedly tcma, aad diapoeod to bMome canMltdated ; indeed, two jMtt 
a|[o, ib« South Eailcnt oflarnd I9*,0Mf, per aaanei. Cot iJie BricbtMi, 
wbjcb would ba«« been Jeat cqaal to the preaml dhidend. 

IftrtH ^ £<MdM, and to tbe Eoal, U Ibo gronp oonpoeed olthe Eattere 
Oogntles, Nortbora and Eaatera, with pn>pa«td CKtauioa to York, and 
the Norfotk. Eait Aaglian, and Eaatem Union, and ita Rxicuioe. 

AVftA ^ Umim, on the EatI Coast, it Ibe MkUand, from Briitol to 
Barwkk. 

ATerlAii/iidncbHi.antbe Weal, the (i real Loudaaand Litirpoo) estenalofl, 
lo Ctrliilo. 

Lomloa (o ikt WtA, the Urtl gronp LUa ia tfa« Great Wntem, which 
vrilbtb* London and Biraitagham oecopwUie whole of Walea, tbo onr 
Soalb,tfu Other Nortb. 

TJe StenA Crtm Line i* fron LlTOrpoal to Hall bj the HanchMier and 
Leedi. 

TAc I'bird CrwM Lin< ia frMa Maacbeater, by the RbeSield and Man- 
cbesler, Hull aod Banialoy JaaclMn.and SfaeScld and Lincolnabire. 

The FrarfA la from SUctda ■» the Eant to Marjpiin uu ibe H ealiCoa*!. 
bj the Sortb Ctoaat and Carliate. 

The aboTo (anetal vlow may be eontrnied in detail b; a referonoe to Ihe 
forair papen, aod ibe amalganalion Uum iodjealed, and aisoe takta 
place, b theEaal Aog^Ua. 

The Uoanl ofTrnilv tinvinc cnucti la report (lo iiew tchrnet. 1 record 
their pehod of inQtirroce. Tlie luiiU uutioea toK^'ber were eleven, Ihe Aril 
appeared Slat Dec. IBlt, and llien io Janaary, II, 17, II. FoartaFelt. 
4, T,I6, S8. Three to Mordi ; aod einelero (ci>ofU were publiibad, 
accnrmpanied with tnentj-one niapaof diitricts into which ibey bad divided 
Ibe country, and the nane ot the diSereai dtslrtcis aod date of reporto ai« 
aa fallows. 

Flnl, Peb.lS, KeatiabaadSonth CaMecn. 

Secood, Fob. Jti Manchealcr aad Leedi, aud NowcaollB and Beffwlok. 

Tbird, Feb. S9. DlatrlctofBcrkfl, llanla, Wilu, OarMtandSonenet, 
— Diatrlct, Loodoo, Worcoalerand Wulrerbnnipiua— UUliicI, BiroiiDghani 
and Sbrewsbary. 

Fourth, Match 4. Norfolk and SuHotk, Cvrowall aod D<»*on»btr«. 

Fifth, Maroh IS. Trent Valley. Nortb aad North Wcel «f Iretaad* 
appraaebes to the Motriipnlii and Sc«iUad. 

Sixth, March Xi>. Louden aad York, HcMofDabUa, South of Ireland, 
SoalbWalei. 

Senotb, March 31. Cwlcbaater and llarwicfa, I'ortMuonlb, Noilli o( 
Leeda aod We»i Hiding. 

£isbUi, April IS, IMJl, Lancubire. 

The inHucnoeertbese reporto will be fell in Ibo preeeet eeeeieo. Tbe 
Chainnao of ibo Great Weairrn at tbe Meelinj, Feb. U, IBM, lafe, 
'*Tbete coald beau doubt that under tbe report of the Board of Trad«,',tbe 
trKlKc of F.iiMcr and Tr«*il was \a l>e [.rorkled for by tbe Great Wavlem." 
The ChnlriDaD of th« South U'ettera allbe MMting, Jtonar; SI, Hya,iba 
Great U'eilern would not treat fare fneudly nlliaaoe tintd Ike Board of 
Trade repurted In Jnooary 1843; tbo BuordofTrndc made their report, and 
wu appointed muiuiil arbitrator and *ol* rvfi>T«« betwea ilii> two cuai. 
piaiei, which, bon-erfr, Ibe G. W. It. aiw de^liiif, and the Board of 
Trade declined tu interfere, and the Cbairman further »aj»," Aooppoiilion 
waaevpDtnally tnnde lo ibat board. »hii)i could not bo fumoes. Lurd 
Howick canimenred it in conneiion wiih tbe otaiospbarlc, and otben 
fo[k»ved by wbi<h th« Board wu ovorthmwa." FroM the above them can 
be no doubt tbe s""'"' between the«e two p'lnerful C'Aoipaaiee will be 
mitch perplexed, by the rrconl of tbe Oonrd of Trade Report. NcTonhe. 
leia we have the exiierlence of the Init letiicia. Ilial the Ccunmltteetaf 
Parllaaicat are ;oakiai of tbit iatorforeare. and are prepared to act laile* 



i 



70 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND AnCHITECrS JOURNAL. 



[Uabch, 



pMiikBil; u ihtj nAction«il (be roQvwing liDM vaotnrf M the Hfurt of 

Letdt rtaofbnjr Mid MuefcMirr, Cseirr iBd Cttdihm, L^nn ■ad 
Oarihun, l^miominrf and OnlcmiM, I»«i1«0(l»TrT ■■<■ KnnliklllM, 
lri*l> Uml VMBMn,(Dubl!B to llolUiipir,) Lecd» aod Think, ShrewdMir^, 
OvncMry nd Ch«at*r, £3; ttd HiiBtlnKtl<iD. Tbe nbaadotmirat vf « 
poTtkin of tbe (>t«al Nnftb nf Ratland and Butna Oovrtc* Llat, aotnw 
iatia*e kad (trrtl iaOuvncc witb tbc Board. 

I hcwbwBCUrtMslokiiowwhal liap», far wfcleh Aelsof ParHanM-iit bad 
bMftobUiMd,kav*l>«ra ab«ndoa*d,tIi«7 atvs* follow*: 1811; Rerorirk 
ndKdto; ISIt.Pcnrbjma; 1614, M«Mkllad; IBld, Ptnk Fon>U;iess. 
T«M Lolbian; IKM, Dulaia, MaMbeabr, OMIwni, Umrnck and Walrr- 
lard; 1811. KQ(h«r)tl«ii and UVIishot. JUwarkabiR. SlwtBt'ld and HaO' 
ehnlar; IKH Rioirrand OwIKm: ISH, IxndonOrwid JaDertmi.ThainM 
Haven, t-aaBCctlon ai»d Vtetoria; Ucfitfnid Picf. In luahinft okpt tkt 
ttfvu It will ti« t^rn at a claarc iLat taAHj a{ ibe ptt>}coti are carried crat b; 
CiitDpCDHra Incarporatrd aiMv. 

I wiil BOW pracnd to in*« ■ eraaral avniiBarr of Ike aMs of («ek 
HMalon.WdOowwbkb (rPMreruani Ibe ■■otliou orPaHiaateot, alUM>agb 
fmn iraal of daln 1 (•mot aop-irate (boM refuMd lolo tbo two beads i»f 
hcfr and ladepeadcni LIdm, and iltMc pniaiutFd bj Old Cunitmiiiea, or 
bciai MMixliDCiila of forairr Acta. Tha flnt Act waapaaitdlti imi.uMJ; 
lDiea3, tma; IHOS.one: l.anp; 0. aM;0.(«a: 10,aw; It.tfarct; lX,lwfti 
l4.Me| U.anc; 16,on«; ir,<M«g IS.oae; ig,oM;ll,an«;M.0(ip;S4,lwo; 
Bft.lirtiM,Mai t7,ai( ; t4,fll«*mi SO. aioe;l«,eitkl; ll.Qitia; U.ricbt; 
St, el«Tni;31, founeefk; SS.rlRhirMi; Sd.tbirty-lic: ST, fottr-twoi Siii 
■ilMrai S0, iwfnlr-MK : 40. lw«>tr-roiir; 4i,Biwte»: 41. iwnij-iwoi 
U, t«NMtf -four ; 44, fi>rt]r-riBbi ; 4&, oe« baadrtdandiwrsij; and IMO, 
••<r«abnDdr«daBdl<Bratr-o«i«a)i|ili(*lMiM, And CMBiMDoUg nitk Ibc Mine 
iwriod, thtn ant dia6iict iHIta of aeir CanpaniM, asrt old oif* wilb a 
diaUiicI appllcailoB eiclaatir of aiDsnded Aula. IMI . an«; S. lira; S.asa i 
4.oii«; tkon*: V.tbrr*; 111, nM; II. two; IX. oor ) li.oM: I7.crtie;ia, imi«: 
19, on*; 81. two; S4, two; U, U«eD . K, lu-vaa i t7,vor; SH, fli«; 19, aU; 
H.lrctSl>t>>r««i3^(>^ri»<<t**iSttS'«iIS-alo«i M. tireolj-Axir; S7, 
tlilr1c«iiS$.I«ra; 39.ibrca; 4l,OMi42, fburi 4t, »iil«rai ItUi.iiai] •■«■>; 
teing ipward* of Sua Dailwsr* ''I'b dittiuft li'.les. nu Act U dairil 
taims, 6, T, oflHIS, II. oTlHia.nr IKIU. S2, 33.04- 1840. and IRIS> 
CVMiMBeiag with loui, Ibe kunb«r of Uailwaj Hilli, ibat wm pUMd ia 
^«k aeaaicia, ibal 1 caa bnd accMinl of ia tbc follDfiaK: la 1880. two [ 
liWG,on«;li3(l,fl«o;lii(llt, fwari lAlLdioj IMa.fuvr; ISM.Ktfiity-fouri 
IMT.fortr; IMD.aiDc; l&40.wtra; Ifhil.aii; lAtZ.Cir; lull, tea; iHll, 
tiHBty-ibnac: IMA, eae kaadnd noil li*R, 

t will BOW proceed to |^te «a ucount of tbe nlUaDcca larmad *lno« tb« 
pmmUas pvpcd «» : 

Oai^M md SfKyU. l««aed in p«rp«4tiitj to Iba Dandw and Vtnh, at 
H WHmal fput ivT I ,t(MiJ, or 1 j p*r MM, 

fidiaiwrf A, J>(M gad GroMtom, aHalKaBatod at par witb Ibv Edtabursb 
aad,Nofdiera, ooa capital of ftlO.WlU, Ibr prrfcrenoaahareaatcxuiraoterd 
1 par oeet, lijr iba naiud nmpauira, aud I prr cetil bj tbv oriaiD*! iiuck, 
of lb* Kdiiibun;b, LEiib aod UranMi, Lanouler md Carliala, wi|]i ibu 
li^tir"'-' »■"' I'mntuo Junelinti. 

ArbfMlIk Md Farfix', Iraacd to Ihr Abcrdren, from llx t»l Prh, IJ>4ft, at 
• CitdRDto(4t psroent, aod bilftbe anrplua pmfil, aflrr drdurling t\' 
par cent for workiiiK.tlte l«Mvei bave Ui« upilDu afler i jrar* of worfclne 
u a baii*, to fii Ibn lunuaDl o( lurplw fTuta tu be |Mid lb« ArbniUb and 
Fvrfar Cuuipoay. 

SetittitA .Ifiitfand, afnwd hi b« worked bj tbe t'nllDd SoolUth C«o(rali 
and EdiBbnricli aod Gluirow Coapaoita, al ST| per tnt iw ibc uruai 
reeetplt. Ruaraalctius n dividend of 4 pcruiit (orA Tc«r«,ai)d lo aiMlga- 
aiaie al ll.c end of Ibal jmiod. ns tb« lauia u( iha riK«i|ilH uf eaeli lite for 
tbe laat 1^" jcara |>rpe*«dici)[. Th< S<cltUh Midland piircbasvd tbe 
C^Hpar Abkus Ller for ISflWI., and lb» GUwbiu r«r SljOWf. 

B»d4ertfftltt ajut MnthcOrr rcpudixlc tb« Icati: lo (lie Slirireld and 
MaacbPf4«r,Biid *el furih ibe Lndiand TliJnli.aiid f..pedtand Uensburj, 
MlbeirBalnralBlliei.aiul (hut beri-afUr beitMlemiaiuay beublaiuvd eitb^r 
frwn tbe Maorbetifr and L«edi or lt>« 8hcl!i«)d a&d Mkacbrfcitr. 

hcfit oad llnt'/orH, witb Maackciln asd Lreda, two of tbr fnrtaM 
cOBTtrtrdiBluoor of tht lalkr Conpaoy V fi7>,00(lf.. of n«w Mau<b«*((r 
and Lecdt llftbi lo bv dMributed ainoDg the Bradford proprtt^on. Tbe 
Midland Braaeb lobeloog lo MhllanJ, York, ud Norlb Midland, and 
Hancbn4«r aad L««dB ConfaaU*. and th« Midland to rua tli«ir iraioo lo 
Bradford; rfinal calb and dlvidrndt aai con(rib«tiaDi to iiicr«a*o of capital 
lad proportionale dividend in iha iotoriiB. 



EaM AMgiimn, mne lakn b; tb» Ljttn and El;, Lfvn aad 
Dtrtkam, Eltf «a<( Hmting^iM, ajnalcaanud <:nmpaniv*, whlrb look 
plaeo aa froa l*t JaoiMur, 184A, the Eiifrnjuoa of tyan and Kl; ap- 
pOTtioned auooi; tbc proprietor* of oMob canpasj, oaaDewakiirafor oaoul^ 
Tbe anouiii pa*d ia o«lr S| twr cesl aaiU cooiplated, wbilM immI Cca* 
[miiIb* ¥■) 4 p«r c*nl. 

Ckftfr «a4 BirlunJmd. leased tar T yeara lo Iba Cbeator and MoJjba^ 
oa lb* eajklul Stotk, S per oau for tha Int y««r, 6 for tb* aceood ; T fa* 
di« Ibtrd 1 «0d 8 (ur tb* laat four yoara. 

^diiilmrfh and Gbugtw, nllh Ballocbaay, SJamaanaa, HanklafMl Mtf 
KlfktnDlloek Law*, tb* arraas**o*B liatakiaslbn EdiaburEband Olufo« 
at I IM, tho profMirtwa aikiwed t* mp«eti«cly 87| fur Iha fltvl, kmI 9i Uk 
lite two rraiaibiaK Mart. 

Grtat SoTih r/E»gtand, ClareMrand tlbrtkpoal iaoeUoM, ainal|amal>d 
al par nilb tbe Harllopuol Dock and Bailwar- Capital 1*10001., Ut (af 
S |wr crnl from Jolr IB4IJ. In IU», and 4 p«v cent lo 1S4V. 

UartltftBl Daek a»d Utilteai/, told lo Iba N'awcaall* aod Darlioflga 
Jnoctioo, forSSO). ppt lOlU. (bans lo oompklc io I jeara, 10 per wot • 
Ibe iaurini, Ibe Sbara Capital 31S,3a&t, and AS.KdOl. of the delM to ta 
ceovnled luojitiarra, aad lo<ludeil la Uir arranKeniral. Tbe oU abaran 
aod qnartar* to be enlillad to lb* jaina if tnm aisib, (laaaaMlBa lo bt paa* 
OQlbelMh Jane, ISW. 

Laadvn nad BtraJafkoM Aallwaji, and ninnlaRbam NailEatioB Coa- 
panj. 

Tit SMhamflm Md Darvbrior, witii Ibe Loodan ai>d Stiaib tiv^r 

The ni«r« prEJ«44abi«« OM bMB lata aetln la rvcoiu^lliaf; conAicijj 
Intorv*'*, and Ibe followim aUta*co* or atnalgaaia lio t hare lakcn place' 

KrriK SrajPtrdakirr, witb Dafb; nod Crawe. 

RtatHtg antl Ittigalr. with ReadJDB, Guildford and itafgala. 

Wtiek JUiillml. aod Newport, AbentatMioj aad Herafeid. 

Wawiuj V»lltf, and lp*wi<h and Norwich. 

Svulh Ruttm, and Du*t<r, D*al, aad CiMt>i« POKa. 

Sitmlon amd fork, aod HnoUnfidoD, Bt. Itea, Wkabcaob, 
UoloD. 

CJtrploir, Ftrul ^ Dmw, aad GJaiHMfrr, with Walffk 
Cateiulun. 

Bl'tnimih^m and £«iMaJrr, and Direct Bir«iia|;baa «mI Lcucmci. 

hft4* and (.'urfirff, and Vorktbire and (iI*>eow Union. 

Loadoa oad fJimia^Jtinii, witb ltiniiitiK'>*'n. "WotTrrhaiDpIni lad 
Stour ValLef ; Shrewabor}, aod llimiingtiain ; Dudley, Madeley, BMarlq 
•Mil froB llruli;* United Co^iptny. 

WvTi^tUtt H^urKicJf oad Hagfy, witb Kugby, Varwkk and VorcaaM, 
aod \rarwitk and WurvMlar. 

JUvKluntrand Hftly Dirod, nod Cbumot and BIrlbc. 

linfo/a, U'atitjUit (fnrra, oad fiaaiM, and Groal Gnn»by, 
and Ltiuih. 

Gvuic, AsMcartrr, 5AgjI(M iMd itmchultr JuiMtitn, and South Y* 
•liira Cool Companf. 

SMfjfiiU mul LiKcoluUrt, ami Maocbeaier and LiaoBia Vbtwk, 
Galniibro' Canal. 

TVcnl VuJJry, .Utdlnmd, and Grsad Jaa<f j«a, and South SUflordahUa. 

WtrtttW, lltT(j\ird, Hat* and UiomtUcr, tlrtat WeUtfM, Wilb 
Worcaaler aotJ ttantU Walei Juuctiuti. 

Jitrden. lianffaud Elgin, and Or«at Kurtli of ScnUand. 

Se»nu)t Hauth Vulland, nod StiHio^ and Uunfcnnliac. 

EdtabvuK and Ltiih AlmttjiiHTu, »ai Dtrvcl EdiobnrKb asd 
Alaiuapbrnc. 

Tyar Vidltf, aod Can Lnlhiin Caaal. 

Midlamd tirsal Wetltm ^ tttla%d, and llili-uionla Calw4j and 
aod iLc LilTcjf Braoch, Lorigfurd Drviadoa 

AailuA Gnuid Jumctivn. aom only from Oliao to Lochlontnad. 

FaiiKand Ltgdt, uufrivudlji icrai* with iicultub Ccnln(l,and i 
and DuoibiLftuiiahire. 

The JtUawaif! Ltmftar^ Almdanrd for (A* Seui*l. 



QirpiHir, Pomt ul Dtii, a^ ObiiKOiMi. 
liTfrreol. Pnitkn. uid Kurlh Union. 
Wolmhunpinn am) HlrWaliciid. 
Btrsiliitluin, U'»i HfuniMFh,M>dWaM4l 
Rullin-inT*!) KicikofEoiliunl. 
r^viwixal (ml niiiiinM. 

Wflrrmimpt'n: Cb-tUr tkud nttimbcad. 

Slnulbirltk'A *^l W-ovt*«(«r. 

Ru.Ii|m*^I.I, Eaii aui) VI aM Coul. 

GrMi Vrlrti Onird. 

Tma V«llrT Cnoi:i"i«ioB. 

Wlilibr, pKkiiliif. T)iUwli.aBdOmt5ot-Ji 



Vath mil F.MI Klilliw. 
JUnfrrw knil Aji rn.iniln. 
Sanqulmr anil UultVlilr. 
SokiUtli Niiriti Wnif m. 
Arbroulb *ii(i f^iivpthAvtn 
l^nnublf* and KMKm Cou 
Fatih Cbatbli*. 
Wnl r.na (nd Saulhcm CooalM, 
ll*)B*BI'l Cwnl Halln,, 
Irte vf WlibU 

tunci tondon wirt Exur. 

Gr«H N«rtb a«J »OBlb Vatai, Ml< 

tnwr. 



w- 



UW-J 



TUG CIVIL ENOINCGR AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



71 



UAUSK OF THE CATA&TUUI'UE AT BARENTIN. 

O^r proAtMludtl oormpoodealt orito lo u* eiprewax Ueir inabititr to 
^kt nui ttw mch racvdiac ikw ncccul c«t>alropli« uf ii*o Ilw«Btia ria- 
iMt. and their duira U ubtalo Hcb ailhcBtic iairJllEcne* mirclinc tlw 
hd* of tlie CAM k« isaf «iut>l« ut to )^ard, If potMble, aputui tka roeur- 
KOM or ttiailar c«aaUlica, •« diaumxia t9 railnaj foterfiriM. SinuJar 
iccidoau have bappcocd ia IhisooualQi gvavralljr frum iiij»diouinIj lip- 
fiat ibfl iinff out of wHeuas <H) the arch«i if kUc ;*I (tn sr«4^s> aad un- 
(qnallr IfwHiiif Ihrm lo aa to pnth la tb« baanth, and ramae Dp Ihf 
Ifuwn M «3 lb daalray Ilia tqaililiriam of Ikn ardi. In atb«r dbhc*. tlie 
fbaadalVna Im> p*«a my ; knt tiiiR Uarteiia caae appeaH allli ta l>a 

rrenn tli' Pnoch papera ire kan enAeaTaaml. bat to nSn, to fallin 
aaoaMfPt lnwl)t|[a«ca. Tlw itAivmtnl ^mm* directly oppuaiie, aaJ ao 
Mt«ed vrDh [ira)odice and mauifeai iU-fMliii(, thai II li aot puatllile tu 
pWIDd any InleniUj ponaitlaal OpUkm oa tbrit OaU-iaABbi. flrfa llio 
VmKb rattway joarnal coalndlcto Itaclf Aal)?, ao aa In difplajr Htbertlic 
tiaataial IgBOtssoe or ibe crealeai prvjodice, on a aubiitct na iihioh crerj- 
taty araaMoatMnlly hate uipwtect li lo be ialelligaflt and Juat. W« 
Iiiv9 n o«e riiy aMnriag ui (bat (ba itraelur* w«« tmill in ennfnrBiity wllh 
ik pIfeMi of ilir («i^iirrr, Ihal tb« nuiway aampany nnit Iberefurt htciir 
■H A* Ion. »ud to leadlag the abarebvUar* la tbb ctfunlrjr lo bclio*« 
Aa( iWir pinna were fault;, aod tbal ■ dealtn, ofcourM ill-propuniuacd 
■■I kt^tcWvilj piaoee'l, wb« timtrig* matiM. Thaa, aaii wack, wc daU 
bilbaaanitjoaraal a toUnr (ratn tba«Mtnoionl)N«iM«lTC«, giiiog (be Im> 
U lbs >o«fsalt *nd ilatia; tlwt 1b« work V&a alter*d fron Iba plan* to 
mi tbdr wlaboa, IhM Uivjr tiaM tbrmKlvrt and n«t llw cumpauy rctpon- 
for III* to0,&Ml tbat ibaT worn iouitrd lately t'> recomiseiiGe Ifaelr 
Thli ti k Itnia «radilable to tbe EsGlUfa eontiaclun— creditable to 
Mackcnale k Bntaaj, of wbum ve np«c4«d no Im« ) it b ta eaerj way 
aalrabtod to enbanca ibAlrcharteler, wbkb ia ra(pe<4«(l both Hbrwad and 
(Ihoaa, and it la also a atep wUcb Bart tcMi lop" ^^ public c-rnfldaucc 
tawbaiererlUei may In (Wtare undertake, It also juaiiOM tluM dirr«- 
Mt of the compaay wbo bave raponed in tfam Impllcll caoSdeiMa fw llie 
■wvliwi of woifca ofeaoraiMiaeiKal.aMl glrea ooniilMM alau lo Eagliab 
llWlifcnlilaia Bat vrhal arc fr«t wbal •» IW abmboldera ia Eagland, 
Id aay lu a French jouraai, which pfofeaaea to walcb oier tbeir iiriefeain io 
Pmnw, and yet apreadi Catea •taraia aaoa^ theiu aad lite public, au parU- 
Uif ifca raJue of ih^ir pmparty, by laemakag ibafaaratt ought in have 
^aaacid Uy a jitdiciout and wrcll-UiD*d alalanient of the Irulb, and, when 
aUlfed lo pabUsb an uDklal ooulndlcUoa fmn aaoiher annme, doca not 
a*aa (ranhly ap«kigiM tin iia form^ dellnqueney, nor ailirn (a ibu ii(iua> 
flat of (rblfh U bad been guilty f Snrely, It U manlfwat tbe InteraiUuf 
Aardtolilefa are not «>fe in '^cb ki-t^iiag. 

Wm liave, ll»«r«/i>ret aadcuvotirvd to oM«ia from our C'>rre*M"i*nl< (""f^ 
ihi apot. a iftic acc4iin( ofibe amdeat; nod wo oovr s»d ovr re«drn( 
«tlb tbe naaiatai>c« ofbii ikficlte*. a fair and lolemtilr preciae OAOouiitnf 
Ibe i«ait«e< Bat, Inl we five the e«nlr»dictJnn referred lo. 

TIn foUowiiig letter wa> (wUre»*ed tu the editor of Iba Jeirnal dti Cht- 
■terftf fcr:— ^Slfi — In reply to ibe article ia year nuiuberuriMiurdny 
^Mt, w« hare tbe hoanur to Infiirai yim that we take upon oniKhes the 
ebute reapoctiibtllty ofthe aceiileul, and wilt befiolo rebuild ibe riadutt 
itlbaaideUy. W* are noH in a L-oDditioo to aay «it1i certainly bnw tlie 
^Bidanl aricioaled, bwt are diepuwd to attribute it to tbe (nbttilulioa 
r«itb Mr. Loche'i api>rt>batlon) nf iio>ae-«roih ku tbabosra orthepirra for 
Uw Uitk-iotk prepared hi tbe drii^inal plan. Thla altarmiioa was mad* 
II ear rei)u«al, wiib m ri*w to aceelemln Ihe progrnn uf llie wurL. and 
Wl the Mg^eiMDt w« bad ountraoted nilb the eumpar.y.— U « hn*e tha 
laHUr in be. ho. M^cKhstir. k BsAUtv." 

Tb* arcbe* are Mnlelrealar, aail dealgned of ample dinimRiuoA and 
IMMXtb— eotiHi «ii|t><M«r>. Wboia we kDOW. would baea becii*BU>ficd uilh 
MWidcnbiy Icaa eUength. Tbewbula wofk waabrieli.eieeptuigtbe b*w« 
atlbe fhtrt, wbiih wear of Mane ; and ibe fact b unqweatMuabk, Ibal «u 
Iba day befnre the acctdeol not the ilif;ble*i Ban had been dl*co*crcd in any 
perturibirbfick'Work, bat that eenical rmck* iiear tbe CQcnent hail be«a 
obaertad ia Ibe alMo -work. Now, be li ebacrved, Ihla (toae-work waa 
^Uw fiH*H beotied with rubWa. Lot our ea^iaeoriiig reader leek at 
Ika ptaa. and ibeu let kin tkink oear Lb e probable effect of ikik— taking 
1m» ioauuui. aa we tonnerlr atalcd. a lilUe biale and a £(cat deal ufnrt 
weadiar. 

Va aoX here ttolice a lart uf prufi<st]o(i>l eonlroreny wbteli eibla in 
Fnacabetwcca ibe tlaglitb aagiacert asd Ibe F/cueb. U'c Kugli^ like 



brtck>watk — we uodenUwI It, udw« nako It good, as gooi thai fr«a «m 
cndllc iLcotberof ibcrail«raj(Kita»iiic)e flaw ouald be delected by Uie lB> 
apector-Keiiera] io any part of tba brlok-work of lh« line. Tbe Preach an- 
Kioaarada uul like bricli-work. Tbey are, pethapt, better acijuaialed 
wilh (tone, ai>d certainly like it belter. Cv thU aa it amyi tbe c<:4iac> 
•lueoce, a» regude tbia WMk, baa been •< f^llnwa;— Tbii briJ,tu nu t-ri- 
Kiuully detigned by iHo eagloeer and contracted tur oa ail ia Mtk. Tb« 
c<iEiricinn [lartly ti> expedite tbe work and partly to please the Freocb en- 
k'iueer*, aakwl leave to Make tbe baaea of Iba fitn nptoa oerUln point tu 
Unne-work : they obUloed tbe pemlMkn «f Ibe eogiaeeea lo do ao ; and 
Ibua, ifl a dcalrv to csp«dite llie nark aad to pleiue tbe French enpaeen, 
Ibcj have brovihl m tbcmKUea ■ loai, in w bleb we niut all aynpatbltt 
with them, and wbieb wa e«B attribute to nolhinj but ibe beit Intenliona. 
TbtacasBally, white It eatalU pecuniary iota, will mi le tbe ebaruler of 
tbe (oott-telDre fue h'>ne»lj aud respvuibility, IkiUi here and abroad. 

Well, lo return to the accident. Tlita hiouo b*>e was 19 feet grcatei 
dioiurier than lliebfkk pier reailiigna tu Tbo chirf prraisrn of ibc wei^til 
uf pier aj)d brld(e waa Uiua brongbt to bear on tbe rvbble bevtiag. Tha 
tcadvuey of ibia to cruUi the btwtliig end bunt tbe facing ia nsanifeal. 
Tbe vertical cracks eUible that muruiag in Uie eUiae caainjf were evident 
aynptoaaa of it i aad aa the npprr work waa perfectly aonBd,aDd bad beta 
•ome lime conpleled, tad aa tb« pile foaMlatiuai an atill perfectly aoand 
a* fares eaa be discerned, tlw «aa>e ia Banifeel. 

Tlie Ivsaanall teacbeaaraalkoobiaoui: we are all wise ^cr tbe fkct* 
we caa all imr ace thai it w«a weak to yield to aa idle prejudice and not 
v*e brick ibmu^nol ai u:«nd^— we ran all arc thai it would bare beta 
better io wail until the hrielu were got, Ihun to build wnrk to lombta 
down ! But who woald have vcalured to aay beCirrluoi), to this potat 
aaay you gn, botb In baace aBd in natrrlala, and ao f«rlb«rr No I Cop- 
Iractnr* and eaflneera tniut often make aacriaoe* of oien opIekM to 
•oeonpliab what they aoncriM tbeir dnty to Iha companies Oiry aren ; 
and ifln dnlng ao, they comnilt error*, Ihey are but tnea galii!n| ex- 
perience, and tbcj ka*e lo pay fur ll. Bat ia ibS* conalry , at lonat, itfaea 
they brarel J set llicir face to do Itidr wnk honcetly acil well— aad wbcD 
taJteoasairJioIr, tlio workla hooeelly aad creditably doae. u e«erylUiif 
u Uuu Ea^U «B(iaeera and Eogliah eoelraelora haee do«e in Fienuh 
railrmda— Ibay will niMt with thai syspathy and aapport fn>m ibelr 
cniinlrym^D which Uiey bare a rit;hl ti> I'iprrt, aad they will be ealJUed 
1(1 llutE rrtpect and eiteetn nbroad , wtuch tbeir ai^bieieniEata nvust ouaaiaod 
from all tlgbt-ntladod a«id jodiciovt men.— ftttilwey CAmicie. 



TRACT ON VOLCANOES, SpaiNOS OF HOT WATCB, AND 
EABTHQDAKF.S. 

Daring tbo period of my alteriog Ibe biit-waier batke, at BoxtoOi ia 
Drrbythlrc, I waa nalarally led lo rcDccl upon the ca«w« of itia varlona 
but apnnfaoffiatvr.B&d Ibe regularity ufUie aapply, aud 1en]|>rralureat 
etery eensoa of the year. Thirlyfive yeara have aince el*p««d, and ttie 
iiitcrtal ba*airvr<]»l me many oppirluuilies arjadKing wbalJitr IbenollMW 
abich I Ibco entertained were cstreclly iouiMl«d, aad wbeibrr ihej de> 
fcned to be proaiiitgnted. 

]tekdiii|iBtr[y in a Colnuial JouriMl an articla on Toleanoea, wbkb 
contain* the folloning rcnMtka, I ba*e been led in ael aet down lh« cuo- 
ceptiana atludcd Id, and in refeeuac* In tbe wrilci% otiaerTatiuue, via: — 

** U'lxn tbne Orra weie Liodled, by what ton uf foci Ibcy are Mill 
maliiiainedt at wliai depth* below tbe Mirfiit^e of tbe cartk tbey are placed, 
whelli«r l^uy iiii<v a luutui&t cutuien^Ui iauJ b^tr lou^ Ibvj n^ey cont4UU« 
lij bora, are ijurBliuiis wbtcli lilt n»( lulniil Jio itiuy decmojii, Ibe greater 
nuinbr uf vulcaneM rise in a cceic, Ibeir muuUi or ciaier, hu gMietally 
lite ebu|w of acaporan miericd Inane); bisl in aonw inataucea ike Una 
liCfaka ont at tlie aides. Wbea the fires Dnd Do iaaae tbry proiiuca aanb- 
tjii&Li-*. When V'cMrlus throwa olT its indanuDable conleuis by aiuderala 
abd rcEulnr ■lupiiona, tbo lahobiUaU of Nnptea bave bnl litlie l» dread 
nil, llteocGorreaoeof aa earlhiiaake: after a lon^repoae Ihe volcano brcaka 
uul wiib a4ittl<'«Hl foroe ; ih< I'Krnt of ii> i^iliK-iic-s Is aatoatohiog ; thai 
(if TwnUiraa In nna of Iha laUndtof the Indian Archlpeht|[o, was felt 
tbnugli a eitt-ular sp«i« nf WUO nilea la diameter.** 

1 eubniit wt!h great diAdeoec wlielhee il nay not be peiaible to ahow 
ibal llie utii(in uf nliiioU all llie iuUiaal heal uf Ui« oartli uites simply frnm 
Uir attruclinn of the particiea eompoaiac it. In fact ooiasiiiuiiuf aa nnlveraal 
prcMn re. greater in tbe 1 1 act ratio that tb«M partlclet cnllectirety have 
to MM aaeiber. Let me instaaoe,wbat w« all know, tbal indepeadeatly of 



k 



7a 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECrS JOURNAL. 



[Ma KOI 



the qu«litiM of tlic coaipoii«nl »oil, in «*er<r per^retjvn) iolo llrt body of 
the urili ibe letapKfttun Incmm rrguIuHr with ibftdcpUiof p«<fa«UiaQi 
and Ihal ilio ir>ter vrbeit n4c!ii«l h«* Unajs ■ vrirmth ptvporiiooato li> 
its dvpih andrr 1(10 iacumbent (oililhui nttoral rnartlnvsalllMirarigiDBl 
afrlsg* (If oaiutKai) * wkrnlh wbieb in tha ««ld««1 ncalkar prcrouu ihtir 
(recaiag, tail it ku beta aMtrtaitiei] (bat tb« well 41 I*ari»> tbr dccp«ft 
we MiBT* tnt ncMUlvd, B*<ie ■ bigh (eni[ierature mucb above the btat 
of nsy olli«r 8rtl6tjal tpring. 

L«t DID radnraur to explain nj *ieiF« by ob*er*iag, UibI kdmitliDs u 
a theorjr, ihai ibe attraction ur cuodeoMtiou nf the roaleriab of iht e*r1h, 
sitd •iaplj Ml uiiil», I concclTG that at Mmc cooruoiulj grrat prcMnrc I 
bell«t»tbey nmld be vilnliM], 1 placed on tin It ranah't Hydrn>talk 
tngiac, a kharl »qDaK eolann of Potllaoil itoae, lii. Ift. Tie. hisli, aad 
Ifl. bj rs at boUum and lop ; (bia pi«ce at iIom bunt aMU>dtr i*iil> <be 
prtuurt ir>i loQtt lt>4 rragoiniti b«ia|[ thnii quite but, ami the fi-acture 
wtt Blteoded tritb a report m land w that of a pUlol. No<» admittios 
that (liapn»sunor*achparlion pT the Burfuc« of the earth Vt by lit, 
•O^rtefM, prMlne«(I a beat such a» detcribed nader the preMiire of a 
COlumD e^«a1 te tbe treiglit of ITST too*, eniacrvaKcd height may 
rauoaablj bo iiippo^Ml la gcnerateliral ia ibe (anie proxrCMiun until at 
length >uch hMt woul'l b« pntducecl, that npuoaion would fblluw, aad 
el tcDfitk a Tokauo lake) place Id eone place of Ibe 'n*c(t of Iha gl»be, 
probably whrre a> nt eca ihrrr is the leaal inniinbcDt meisht, or in twniD 
diattief of euvotry wh«n the aattucef their con*lliiieal nat^iUIa opposed 
lb* leoat rciblaeCA to *s^u>iofi. 

U'iih rMp«t Iff the beat of naler, the reSr«lioB oa the luuot coutiileralle 
KeiMcrs gives tbfl taatt lofcrfiict', fur lot ui admit that wal«r tbiU perco- 
late lliettMaretDfihe parth tn a xn>al ilrpili. aiid that ii» Inciiinhpnt 
woighl prodiMM brut tn luc-h an axtfnt that it boiU over, aud ilial aflcr the 
beat escape* a temporary tabtideecc lafco place, thu* ibe «tceptlons of 
the gei»*er Aot* i»l r<-uccur uuiil bcal \tM bceu o^aia reteneraled by tbe 
tvae pteaeure wdich befoev produced II. 

Foaaibly ti may be oppoMd, that the ragoUrity ofRnxlon, Bathi, anil 
olber overflo wing hot aprlogf does Dol lead li> thu cnnetusinn;; I am icclloed 
toUiialc that when there are natural cavilic* la nioUBtaia» vhich am 
ladpkBlauf wulcr, and whrnilic laeumtitBl ptvasme ia oulcx»Mi<e, aud 
nhcre tbere art orificeij which diacharte ibe auperabundant nalcr. It It 
nol irraliunal to »u|ipaee that tbovrut* juil nfrrred to perfurtn Ibe office of 
(eiaterB, aud ai thtru i* nu ubstractiun to Uiem by the narruwiMrta of their 
orifieet, Of vatt height ofcolumag or water, viol^ot iliechargee do not 
Ifke piece. 
. Afurtliort>baerTBtiuD oavalcnnnet, andcarlbinakci nay pcrhapadcarrrr 
■IIOBllon, namely, thai ia the dbirittk where ih«y have mure particularly 
been atl*ndod ti>, the compuoenl loUa are iu iLemaelm of a uutare liable 
to the acliita of fire. Sulpliur abound* near Etna. 

Il auaj be said, tliat adiuillliis ibis doclcinc of ihc gesicralion of liral aad 
the Mif-diKbarse tbrrcof by in eacape by vulcanoei, and the iuiaaioa o! 
bM water, and hul *upDur*, m there muit be some portlaae of Ihe earth 
wiMre tbeee eSorIa of nature do uoi njipear \o lake plitce. To Ihii I reply 
Iknt w« are ao ignorant orthoIavrcrfflMlttrucinre (if ihc earili, aa lo Ike 
Incliualtun tif iheir tarinui beile, that il la poaailile llvcta ilie icreat tpdI nf 
the North, may ai-rie ti (he chiiuney of a (treai region, and ihal the other 
voteaiiwi mrniiDued iu (he rtmaisdt'r of (be atlicle Gr#t referred (o, tnaj 
dia<liar{;e the »ij|j«ral>u»diiul hvat of ulhtT portivua of the Globe, for it b 
notorkma Ihal cartbi|uakci arc felt 30 or 34 degrrt* of loogilude disiatil 
fnMD the place* vrhrrc auch erupticint ha>c takeo plnce. 

Il ia Iherefure, 1 inul, no prctninplioD (a rnlerUin (hnM> idMl that •« 
loaf aa giavilatioa ciUli, Uwre will be a gibcraiiuu of heal, nuil coiise- 
queollj tkat tbii dlecbar^e uf heal, is aa iniiKiitaut tlispcuuttlun in inaia> 
laiaiagttiiaGlahr, aod ihal allbiHigli a«u>elimc» dicaidful liiilaiiun* are 
.Witueaanl, yei they are sot wrlhoul their baneflls to llie great bulk of 
mankind. 

Jmih Witrre. 



Paddli Box Hoita Aatvoowu. —The lUtritatitw Kca»-rr>^ale, Cai>- 

lala tMhlnstm, heitnc irtmiH tm paddlt-box IwMi 10 IIk ^'rtfBiuutti liMl-jtii a» 
at«e«alDrih<lrfT«iilirf%U(lt<iiMjHlB naibwrt*oTawr«(^Jle-l»i b><<ti aiiid.aail 
Itae pedJle-lxa l>anw«Uii|lTaMBdrbeUtnpl> tbeuiwl ny. 11 b«t->t«ppwrni dm Ui 
ewael <ao farfy (oawaienu* •• many boau ■* u* sarmur oa bsard ■nd <if oe twt 
qaaxoa. aitbowt (ocambtr Init ktreetf wMb nil* Uni apf urmaDcci. Tbr (vbotiI uT 
tw pHlilU-lm l»a> bw (iTm tbit lot tcmiI a owcb utn t^iutj anil UiM *K>r«. 
aaM.aat aadaoVi <>IU«tut bwla ».|«fc n . Hh*l*lMwBiicin<>kkc»WAUa«lNt« 
t» (trtaglbea htr pataictotiia. 



BEviz:\ea. 

jia £ney on on Imprwrd Mtlluid t^ CmiMttnetitmfw Vhdtelt, . 
and 1l\inHrb, ftrin^ on AppticvltQH nf thf Priitciple of thmtrtat Gtveilttiot, 
at iilttttnUti IB Ike Solmr Syitem. By Mrisrt. Btair aail PUUipa, Aicbilcca 
aul Civil Engidcen. Laitilon : At'eale.'Ifi'lS. Eio. pp. 10. 

H'e are conttintlT called opoa to ctitlciie opimoui which eriace toeoirart 
CMiccpilon* uf mechaiiin. Iiui ve aeliiom or never have crilidtcd any diuart* 
aUon in whlchlhe laNt of oaiura are bo glorioualy cocfouniled togethet m 
in the pamphlet befora at. To tuut (we hope, all) of cur iea>ler« iu title 
will audEdently explain it* taeHU ■■ the ia«« of raulion and tboie of cqwh- 
hrluraaTR ihroo|boDt tnkcn a* ulentical; the tquilibrium of arcbea, &c. o 
referred In tbe *■ principle of gravitation a* illoitratml In the Sotar S^ltm/~ 
Kiiun Inuatk amiei .' 

We nil] uoi Bllcmpl antthing like acrioui argument re*perting ibe nm 
propouoded in the ptnipliltt. U ia Deeeaury to a aaiiifaelory dHCOtalOB 
that (he ditpctauu ahoutd have (omr rimilar vieira: ne ibonld iaa^M, 
boveter, thai Mr««i«. Slsir and Pliiliipt have aot aae Uta in conmea with 
ui mpeottng ihti ihcory of the arch. DIauuiilarily ofopinioo may rtada 
point beyafid which argiiraoat b fmtileu. It li poinble to divngc an te 
from the highway of reeeired opinion* u to reader a return lo it abiolnteif 
hopeleii. Uut auili'Or* *eeni io thii iirrdtetntcnL. lloweier, thai lite rorfcr 
may judge for bimaelf at to the pOMlbllliy of their hereafter retuming to the 
paiba of ortbodeiy, ire give one or iwo ihort eilruta. ■ 

" If an arch be turned over any opcninj. and a wall he built npcn i', 11* 
nreij lupporti rtry hl(l« beiidei iuelf. Tliere ii no *cigbt for it |4 avppott, 
beeauteihe poiilion which a rcgulnr wall lakr* itlbatof a centiaii«d Mnn 
of eorlieU. which cortirl* niMl in the oenlre, anil fotm a dirtict liiie fraio Ih* 
tenirrioeach pier. Tbitcemiiidiuiof t general Inw iif gravttatioa br wbwb 
ali biidirt. tn/lnt inimptJ*d. faU dirrcltii lo Ihf torlh't (tnln, tuul, '\f t*. 
ptiti, lah a Jirrct line tmdl^s fa «"»' tStyrtt lourardt Ikal entire. 

Wilh thia Ian of uaturc before our cjei, let w ciaiaine— Ul. tbe aan- 
circular arcb. Thi» form of atcJi it uied verj tniirli, and is bv many cw- 
tidered of great ilrenath. Naw itp ivjib to show ihat of iljcif ihit ord; a 
eery weak. Il ii we^. beeanae, when a weight u placed on any one pwi <f 
It, there i* grcil dangtr of it beeominjt dcTorni^." 

The rtmaika are ilhulrated by ibiiiril diagrami in which areiieii arc rr- 
prceealed aa dUtorted by a tuperincuinbeni preaiure into all kind* of in- 
pottible ehapei. Hie aulhora leeto lo Chink that nhcn an arch failt It ia hy 
ilie alipplng of tbe vouMoin on each oiher ; wbcrtna io practice il ii aal* 
vereally found thnl the friciion of tbe Touuvira U to great (hat tbey caanal 
tllrlt. ind thai ibeirch em only fall by the opening of ihe joint*. TbeptttI 
endrnvoured lo he elaridaird hyiheae diagran» it ihal all nnri arcMt 
Oiuit be dittorted by prctturc upon them, and iltit a |«rfeeily flat arth a 
alone free from this dancer. Tbe rrovoninjr i» ai faIlolTa:— 
*■ Why j* ihii? riic mtna ii cvjdeai. Thn lineof th« Brdi U car*(4. 
and at CHrvcd (and tn proponlou 10 ita currr) liable to bend. 

" Ve romr tMm lo cur grtat poht, oenteJ^. tAnf irtighl fa«t ■• rffree* 
linn, mit nol (a cureei, ej it itijifioMd,- and the nearer oor (uppAftt ap- 
pnjicb loatiratght Ime. the n>nre itrrngtb we obtain. If thit 11 true aW 
it cannot be denit-il, the clli)>ltcBl arch ii uf all arcbrt the «t*ke*t." 

It really it nu oiore than chivilable la Inform the wrilen that (he *ireB{ith 
nf BD arch drptodt doe only on it> etirvatuie but alio on that which ihQ 
liave allogethtr neglccled to cDuaidrr — tbe ilcptli of iti vouMoir*. 

We are informed by our author* (hat ihey take no credit to Iben^r . . ' : 
tlie plan of biiildlng arcbea Hal. hut lhp}-proBoune« the wbola bO'i; 
engtn««n blorLbeail! for rot baling pre vioinly Ihuugtil of it. 

" It iDiy, howrvcr. sad. ne ilotilit not, will ba Miri, thai what we ada 
I* plain and easy, and that vt need sot cla;m 10 ounalve* any crtdit 1 
imdiKins iU Wo acknowltdgc thai it ii boiii plain and eatr ; in<f 
elated Ihu at tL« caoimtncctefiit of BardMcri]iltan. Oui wbn la I 
ho* apptitd thi» pl*iii and r»«y method ? If wc cannci claim any c 
aurely they that Itare overluoked wbal w* lia^-e now mktn up hm^ i 
(bcrw Of tfnoi-amtttti. and »ol dnrrcBif fht namr end liilr of <inl ni 
For wh^ ahuuld ihe Imi meihod of eoDttractioD be lei ahitle, and ao 
oM adoptei} .' Why f)iou;il ibouia&ili and ten* of Ihtiuunili of fami 
tluown away In lliai which i* wuiie than tiieleaa — Injutiosi? And' 
ibould wc ptaltc mci ir*o. tlirutif la/iior i^rrie (mt^a i;/ Me uniFera*, 
crett a fi'jTk «'hoie BliMlir ihry d'lubted, or whiclt would nut 
lett of iiiM* and tbe rcKaicbn vf idiooe r" 

After Ihit tlK Iratt that the Inalitulinn cf Civil En^liieen snil the taitili 
of British Arrlritecla can dn, it lo ordiio a fait aad go into itiouniiag. 




THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



n 






' Cn^U TVMfiw M tkr OUifM JWA. By PRnn Nicaouox. Third 
LoBioB: OroganbtMfc, 184(. 8*<>. pp. 110; 43 litkogtapUt 

Iteui. 

TU> 1* 4 new «4ition of ■ work reviewed U • fcraer TCloine oflUi J<nr. 
nl TIm otijoct of ibe lr«t<ie U contntd lo tb> riplauUioo of Ui* g«oaio_ 
triad taraa awl position of tlue Tenwoln of Oliliqae Arfh#«. ind doM not 
«nm«lM the ■eclunieal Uiearj of thcte Urncturet—Ui* tuiijtti U ia fwt a 
foficahr bruch of DMcnptive UMmetrjr. The iltrcc prellaUirr chapten 
tRtI oTlboee principles ot pUne «nil kM gcamtttj wblrb if* necanry tit 
A« nptlDilkiD of ihf comtcnctinn of rblique uebM; tlie theory of whicli 
b dtfUed Into Iwo porlloiu— ihe theofy at obliijue aichet, wkh ipiiai iobu 
»d Ihftl ciAhLqae ttcfao •■A ploiic jojsu, tbc diMiKtioa hetNcea U>e tvo 
UA of Uclm N iku* deinnl. 

^^ oHifitf «rr> wiih tpini >tfiilt, U Ibet m vhlch the vitfaeet of Uie bcdi 
■4 the iDrficc* of the joiaiii »re hoth tpini lurfacei. 

W U ohCipie trcli with iptfal JoJnIi he extetitfri apcortllnj tn the priiio. 

— bera nikbtlihed, and mi try ■ plane ptrpcniJicalat lo ihf uit of tU <w. 

T, tke wrttcii wii: txliibit a i*ri*» of itral|bi linrt, dnidiiig the trs «f a 

j*lO Moaller mct, aad the liaei bebg prolon|(d, «euM meet in the 

aUlque trA irith plane JoinU t< that in wUtch tbc bcdi oi ||m atooei 
■M plaan, puaiai through the Mi» of ih« fylmJcr. The plaMC* of the 
)ebU behif |«raUrl to the aiii. (ntcnei^t rach face of Ibe arch ia Terr 
eUqne ao^ea. and oiljr one of the joinu can he prfpcndicnUf Ut Uie f»« 
iD the othrr joinU, •• Ihey rwtde Xrww lUe ctnttt. are mare aad mote' 
•td^lM llll lU; rrwli the •uiutiiii of ihe areh. Aieretf ohti^oe jomtcMitci 
Ik anglaiuadc hy ihofaM ami that Joint ta be >oyuBn|ual,iheohiiueBntU 
waibc wiieli»l»oOBertIiui tb»ti.hich 1> acute, litrwantlribeins auppiemeMi 
«t each otht. Therefufc ohliiju* •tcbe« «ilb plane jainU abouhl tiaret be 
■Md ■hero gfMt itreagtb ti n«rt(*.ry ; and w)ier« Ibe awle ofiibliquHy it 
M>J aAla, lh« chliqiie areh «itb tjiwal jnjalt ihiMU ofilf be <aiDlo<«d a* 
Ik aflnl iolaU are u aeaily pcrpuidicuUr ta th« fae« u tbc cosatnctloo 
Vw adntil.'' 

Of cuwic in a work Itle thb one of ttio flnt rwinliltea la tiiDplicity aad 
fmMan o< Tanioase. rbr difficulty of conrejinit by imnk (aad «Tca by 
Aagran*) ctaar idcu of solid gwamFtrr ean only bo uvckoim by die mm 
MnipalMii adherence to the plain and uneompticaicd node* of npaviaioQ* 
Ow amhoT aecaw to hare |«nnily paid peat BUention lo ibii poinl' 

AmoKf <he»ewponJoB»ofthe|iwaMiledWoui*aiiMetiptIonofani>b!iiuc 
tafalgc over the tiicr Ganoteit, to whicb Iba following geacnl ohtcrvaUona 
Vt appe bdcd. 

■• To e»«lroct aa BMiqun a>ch entirely of tlone U, in some entitiirjei where 
H i* diOmll to prorure, lery tajioutike. Howeirr. in order lo btiild one 
trtiieh win h« (uffioaatly tirang *l » nodmtc price, it is nfresiary that Ibe 
iHfMata w (ptiiifMp should be if atoBr, and, lo b*i« ilie a(i|H-irnnM of 
fMd w»rfc. Ibe qni^ua whu-b Ibm Ihe ring-ttenM and the bead of the arcli 
•bamld aim be nl alone, Thrn Ihe inieemediate parti of Ihe coune* may he 
of brlrk. (allawioK pertiapi foot tMinei of btirlo to each tinne tprinier,) 
dr[wii<rin)i: on Ibicknett al the atiutcneut. To work Ihe rprlngen atid the 
^r,ia.Uf-t'it, Ibe aanie Irrapleu will be rrtjiitied a* if Ihe arch had been oon. 
>tna«d CBtlTfly of .1»1K. Prtti»iu lo tetcins the hnck oouraei, Ibe board. 
iu Of lafKliiK* ahmild be Inil* adjotud ami liied ; and, (or ifae rejulitton 
Ofttie wafV, lb« hed-ltufi tlxiuM h« dra^n thercou in Itrir true position, in 
oede* it try tb* work at ll.e briclLlajrcr prci-wL-di, be o«)ihl to use a kind of 
Hft.4miare. nadeof Iliia boaid.rantainia; an angl« exadlt Ibe tcTeno of the 
lewplel: iad.coo«e4juemlj.lli«eur«Ml eitgewill be concaVe in t lead of being 
•naiei. aa iii the arcb>»quarp. Tho 'idea of each coane being made to agree 
"i ereiy opfllralion of the tctoquarc. wilt he what il onght lo he. In 
e reuriei. if the aluiiea are truly wroii|bI, Ihe tpinl aiirfacH of Ihe bed* 
■II If ICC nith a Kt-tqnaie ; and, ihcieforc, in tliia out it will ba miiDe- 
to |irt»klc oac." 

There are aereral uacful tri^nomrtriral Ublei appended to the work, b 
atder thet tbe maieti may find In it all Ihe iitfonnation «hiuU be rrquiru 
vilboait tJie trouble of rtferring lo other lowki. The plaiee arc well exc- 
sou'' Al Ibe tuA of the lalume we regret lo ace arTcnil •■ totiuonialt re- 
pnTiai tier aorotaa wlucb itw aiaibor hai had in (he appllcwtlen of hi* prin' 
dp3M to the aeention of oblique arehea." Then teitimoBlaU appear Ui he 
tatiafactofy in lbrin*el*Gt, bat they arc osl of place. GeaOKlric principles 
■TV aoi patent aedldMi. 

CtaM*r ToBtw ro FataUalt the CtlevJalim ^Bartkamrkt riftOrtd h Utt 
OMfrwefiM x*^ RaiU^y, hft. By Jomh Ucviiaa, Sagiaoer. London: 
HofliBiii Wilwn. ISIC. IZbki^ pp. 86, 

TUi tea vrr}«a<fHl link iMMk.and the portahh form which it aaanmai ii 
Ml lU Iran reroniinefK^alioo. The object it to detittmine the Tolume of Ibe 
»gKd femni bf earthvailt in tollbgt ant! embank menta. 

Tbrre j> thia diftcolly la delermtDiog this aolidi that only one side of tl 




(i rectangular or of Uae aajne width thronshotit— eamely, the plana m- 
twenii Ibe roadway i(Mlf„irhieli,ieie(*h«Bfcaaeata, i« Ibe blRfaeat, and Ea 
cnltinp the lowest ^dc of ibe iwaameid; tba oiber aades ef this oolidTuy 
in all their dlnenahni, and tboMgh two aiilea oppuaite la each other taaj 
bo of DDOftial artas. For iaalanoe, ia a etitling which euoiniences at Iba 
foot of a hill and lemuoalca nl a IubmI, tlKdeplh gf IbecuttiDf^ padtiaOy 
increaac*. so (bat the perptadicular (ace al Ibe aioulh of the luuael ii of 
greater area tliaa the parallel Ttrrtioal plane, toppoaed to be dta.wa at the 
biLte of tbc hill. The two oblique fides of the cotitox also BcoBasajtlj 
widen aa tbey appniBchlltD laonel. Opposite portions of tbea maj tlao 
be unequal to eaoh olber, the depth of cvtiiug to the right and left of the 
railway depending od the urigiaal fcurn of the Uil. Ur. Hugliea lakoa • 
veryaiaipW taetboduf ascertakiBg the aolld caMnt ot itw pritnuid. Ua 
Inaglaes it dWidad intoaaniRwn (niall portion* by icrliciJ pluoca pa- 
rallel to Ihe faoee at Ui« cucooiCDccineQt oe cai «f tlw cultlug : »u ibat. Is 
fact. Ihe solid in connidered aa made up uf nuii'crous thin lUttt at eqoal 
fkifA«<ai, bat Tarring in their vertical nreai, Kliich afelrapntiun*. It 
IS clear, tiwt by asccrUiiaiaE the area of each of tbeae Irapexioeni, taken 
al a certain dctrraiiHlc lalcrrali the lolid content «f each iI&m mutj be de« 
lerniintd by kuuwinc Its tbickocssi aodi oddinjc all the solid canicnts ■» 
foQod, we ha** the tetal volume of the eutliog. Tlie aaaa method, eC 
tourac, applies tu embank nema. It is iuportaut, bowcrer, to rcmork n- 
■pecling the method here adapted, that the more ouinciou* the cr«M 
ecciloas arc> the more duselj will Ibe result approxiniale to alualuls 
accuracy. 

It is clear also, (liat Mr. HacWn's melfaod cuaierapUtes tJse (»ua is 
which the upper aide uf Ibe solid i« camd. The uhles bltbeslo pablisbad 
baic referred only lo the partieular case in whifb Ibe sulid it bounded bjr 
jnfimri ooly. Tlw fonowiog extract atay be introduced tu show how tar 
the present work differs froiD Iboac of an aaalecoua nalure wbiob ba«% 
pmceded i( ; — 

In ettenaiie n»rka, such A* railwaya and c«DaU,ihe nine of the earth* 
work iftalKiiit oDc-fourtb of Ibc entire coet »f conitruotioa ; end. tbcrefor* 
iTc find that eoti'oeet* ha*c ffi*ea their attention to cerivct Ihe apprnxima- 
tioDi with whiih, in poal times, Ibe parlies were tatitfied, a« well wh* 
eie«ute>d mid and canal wnrkt, ai their mperiuIeDdaata. The appcaninro 
of Ibe elabonlit I a hie* of Miiciirill.nnd uf I bote in a more tandrrn'ol fonn 
atiribulMl to Bidder, went far to eradicate tbc prartioe, almoal uniicmily 
pr««alent «f tnkine arerfMte hciKhts from a lonsHadliwl Mciion, or of 
aTrtiipug llie areu of the eras* ■cclioo* ; a practice reconmemlrd by Ita 
facility of appiicalinn, and baTlagnothiBg ia Its form, ualil reflection 'was 
bestowed npoo ii, la excite iusplcian of ecrooeons rcstilta in Ibc minds of 
thoie ^rho wero ile«ply interested ia ill Irvtb. Thedaainice to the ioiereat 
of conlraelors. in piiiutof qaaDttty, wni.howcter, in idl pmlnil>llity bb 
more than equleateai to the addltletial prloc paid lo them forexeoalioglba 
wotk ; liiit all arrangcmnits which depended on balanoiDg esobaokiMatt 
and [Qitinp were frequently found to be ooaTaiiahle, and Ibe diaappolnt- 
oicDia from <i>i* sonroo were sel down to a ebaage of hulk in Ihr tsRi^rial 
rvniDTcd, wbieh waaasauuied wilhoui sulRoieut eiDiainatinn. nnd wfatcb, 
until more oompatrnt perMua took sucb arrangciiiCTobt into Ibrir ow* 
bands, covered Ibe igoucance of the Burrcyora from tiic ryes of their em* 
ploy era. 

Bidder's tabic rci|uircs that the lonfilisdioaldimenaMna should be lukon 
with n iJuDlcr's chaia, o aiaDdard never inbodnced in Ibe drawinp or 
>pccili>:at>on» of tU architect; and, aa well M MneneiU't Ubtes, doea not 
extend to l.vi;;hl» ^rvutrr than iO feet, whilst cullinKS oci ur on railwaya 
more than IDQ feet tn drplh. At the eulraooeof laonels Ihey arc ranlf 
Ira* tlian 70 or 80 fret , anil cmlwakmniita of eO feet In height are not lan* 
tomniiin, I naiarally, iliercforc, directed mj atleution lo llie means of 
obituinc llii* incuuvtuicocc by employing the genTTniformnU for tbeeo*- 
(col of a priamoid, of which Alaeneill gaee a demonairatlaa aa appHsd l» 
u n'«trictad casei and upon which reitrleled case bnlli bis labJee aud 
Bidder's were ealeiilaled. Th<> paiticular case taken by Uacnciil, ka Ihia 
nf a solid bouodrd by a borlwnlal rectangular pleoc at the bollam ; by 
two parallel, trapeauulal, venical planea, of iisaquat hciglita, al the ends i 
by two irapeaoidal ptanrs, equally inolined, ud opposite aidee ef the ««e. 
tical, at tbc aides ; aud by a aiiih piano at tbo top, puaiof tbrmtgb tb* 
parallel base* of Uto eod Uapctoid. 



Tn SnniSHMi BsfMR at the KaLu or Nimaia.— Il b fcnpoMd 

ID cooMruci a dapensloD tridt* oVoit Uk |r*t)i ef tftsiata, ee aa t* Jala tlw Caaidta 
Hallinr ■nil Ihr Votled Blalw. Tlit rnruilaa ef It ts Is be cdbMbI to Mr. Cliarim 
Blleli, o( PlUltitrliililB, 91 W «'. Jutin A. Ildel-llng, n( Pit[.l..,.j[. Ur. Kin UulrTWavd 
111* ■pot. lot Ih* pBTTWi* of •IWBlnlnit Ih* lorilltT. uni ti ■»r»rl»lii Ilie iir*cUc*Mllt» of 
tncUiM vi titU * J**!"!"""!", llHf* li 1 iTli'f* ■■tilrS riUl« JkhiI ■ nilit wilt • \nK 
bdewtlw ralarael, and nasi llM (ulpli. e> vbvlpgol. Hturrtbi aliiancr M IbetwOCblcf 
■liulmnto. rK>iDaac*ld«>elh(Dlh«r. doet not •i--»el !•»• n. Tht 4i|»at«e Ite co*- 
alnctlnf ihl* MMir* art r*tlnwt«l tiy Mr. Ellen ai tljimi., for wUeli tan be oflkn to 
butU It, and be iub»mte» lilnuiir to tbe amount at f,»U. 



74 



TOE CIVIL ENGINEfcR AND ARCHITECTTS JOURNAL. 



[MtRfla, 



Mb* BMHik iactcaiFd 



THE BBOAD AXD NABfiOW CAmr^. 

BlimtTof VWt BirTiL Cuhmimiokesc. 

Mar l> ptraa* ?'>•' Majtatr^— W«, A« CamaHmkmm, tpptiA»t*i bf 
Will, tmittjmt M*jMlT'« Prl«)S«^, ImtUi 4irictW lltb«r July, ta dtr 
■MT«WMrowMit|Mtr'«r«iaB,l»lM|«ir>wWtlMr,lahliirrpHfatoactaor 
PkrflMMMt iM lli*««Minielkn*rraltw«)t, iMnbiM ftBgfciiab* M«i«lvr 
MnrlBX •■ uniform it*«r'- *"^ «>k«il»r It woold fa« np«dlnt mtA pnetl- 
■•U*l> lAkimvuitm lahrlftg UiAiailw-aTiatrvttdy noMnictid erU]iro- 
gHM Bf MdriromiAD. ta Oraai BriUla, laio vaifantty of gMi|e, mwk lo in- 

Wb« wb«ifcaraa]'oclMrna4aaoaMlwBid«rtad«f«*iiulB(ivo>)ticatta>t 
iba «fl]ttpp(«b«S(M u IJhcl; b> viae TroB Ibe bnak tlial will Mtur in 
nJIwajr oMMiaalMlkia* fram <Im arial of aa aallMw (ang*, b*g 4iiiir«ll]r 
|0 aabvIMkal «a batf ealtcd btfbr* h* aMkperaoaaM ps liavaju-lgMl 
to b«, bj traMM oflbrif dluaUun, hMartadM.or npatlmea, Ifca awMi con- 
ualaol tuaKonl uacuncct lafontMltoa <■• lMa«li|actof IUalaqsli7,wMli*e 
■Rva raqalrad tba pradoctUs af ■acfc baoka and Ooeaanita frun> iKa ta/iaoa 
nllif ai UBfutta aa afpaar to u la b* ika b«i4 calculalKl la ak) our 
waaaiiliaa. 

Wa baaa panuMlIf asaaiwd lata Ifca aiaal coumi of pme««dlng o« 
nrton nllwiya baU at baan* and atmwd, ctpaclall) thoaa whldi are ta- 
aJdaMtoabraali Drintofnipdnaof aaaita, ■ndwabaTapervoMlIjbiipacieil 
atwral laeoMMUra nfJUM ai writ ai mrchanKal coalriiaacn iovninl, 
•UWr for Ibafrnrral uiraf ral)iia7f,of r<irub<iaiineihr ajitcialdifllcattira 
piBWMad la aria* frooi ibv break of i:aa(e,or olh«ti*iM mwicdtd with 
Ite aabj«<l sf out Inquiry, uudaawa ballaaa «a bata av" cartml o«r ia- 
TaallgaUM i« lb* iiiaiuti cuffal llBalta, wa GnI In a po^ilxia dutlfall; lo 
4tfu la four Majtai; Uia Ml^irlaB raywl. 

MUK or 0«CDB. 

1. Onralianltoa wai <nt diraclad la aacartaln arhathar iha brtak of 
(UK* M*>U be JaMli UM*iderrd a> an loonottnienca uf ao niucb impon- 
U«a aa la daoaad iba latrrfenncaaf tb« Lacialalara. 

tilowcaaUr It ttia unl; place wlicra a brtak ofijauica aclualljr eilato at 
Iba preacitt btna. It i* ouMd bj Ih* aicatioK at Ibal jiUc* of the lirvad 
nt 7 frat Kaajja « liL Iba oartuw or 4 fta( B) lacb |ati)t*< Tbirc ar* other 
|m4b<«, liawarar, wliura a Initifar of |iwd» oocura ilmllar to Ibu trhU'h 
aBBairaaulifrauna brrak uf KaaiOiaod panooia veil acquaiotrd with ralU 
way tiafflti hataaodilllcull]! la aaalog Ike iialara of ikc iijcnot rniaucc tliAt 
wowld ariaa from any hirtbrr iMatnlalura ortauffe : aoJ we liumbtjr tub* 
■lit 111* ulwrn'Mtioiia iSmI occur lo III aa to tba whole uf tbl* iiii|)artiuit part 
of tba qui>*lii>n. 

Wo will ditlda tba mbjocl of Ihr break of gauge aadar Iha tbllowing 
liaadi; — 

lat. ai npplrlncinfaatnr cxprtu Iraiu; Sdlr. to orilinarr or niird 
traliii ; Stllj. U guoda mill*, and llbly, lo Ibo cooTtjance uf juur Ma- 
J«>l}'* lorce*, 

ItU tmi or ciprH* traliu. 

Wa b«)ie«0 that the lDC«n*ai)ieDce pru(luc«dbj a brrak nl zanfit will, In 
•a»a raapMla, b« W> fehln IIim« tban in other lraiu», brcniiK- iho pasoen- 
■ (an iravalllas b; fill traiu* aro iinally ofa olnas wbv iritdiJj nulkmit In 
nan; lacootruiaueea for Iha aaka of lacn^At^d *^tpA no \\\b jwurrrj , anri 
who art! pertrnpa ivnarallj lea* tocntnbpivd niili liig|[a|[n iltaii pnnoiw tra- 
valUac b) tba ibttar Iraina ; and aa ll la uu>acr»tcKia to b* Iha urnernL pTnc- 
tl«a iMt no pti*nto nrriaitvi or boraca ara coaiejed b| thrw train*, ilie 
ln<«B*ealMeaa of a bfaakofitaajiaaramtoced in tbia laalaaca tu lljr re- 
Maval ofUiapaMeagcra aailamudtrato <]Dantli]r of lutgaica; and, allbouftb 
aadi i«i»u*b1 uu*! ■.-real* dalay and Mm(conIu>ioB,aa wollai]i«'rwDal <)is- 
mabri, miaelalljr at alKfat aad ta Uie wiater aeaaaa, basliira lUs rltk of a 
loBi of lantaxa, jrt-i wa do sMcaoaMer ton brrak of gan«o. In i h,i> iDsianca, 
■a balof an UwD»*-n.en<»«f »o irant a nature ailo call for au> logialalivo 
mraauR-*, eUh^r for ila mnoval or for ita mitiratloD. 
MJt. OnUnurarailiaillralnk 

In thcar Iniitu tospaaaaucn conalderaUy «i(««il in Dumber Iboae wbo 
ttaral hj ike fa*i iraiua, and ibey ha>« pucnll] a nucb srmicf quanlilr 
flflaaair. Ti>*ii<h t«i»eH*fatolMia5#(.ft*rTia|«i«irtallja »efii>u> incon- 
vaolaace, and It laa well koowa fact thu p^raorta Irairlliag by rnilimva ia 
acMMnaatcailoa with aachalb«r,b«il under diflbaaat tBanatgenatKi «Diica< 
iMtlontakaaucbarnapiMala as to admit of tbalrinvellias by Uioae 
tralaa wM«b affanl lhf«a th« aceoMiniidalloa of ocnipjtug ifaa cane 
sarriaf a from th« brtiitaiag to lh« cikI uf tbrir >)urn«r. 

Tha naaagar* and rf.r»H«rt of rail**;* are well awan! of thia retllnj, 
and fa oaaw tniianrai whera Ihay do not allow ibtir camafca to lua 
thfiMcb, yat wltha^lawaf diHiniahiflgtooiaeonvnifaMlo whub Ikia t\ 
poaaa tbairBaaBnic«»,ikay aand att>na(»lratoA«iDlcnDtDa>tolar«iiaua, 
t» pr»ira toa aril of a raaaaaal qf lU paaaaagwa' iawpua ; aadawM rail- 
way comfaaka Ibcbt voaaidrrahta atfoioa la nnuiuK traina of niura 
myty carrtacaa, U oMar to ac«a«»odato iba puUio by aaaUiag imvelkra 
to aniHl a ebaafa of eacrlaitc on tb* jMraay. 

ll 1* by HMMdiaarytwiMied tialaa ikat pn»aW tttrUgft and bor*«* 
•r« cuavtyad. and ib« ranutBl of oiiber fmai ana tru<k or buraa-box ta 
MaMiaa. at as; (ml of Iba jownwji , woald be aiimdcU wiiU joeiuiinitrix'* 
■M Ma} i aail wuh raganl la iha h»nea. 11 would inTulie toaiiilcrabla 
riak. 

II a airita, lb««*fora, at Iba <«Mluak.a Ibal Ike br«ak vl onp «ai>><> 
lotobtraiaaca m in*tUcn by Ibt Uaina auw 



aim oM»ld«tmbl« 



aadcr cnHUataikM, B»4 (bat Ml 

alpolala of c u aTa n cacaof wra dwa twa W iea. 

Tb«cb«ag«afcarTwg««,kart4-bos«iaNdtr«eka, aadtoir tnaaferrom «f 
iaipfaofaa aaUra traia afaaebaiual, oiaiteaM la toeday Uate, be aa 
lMM««atoM« of a **n aariwM aalai*, bat at algbi It wawld ba an iato- 
lanUa aafl. and wa tUak lastolatha iDtaiftfcMe ia called tot to maore «c 
niticate aocb aa rifl. 

Wr- Ova'ainlaa. 
Pioatkc JtoleaMada nada to aa b> carrina oa railwaya, and tram oar 
ftwa«faaer>aiiaatW«ai«MaG*d to bclicir, lt»l not ualy a ooaaiderabk 
drgreaof aaft,jwdg»« a t,aaid •uprrwoca u o*c«a*«ry ia (be atowa^e of 
werthaadU* ia railway wageaa. :bul alio, tkal It ta dtiirabU tbal wbca 
praperlj packed tba aiticlea ifcaaU, cn«*ally apeahlac. ikat be dulufacd 
aata too >wnity la ooMpMad. Wa lad Ibat la Iba arniig»iacai of nar- 
cbaadiar, tba baariar gaoda ara plaeed at tba boUoai, aod tba liKkler at dia 
lop af tba lead> and ao aesarvd %b to pretcat frittioo us far aa praOMaUt 
fr«» tba jolting of tk« wagoai-, nod it >■ ouDanlmd terj dcairablai wilk 
a «iew >u pre<FOl loaa by piiffriofc. tkat the thMliaf;. wbi<b ia placed aatl 
Uie loail. ahoald n»l Ik tvaiuf ed till Iha cwaplclian of Ihajuumey. Jadaal, 
letiaf upcM Ibta priMiple carricfs iod it proAtaMe to aeud Uieir wagHa 
paniaJly tiled fnm tariMi* alalinna oa Uie liaai ibcrvby lacreaiiai Ikm 
loll to tlie railway canpaay, nlkcf ibaa iocar Iba tiak uf Ura by 
lb«fl, lo which they wuntil beeipoaed by «ac«*«riag tko wagon* on in 
><Hirnf y lu til up with imeriDtdiato local (ooda wa^ftoa ibat aay ha*a 
atitnad wiib liglit load* fron om o( the tarailB'. 

Tba atatkin* fur re-amaging Iba (oadf traina are tbetefore aa Urn aa 
poatible : ibat, brtweeo Lrcdt aad London, Ibe point* fur DBabrrtiag Ilia 
liood* wagoai are toiIy Derby aad Laicaairr, and bciwrea Lir^rpool aad 
Loodoa, tbe re anaagemcat la coaSaed to Biriaiagbaa* anil flugby ; aid 
oitn al thvt* ■tnliotii the proporlioa of wagoai which .arr oncovcrcd b 
trry inall : )nd««d, K ta tinted ihat at tht inportaal town of Hir«ta|tiaa 
Ste-*iilbB of lt« wig(>ni pm(i wilbonl re arraagMnMil. 

In the c»a*rynnc» ormiichiaery and article* of a limilar claia, wfald 
arr tmlh bca*y ami dellmlr. il iiof Ibe alMOat conaeqaencc ibat tba had 
abniild nutbt dlMnrlxiI brtweon Uie boginalng and the aad of tkc>aanaj; 
a cbaogc of carriaRc, aucb a* wonid raault in all probability frov a bnak 
of tlie gnugo, would al1og«th<» prevent lb« tranaport of auok article* ^ 
thia roodn of eovayant*. 

We brliaro Ibat the Irallic upon the line of railway bclirM-o Binasap 
ham and Ilrjatol ha* bren greaily reairktcd by tlie ictertuplioa of gaaia 
al Ctoucrttcr. 

lu raapcct to tfao cmvcyanca of miticral*. (he iaconrcnirnrc of a bnak 
of ^auge WDuM bo- Tirry kcrlou*; (he (ran ifer being attended Wito oa 
vippoiv wliidi wi>ulJ 111' Ki-ntibly frit in conaequeuce of (he tow fala 
(olli charged on tiicli aniolra : nLotcoter, aiany ileccription* of cmU, aadi 
uBacon»ld«m1ile proportlnn oflhiC oflbn Alidland Cooatiea, an labjKl 
tUKEvai dtlrriurail'jn by brtnkiige. 

fa regard lu variuu* arliclra of agrlcoltoral pmdace, tb« W*» by rrmoni 
wuuld be lea* tbaii oa other cIb**c» of goodr ; much in««a*coienc«, bow- 
aver, would be fotiaJ iii (ho tranafrr of liail»ef; and Iba diflicullt tf 
aliiftlnit caiila would \x lo preat n* to preatni an iainmoaaubla ot<iur^ 
In aueh, an arraitseaicDl. (rnin the eiclt«d atate of iba avinMl* a'iri 
Ifaiclliug Iiy railMay. ntid th> reaialance they ia cunRctiiitnca oCbt wbtt 
II i* atlKiupled to fuice llieiu a tecuod Umc into n railway wasoa. 

Mtiljr. C4D*eyMic**( Tr<>«|i». 
Thrtv if aTintbrr uan of railway* wbiib we bare dccniol ll BCceaaaiy !• 
conaideri we alhide to Iha Iraiuport of joor Uttjoal;'* travpa, aiUl 
tlx'ir miliUry ttore*, &c.,ol(her in Iha urdinary rooronientof eorpalkroagk 
the couatry in (he tine of pencr, or in the itiaic iweuiag and Wffaat OM* 
uf tbeir nimemcuii (or Ibe drfencv of cnail or of Uic inlarlor of Ibaooaaln; 
We hare carvfjlly wcrfthcd Ihc importaiil uiformalion KlTcn to natty IH 
QuarlcmBaler-(irtii.'r-jl ufy^nr MiJrtlj'K Fiircr*, an well na by (ka In* 
■pcEtDr-lienernlorFurtiflcatiouF. both officer* of great npctiaaca; aal 
wedadace from their opinion*, that •lihontth a break of (auga ua Iha line 
«f route wuald proilu«e both delay and confaiion, yet thai, aa la tin* »l 
peace it It utualty ptaolirable to gl** nolica of Ibo ialmdnl muien^oU of 
a body uftruupi. ibi- luciinif nleore of (bp bfrak of gaujtr mi/ht be ao n> 
duced a* nut to beau etilof firval ioipuclancci bnli In the eirnt of npa- 
ration* fui ile ft-miTc ubjccii a|i;ai.iiil aa enemy, (he incoDieuienoo noiU 
aiiume a Kiiouti thiractrr. 

Il would app'ar, that fnr Ihr drrrneea of the eonxt, Ike propar tamn* 
woolil be to retain Ihe gr«at maa* oftroopa in lh« iaiorior of tba eoaotty 
(owail uiiid llie punt MleL-ird by th* ntemy for bia attack atualdbaaaov* 
taioed wiib cerlaiuty. aad ibra lo novc upon that point lucfa as a«a> 
wbetmine fnrre aa aliould ba adaqoala to tba anargcncy. 

It Uobtiouatbatlbaauecaasof auch aayataBof dafcaee muat dtaaad 
upon the maaat of coavayiog ibe inM^a with groat diipueb, aad »M«at 
iaierraptiaa oa the Jonraay. 

Tite map* abnald be carried with thair equipmeat* con plate la all ttab 
dafaili, and wilb their artillery and auBDDilloa; aad h IhcraCMv a|pt»« 
todMveaaably oecraiary, in ordcrtoiaaote tke reqaWtt lapfdy ofcaniifH 
whcf* perbap* liitic or no aotka can be prerioualy giTcn, tluu tka wMtt 
•liuold be coOTcycd ia Ihe lane tekiclet fion Ike bcgiaauig lo the cod a( 
tLa journey. 
The effeet of a bitak of gaaga nigkl ia Ikii ?tow «f tke caoe fltpoa* lb» 
I «oaaU} to MtioaB daager. 



p 

^P T* kit cIsMM of 0Mrcihu41a«, u well u la all miUtHrr 0ftrnt\tM» ro«- 

^P BKled wllb nulvftys, om sMiaral nnKriE will apply, that iu lUriiu; trom 

^^*qr iwvpotat it ia utuallf pracUcaUe lo oblaiu a tulllcleat u umber of 

««C»n4 TvT trbaivivr nw; ba required to lt«ve that point, hancicr 

^ fc rmawlor Uit mlltc mi* Ih- ; ImiI| at tbo wa*rntfnccoftcveralliaM, wti«r« 

^^Mb9gn«tfr nunklx^f ntglit beof A gnugeaut corTa»|ieiD(liit2 lo lli« nnge vt 

^^B* other llDM, it il bappraed tliut all nen unuaoaUr iMdad ar iSe aamo 

^ntoe. It would pcUMblj be impoaaibla to pravida onlbalallerBii adrquite 

^paaaiber of frasoaa (u <«rrr uff til the loada tbiia broiisbt ; tbe all«niati«e 

^^vonld b«> «■ tlw <nw kaaili to iDbrait la kt^k* conhwlon, drlaT. and tacon* 

*nWocv, on all ib««MTtrgiBKllDca baling the uitforil]! ou lha«uiKg«ago; 

or, on Iheollxr hoad, lo oalulaia os Ihvluica boiug in tliv niinunly a vcrj 

Ht«*aiTe elMk of carrlagri, uhich in gnnrral woittd ba Iftlally oicIc*). 

There laooe potM wluch furcilily p«vai«a on our altvaljuo, and the trullt 
ofwhicli mual bo icadilif ackuowlnlgcd, tiut of nhtch Hie liuporlaace is 
not at first equally obTiiiaa i il i«, ttrnt Ihr |[rrAU;r pari of the incoo- 
iniMUiCKt lo wbtcb <>e bat« sllqttcd arc ool jocoo'cnipiicies of wmn oc- 
csrrmvp, uuJ which would nlT^tt odTj a iiDall nuinl>«r uT peraaaa, bat, oa 
lie contrary, that many at Ihrtn would or«ur ifvrral limn io lh« cour»« 
of every dny to a gr«al notBber if periaoa at cnoh point at nbieb a break 
af fange micbl ciUI. Tli« cumuliiiiie amount of auch iDouavenieDee 
wndd or nrccMdty be very coatidrrabl^, und we fcal boiud tu sum up iiur 
coMctastoaa by sUlias that we caat idcr a break «f gauge to be a lerr 
ion* evil. 

HicHABtcaL Nxtn or TB«Mf»iM:i raoM o»i Oair«K to nii^oriiKa. 



•J 



THE CIVIL ENGIXEEER AND ARCHlTECrS JOURNAL 



IB 




Wa M«iiow brouitbtlo tbc Mcund xlaxo at our toqulry. n'bJeh b, to 

Konr Ute tncani of gibt jktiog or oiktcaUaE ilie crib lUai we tiid to retult 
bom tfafl break ofDMiK*. 

Tbo ntctkod* wkicb ha*e beeo laid blfoK iw, a* caUoIated fur Uiis pur 
fott, ar* a< followa : — 

1. Uhflt Hay belanafd Iclrtcnfiie utlei ; aDarrans^meitl of (h« wbevU 
aadailMufcarriBiCM. prnDiltui2 th« wheel (a illde on thv uite, »o ai to 
MBlrAci omtrnd Ike inlcrral bcinttn ib«m in luvti a luaancr thai thi^y 
■i^ ba adapted to eilhfr of the 8au)[«». 

k> A foiu of truck aJnpted tu e1i>; brvaJ caugVt but cairyinc upon Itf 
nppcr »uH«Cc pie<M of r»il 4 fret H j >ach» nnundec, lo thai a narrow 
fkage carriage may be ruu upmt (hese rails wttbout any dJaiDt^aocc of Ita 
whaalf- 

1. A melbedofabiftinf Ihebwlietorcarrjafei from a plaiform and »at 
of wb«cli adapted for one i^au^, Iu a difTKrenl plnifoim aud lel uf whc«U 
adapted lu llie olbcr cause. 

t. A pfopoial lo carry iocr(liandi:<e and minerals Id looee buict whkh 
may be >hifleJ from one Iruck lo aoolhcr and of wluch uiily one would 
fiah> M y be carried upuo a uurruw gauge Irvck, while two would be coa- 
tt^arf on a broad uttagv Kuik. 

Of ibeoe vairaoa nelti»da,tbcGral— Ifit admiurd orbeins uipd Mfdy 
aiMaxleiui'ely — would be, iu il* ii|i|'licaliun< ll>e oativiit of uJl.~By the 
f|>enUMa* of dvluchin^ tl><> whrrtt fruiii ooi< limiliiiK liolrl, of push in); Ilia 
tamage ahio); converging or itlirrging rail^ until tbe wbecU tvere lir^tn^ht 
to Ike requinrd widlh, and of llM-n roonecliiig tlieai by uoather liniilltig 
told. Ike traotfomiaiiou of tbe narrow gaaite <arrit'{l lo Uie limud gauge 
mriagr, or pUe trrta, nuiild b« completed. Bui tliii conalrucllon i< 
liaUc la itniTe oliJcclMuia. II i» tWrd to ua a« a uutirr of eip«ii«uce 
[■■d wr b«liv>o it admite of »Iitfac(ury txplonalion), Ibal tcry >uiult un- 
(teadiB«*a of the whr»U o' a railway carriA^^e upon Ihr aitc rroilcm tbo 
earriait« liable lo run off the ralU. A (ar more lerioui ob;v(iioD, how'<ii#r, 
ii,ihal the eafrly of a camaKe and llie whole train with wbicU il i* con- 
»mrd wvold deprad o|<oa the can- of the atienduol, wbo baa lo mako the 
adjtitimcnt of tbo aatr-elids. 

It i* true Ibtit there aro other vaK4) a> in tbe atleodaot on the awilchta 
id t<EOn)*, which drjifod upon IIh caro of Ihi! pcnoii who j» fiationcd to 
ork Ihrm : but tbe crrcunBtaneeH differ very widely, la ihcM ea»r« the 
idaal li4« a dugle act tu perform lor ai ilic utiuoal, two acta only,) be 
no! hurried, and bia wbole atleutiun u coiiceolntted ua very aliupla 
uiU-». 

Ill rrfprcl lo the iliifliseasleg, the at lendant* would havo lo adjuftt a 
(rval DXay carriage in «tcc»siui (aa Ihtrc ore tumetimr* a hnudred 
arsgoaa iu a goods traio), the ndjuslmrot njnat be luada hurriedly, and 
in th* Bfgbl ; and tbe attendant'* thougbta would probably bani lieea 
~;iKcnpifd with tbe loading at gooda and other atotion amnfenienl*. 
sroreof daagn-jlhenfore, wo think that the coottniotloa mutt be 
abandoned. Btilwe tbiak it pro|icrto add) thai crcn if Ihrrewerc 
eaarnliol KToundofobjectioQ, BconitrncUiin of thia ntturo could 
adequKlely nteful nnlew it were vilcod«d to crery carrin4te w-likh 
likply t.i pn,** thi- uatina where llio hrfak of xaugn occon. llailcr the 
Rjsl*iD of iDlrrfhurifii! uf drrinpni. which u adopted bji all the 
nmpanlra wbntc liuei cinanunlcatr, aud of whicli (he adeaotagta 
>Md 10 aprcial ctnuaea of the acta of Parliauieot apptjlog tu 
r'uilwaja, carriafea belonging todiataut railway* will frrquouily be 
fauod a iii«placrof juiKlionofUietwognu^*. Tkii mnatrtictioo therefore, 
w«ut4 liMe raueh of lis ■Ulilt unteMOtpry railway earriagv were inaiU in 
(•Dfarvity lo II, that ir, unkvt a «ast cspetidltnre of capilal, aud a correa- 
yowding anawal «p«vae in raplaciug wom-ont curriaeea. tx,, were in- 
cwnd vren oa nUnajj rtry diataul ffom tbe brekk of gauge. 




1. ShieUat Hunw Gtnj* CirMacat es to VnU Cange Tiocki. 
>. Tbe plan of placing a narrow g«ug« evrlaga upon tbe lop of a broad 
(Caupe troik ba*. on the fiirt of It. tbi* obviooa diiBculty. that a broad 
gBucs carriuge cannot be placed in llie •■«• inaDiwr npoaa narrow gaugo 
U-uck, nod ihoreforc, unJcaa not only the broad gauga railway, but bIm aa 
olheri commoDicatiDs with it, bafumiahed wilB trucka proper forcarri log 
narrow gauge wagooa, and with d&itqw gaaga wagona al«o, nod nnlea* 
the load* intvelliog towards the oirraw gana* bo |>hK«d only la ik*ff' 
oamm gMge wagoas, tbe ayatem effeela nolbtag aa regard* the paaaoga ' 
In one dirMiion. Hut cvrn with rvgard to Iha patiago from the narrow 
gauge lo the brood gauge, tlic »y»teni will nol bear examitiaiion. If tbe 
truclcB are Mtpporlcd on *priag*, llicro it prnclicilly a liilTiciilty in njujiiug 
lh» wagoui upon Ibem; and if Ibey are Dot luppurtvd on ^pririRs, Uicy 
Will aualaiu fpsal injury on Ibejoumey*. Ifih^y urw loaded aiogly tbero 
will be aKnrat delay ; Iftbey are placed in a row, and the nwruw )n<tga 
carriages Bit! ran throutcb Ihe whole »erie», *try great caution witj bo 
neccMnry to »«urc each rarriage hoih in froittanil in rear. When fae«ef *j 
loadnarelbiitplrtci'd in clctalcd positioo*, and wlicu the accurity of each- 
depeodanpoaadjnaUDcnlthurritdlyBiBde.tbcri will be ibedaogrrlo which 
we have alluded in noticingthe Gr>t propoard conilruciion. l-'loally, an 
eaarauwa aiuuunl of dnd weight will be carried on Ihe brond gauga line. 
We reject thia proposal a* eutiiely inupplicalile to the traffic of railway*. 

a. Shlldot It* biMllM orcurlacn (raa i>h hi afwhTtlt <a uioHjar, 
3. The njiteo* of shifting Ibe bodic* of carnages from (i»d wheeb lo 
milway wbeelt iapr*ell*ed auecFMluUy in KrBni:e, where Ihe diligi>a<rs 
from I'ari* lodiiaaatlownii, prucpediDgonmad wheeltfroni Ike Mewagerie 
of I'aria to the railway aiatiou. are carrird oa a peculiar railway Iruck aa 
far as Uoucu and Crlraaa. and are then niiain pla<^ on rtwd whevb u 
eoiilibuetbelr jooruey. At the low speed* of the French railways Ibia 
■yulriii i* safe, bul we doubt whether it would be sHfe wilb lh« ipeeds 
of tbo Englj^ railways. Morcavi-rlt d^privnii ili« railvray syetcoi of one 
ofilR grratcil cuDreulencie*; namely, it* te«dinesa to reeelie almost asr 
numhrr of pas^mger* without warning, and to carry theei lo any diitanee, 
•ID all or great. Carrier** carls are also conwycd (but lo no great aninnut) 
ju (ho laiuc utannor. lo Ftaocr, oa we aederstand, it is not ihautilii likHy 
|lial lb* sjt'em wUlbe in anj degree rvlainod when thust radways shotl 
l^are been eiiended furiher. The same rrmnrkt, w* coace>*c, would 
pply entirely, or in agreat Rieniure, to (imtlnr propotul* tor the thifiinc 
f the bodies of railway carriage! ; but at this plan hai acicr been 
^treauoaaly urged) >t is nnneoewnry lo cnliciae li more mintiiely. 

4. Cooterlni noods In Imw Sou*. 

Tbe mietn of conveyiug good* in Ioom boiei, carrird upon railway iruclii, 
has been leriouiJy dismiMit. It ha* been i<peai«illy tried, aud wa ore able 
tborafore to glvt^ in opijiion on it, fouDiled on experiener. 

The ntult of thi* experience i*. tbot in one imianco of a temporary 
character, otirrp the whole operation wat under theconliol of one englnear , 
il succeeded , in other inKtanco, alllinugb always iintltr the ooolrol of one 
engineer or noc compauy, it ha* usually lUlodi and iheae fuijurei have 
oconrred where from lite deterwralioa, canted by liaod-slnfliog, to 
the miueml conTejed, it wosmatle'raf ttniivly losroid IransrcrcuL-o vf Ika 
load from oiiu box or wagon lo aaotlwr,aiid when' no eipeoca wHSspftrtd 
in th<? ervction uf maclilnery proper for tlia tntasfereoce i^ the loose boiea. 

TlieM fHilurts, it la to t^e remarked, orcuntd in a IralTic wliich it com- 
parmtirely regular, via., lliatof^iali io Iraffio of a Ictis regular chars cier 
the cau*** tcodlug lo produco fiuliirc would be very luudi tuurc numtruus. 

\l'eeoii«ider ihrtl Ihi* luelhud is lololly iuapplicahle tu reiocdy iha in- 
oonvenienvie ofa tirrak ofnuge. 

Sum« uf ihe wlloesaei whom we hat* eiantiiied arc of opinion that tlwee 
would be leia dilTiculIy in iinlosdiiig the waKoni uf one g'oge, and plaoiog 
the anidek lo wagniia of the alhcr gauge, by liarinj: iwu ruws of w*go«s 
on Ihe didrrenl gauge*, tnanballcdalonicside of each ulber; bill tiaelng 
wilae»aed iW* pioeoss at <iluucr»l«r, we arc of opinion that >Uf h u tyaleiu 
it totally iniipjilicable to na •ilcnded traffic. 

Me sum up our Roncluelim on tliiH hoail, by gtutiog our belief tkal no 
method bus bnn propoaed to u>, which is eatcut>iied lo remedy in oaj 
Iniporuul degree the InooovcnMiccs atlondiug a bieuk of ksu ^e. 

III. I'oLtcY Of UniroRMirr or U*rci:. 

OinaideraUuiu oo tbo seticral policy vf e*uliIi»hiBg an unifomilty of 
gaua" llirooghout llie country. 

Me approMob this monienMui qoiMtion with a full cennolion of its im. 
ponance, itad the re*p«n*ibility ttial mts upon u*. 

Ttmt an untferniity of gauge!* bow an oiijed much to ))e deiirrd. there 
can, we think, be no qticsiioiL In Ihe earlier {leriud of Ihe rsiloay liisiotir 
of thi* CountiT the greet trunk lines were to far tcptintcd at to be miiepe n. 
dont of each other, ai it wtre, iioUted in their ropeciiTe iliithcta, and no 
(iWcnity of gauge wa* iIkii lilicly to interfere with tbt pcrional conieniinee or 
Ihe cotDtnercial objccli of Ihe coRiiounity; hot now that rsilwsis tic tprtad- 
ing in all dircctioni, and hetoming loterlaoed witlt esth other in niimeeous 
placei, tliai iioUtmn ii femoeed, that independence hat ceaied, and ihe (into 
ha* arrived when, if itept rannot lie taken to rtniovo itir eiiaung erit uf ibe 
dieenity of puge. ni leait it appeara to ut laiperaiiire ihai a wiiler tpread of 
Ibia e«ii *honld be prevenUd. 

If wc bad to deal with a ipicttioo not aJTectingthe itiler»i*of ptrtiea, wto 
are not only UDCOniicctoJ, but who ate oppoacil to taili ulhtr in a ipiril of 
emulilioai if not of lirtlry, gr U we were dcaUng wilb Ihe property u| tbt 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



tM. 



lun^l 



pnbllo, ud not e( prime trtJing cotDpanict, we (hoald ntttely ka*e ta 
«Mitid«r wbdlier ihii uaifonnit/ ofguifB vhiob wa d«am ta b« MdniraUe 
•would Iw to dMily purchutd br >□ ilttrnUoB of om gu|i (« ult ilte otbv, 
or of batli to iMDe fietli gause which mlsht be cooiiikiett preferable to 
vSibcf, if iBj inch there be. 

But em |>m(iIoq It ilStieat from tiui.iUice m h«TC to toatiier not anly 
the relatirc leoKih of lbs ililforcot tpUn*. iLo cooaparatite wacbanlcal aS- 
ciaacj of cich, the general •wpcriortty of «na «bo*a tbs i>4k«r, Ihcir adapta. 
tl«n 10 th* want* ef the ooDntrj, and Uh SMiibllitf aa well u the poUey of 
• ehaaga, bat alia ih« pacaaiarj maana of eAetiof it. We hatw fnithar to 
Bok 1« iha ooueqMneN of an UMmiptlon of tha tnffle doiia| the pn^reaa 
•faBaltaiBlioB. 

Dtttib fiaupe Bathaqpa^-Thoa ia Hill another ticw af the qveilion, and 
that la, iba apcAeacy of bwiati an liaca of nilwaf, addMoaal nib, 
B0 aa to tffbnl the fadliijr of niioc aaglnca aail caniafti on both %taigti. 

Thi* espc^ieol, in wbttcrer farm adopted, cnimot ba coniidend aa fita 
Imi difficaltiei. If t*o r*Ut, fonmai a oanow (angc wa;, are placed be- 
tWMB Um two raila which form a braad gui|« waf, <«ria|^ of the difcrent 
gn§t» mvf ran in the na* train, witboni aUtraliM even «f Ibeir bnOhn, 
lAkk in IIm otdiMu; HmaUuelion of Ihe earriagea eeireipoad axaeMf sn 
tbi broad nd ■amw pngea. Hut the eipama of aneb an laaartloa waidd 
prohaUp ha not leaa Iben that of en entire chan|« of gaa(c, ioetodiag ia the 
laK«r, tbe diauge of cngiM* and earrfiig •tocfc ; and ibe campliciitna 
which it would iutroduoe et the crouiop might pvodnec danger to rtiAd 
traina, anlcH tbeir apecd trero diminHbcil at appioatlun;; sucb poinli. The 
dUBcuUi of packiag the rail), if loiwltudiaal »lerp«n were uted. would alao 
be mnoh grvator ttiiu if r«iii ofonljro aiagle Kaocc ncrcciuplojcd. If a 
aiagle rail t^eit iiiMitcd ct^cfiitHcally ia a brttad g»oft wa*, to ■• to fona, 
ia eon)un£iioa wilh oae of the broad (Bago raOa, a narrow gang* way, the 
npauo of the inierUaa, and the dugcr of the eroailni*, aawellMthe 
ABeulty of paekint tba rail*, woaUl be lomewbat dioliitMad, bat b venld 
ba iaiprriident to run cirriagM of the diflrrnnt gtu|ts Id the lane trna, noid 
■a It voald pmbabl; be the poUc; oftba railway compoDr lo adopt for 
their owa atock of cncioc* only oae of the two gauicei, and to interpeae 
Ihoaa diflealtiaa whUi anounl to a proliibltiaa of theme ufulber com- 
yaaica' cafioM, tbt ioc»amiie'K<« of a break of gauge nonU rxlit Sn 
alMMt all their foree at etcr? juactioit of a branch lailvi; ou a dllTeftut 

We eoNider, the refote, (hat the general adoption af tacb a ijatcn ought 
Ht lo be pennjtied. 

Vt ramark however, that tha dlttoaldet ta which we liava atludad naf ba 
((•ally 4ifliioUied «b an; railway wbare tlie tyiirm of eoMUnad langea ia 
cofiliulr Ukcn ap bi the conpaor { and we itilok that great raapaetovght 
to be jimid to the righu which tba cospaoiea nas ha aappoaed to poaaaaa in 
the niettiode or i7«lea)t which ibey hata deriaed at adapted. At the Mmt 
time, we Laj it down a* t1<e first priadpte, that btcr-coananication of rail- 
waji Ihrougbant th* country oufiht, if pOMibla. to be eocurod. If, to olilain 
the loiUoKntioned ohjecl, it ehould b« necitMiy lo alter or make a ebango 
in apyrtiiltng raiUsyt. netliinit that it may belefl •■ a maUer of ulterior 
ennaidataiioo for the Legialilure. whether in thaaeUmlled inataneetthe com. 
Uoalionof gaugci mi; iiol bcallunitd. 

Vbaunc may he the ranrw which at the preisnt lijue ciicniDtlantm will 
pennit, it will npfiCBr friMO the oplnieu nc bum r«iir«Me<], that wc 
tUak, aUlmctedly njualiiation deaiiable i and wo thail ilwrcron; pincred 
to cootidei what gauge would be the beat la auch a antein of cqoaU- 
•aclofl. 

Wo ih^I ewBJne Hih part of ih« i]iif>itioa under the followiag head* :— 
^ tWatj^— 2. jVetotnadailon and eoDTenienea for pMofngera and good*. — 
& Speed, — I. Econony. ' 

I. Cetftiitietlte SeAty, 

We are ofopinjott that caixriesce will, In Ibii mailer Bfrocdn h?tt*r teat by 
Whidi 1« eDiiipaiellio tyitunii of |b« broad and urrow gan^ than eiiy 
theory i and wo Uiertfor* ha*« taada iaqairy into the natoie of the ae-riilm ii 
taeotded in the nfficial reporta of Ibe Board of Trade, a* well at of lucb ai 
have hippeoad ibet the la» report wu piibllthrd. 

We And that railway acfiilejii* ariiBfrom ^ollitioiH, obatmcliont oa \h« 
nad, points wrongl; pUod. aiipa in cuilingi, anbtidenee of amhitikmeolB, a 
defrcliie >uie d( ihr. pcrniaoeut waj, loit of gango, brokea or loote chirri, 
fradiireaof i'bcdiorailea,&ct and, lattly, from cngiaei running olf the 
line from aome other caute. 

ft Of Iheaa aoreral clawea ofaecldtiiu, alleiotpl ihe latt ore obTiously inde- 
pcadetitorthegaugo; and with reference to thii lattcljia, we hare ilioTiKht 
It right la eadoavotir lo deteimina whHhtr the advocalct of cither gauge 
camld fairly olain. in regard to Iboto aecidenli, a prtfcr^uce for tlitir roMc- 
life ayilania, on the aeora of greaUr teeorily to the traTcUer. In iheie liitt 
'wt find only aix acddenti of tha kind we are conaldoring recorded from Oc- 
tober, ma, to Uar, ISU, wbereai thf-re have benn no leit than tCTen 
within the laat te*en moatba, and thrae ace aliributalile lo aceiUTc »peed, 
tbeuajcrilt haviag happcneij tacxprtaa traina. Of Ihe whole number of 
tbcac *cGt<i(iits, three have occun^ on the broad gauge and 10 on the 
narrow ; the formw, howtvtr, dilTw in their characlce from tl>e latter.the 
caniasM only, la the lui lw« caitt, having been »ff the line, whercai, U all 
the 13 narrow gauge eaaes, the caginea ha*o nan tB, and tba co«at^a«nc4a 
han been morefalat. Va mvU bats obaerve, ^bowttcr, that the cxieat «f 



the strrow gauge Utwtla 1:901 mitea.and that of thabraadooly 2I4t tlia«> 
(ore tba coiapafiios wontd be nnfaTonrahle Ut tbc broad gauge if ooMidwaA 
marely with regard lo tbci.- reUiive length ; but it «ati he bwwa ba ata* 
that the general ipecd of ibe Great Wetlora oonalderaUy euiceeda tbtto* 
tnaoy of the narrow gauge tlnce, and thu tocoe coaaideratioa it oa Ibata^ 
coaat due to iIm broiul geage. 

Tha priaiart e*mu* of cagiBei g«*tiag off tho raila appear le ba aiw 
drMag, a defectire road, a bad jmoc, or abadly baIanead«^iBo^ If, ia oo»- 
icquaaee of beery raina or other anfcioarahia eimiHiataaeeaianj p«rt af Om 
read becDoaaa aatound, tho engino linka oq oae aide aa it paoaaa along toek 
part of iIm mil, tuddcniy rlan agala, and la Iboa thrawa Into a ractfais aa# 
LatoaL OKillalery noitaa, wfih oaore or len of Hoteaea ■eeortfiag la tfe»- 
rau of apeed, nad a nay ainilar eObct it preduced in pamlag at high apnd»i 
froB one oirrc toaaotber of different curtiiure. A inereiitnn of iiiaim U 
thu* thrown i^oa the rail*, end if, before Ibe rocking tobtjdn, the wheel 
D»ata with a d«re<«i*e rail or chair. whL<h yitMa (a the inpulae, the rape* 
and tnln are thrown off ai a n«ceiMry coimrquence ; but, » far a* wa oa 
■ee. loch catualltlea are ei^uiilly littly to hippeo on either gauge, other cfr^ 
cnmtlanoaa bnng limilAr. 

It hit Indeed been ilatrd hy lone of the witnmei whom we have «. 
amined, thai the bruail geitge ri more tiiMo ra lurli nocidcnit. from ih« dr- 
GonuUnce thai the Itnglli of the engine, ur rathrr the itlitance briween the 
fore and bind asic, U Int in proponioo lo itt brrtdih ihtn In the narrow 
gange engine*, >nd lU>l tliertforc the broad giugi- cngint ii Uihle lo be 
thrown more obbqiiety acratt the line*, aud iti att of meeting wlih an open 
or defecttea joint, inor< lUtilr (o (|iiii ihir rail; l,ul we cannot ndoiit the »»• 
lidilyaftliiiabjeclianagunit ttie bread gauge 1 1 net. II laty )>« thai iba 
prupiininnlielaR'a Ihe ten^h and brradlh of the engfne hat i-vnir inga«»e* 
en iia inonon, and Dial ilit cmtion a tnniewhai leie ileadr where the M- 
ferean bctweea the leaglh and broMltb >* eoneiilerably'dlaiMiacdt bW 
pracUcal ftcU tcarcely lend lo the concltiiion that the lafHy of ibe tralM V 
eadaagered by tbr jHeient proportion of Ihe brtiad gauge englnee i for ft 
appenn tkai on tho London and Utrulagltam fUltwat. where th« ea g JaM " 
hitbatte «aiploy«d bare Iwcn, gencralty, thnrl fonr-wbMW engiaca, tha 
dialance froM atle lo »tU r»l ■•xc«i-iling 7 ftei, or 7 fun ft iorhct, no lacfc 
aocidrnt at we am conaifle nng hai br«Q repodtd ; and i>e are infemed by 
Mr. Druyerea, Ibe in pert n Indent of ibal Iin«. that no aucb accidenlhai e*v 
oenimd. Tho aame reinaik epplieif lo tnnje other narro* gauge lirtea ; arf 
if. Bi tia> been ttaled, etemptloD from thete aceldentt baa reaaltod (r«a Ihp 
dote fixing of the engine and tender adopted on lliii tine, tba tam« lytlM 
might be adopted ou any oiher Ilnr, wbelhcr on the bToad or nariow gauge. 
Aa eril inaj alio toai«liui«* arite in tii-wbccltd engine*, by the centre of 
praetty of the engine being tirougljt too much «icr llie driring wbcch.aad 
the tpriagi being in adJutirJ for Ibe take of tbo atnicaioD of llic wbceta la- 
the nilf. that Iba Fhxil wheel* would have litUe or no oalgbt la lopparV 
■ lid Knntd be lliua in a condition, hy any irr-gularity In the road or oUitf 
otiMfuction. to bemore ruily liftod off Ibe rmili. But here aairim. if l ui \ 
fnult in the coiDlruction or atijuilnient bu been anywhere commliied, iti^B| 
fault or ilcfeci wholly Qiimanectcd with Ihe lireiilih of gauge. ^^1 

A1191W canae of nniteady or iirtgutar luoiion. dmgtrou* 10 the lafrty of 
ihr imiii hii been atated to be the grcii orrrlungiikg weight hfyi>nJ iha 
iilei of tome engine* of rrecuteonilrucliau, and oftlio weight of IHconiatda 
cylinder beyond the aaU bearingi. So far a* ibii coiuiruninn I* couceraDdr 
il certainly apprrUina lo narrow gauge line, onlv ; hut at the tame 
niiitt remark, Ihat U i* not ntMntiil to llieir watking. 

Upon ttic whole, thcrefare, allar Ihe nu»t earehil cortiidfiottoo 
part of the lubjcci. wc feci bouud to report, tliai h regarib tha aaTi 
paueogerno |>rrfcirnc« it doe, with well propfirtinnftd onflaeo, _ 
gauge, eicctit iierbajit at rery high fHuriiie*. where we lliink a pr«i 
wouM be due to Ibe blood Rau^pc. On ihi* put of Ihe lll^jf^-t wa 
beg to point ta the otiurc of tbc oideace of Mr. Kicholat WomI. 

IMaOn a<MinariaUeii tm Piacairtr* **d Oood*. 

ParMw^iTr.— The Gnt-cUiteartitgei ofihc brotd gauge are tn 
estry erfbl paoeu^n in Mch curuparliactrl, tnd ilie ci>aipa 
■emelimct aubdindcd by a pirlilion and inaidc door. Oii the narrow 
linn the flnt'Ctaii CBtiiai;ci are uiuilly cnivitruclcd lo lurrv only m p^i. 
iciiger* ia each compartincnl ; auil we Snd that aliout ibo 'tame widil. la 
allowed for each puicngcr on both gangc*. Some of the originBl mail 
carriage* were ailaficil for four pa*»engrra, and we belieen thai the paUla 
had a prertrriice for tbtau raniaK<i orcr bulb the olbM dcicriptiona. 

Until lately lli« bmad gauge carriagci wcie alic^etbcr more cuiumtdioaa 
Ihaa Ihuao of the uarrew gauge, but rctcolly cairi^et have bocn introduced 
onaereraloftheaarmw gange line* ku.It a* Mly at (bote on the bt(«l 
gauge, and aquallroommadioui; in ibort, ire now i«e no tMcatUI dlf(ere< 
u regard* accommodtliun and couTanieDCe to tnditidutl foaoeiigprvta 
BitUclau caniasea of ihc two gaiiget. 

In Ibe aecond-claa* carritgea on Ibe broad gauge, aix.penon* itt ifda 
tide, each carriage baiag oapoLla of boUing ii poMengtet. On the aair 
gaagc generally, only four paitcngcrt alt ndo t? aide, tlte total aoniher 
eaeh earriaga be>i« 32 ; in ibia lotpect wc are inclined lo coattdtf the bl 
are more comforiably aeeemmodaled, 

Wilh referenca to the oai« of lh« carriage, avj (he iniaolhneta ^ 
molioa, we bavo had very eonlradictory erideivct, and it nm^i ht adi 
that great dUTctcnce it etperiHiced m the name Una ai d>fT.rrmt il.., 
depending upuu the aUte ttf Uia road, the apringf of Uw tani age, tiM ivmu 




m 




THB CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



TS; 



ef pvion In 4 canU|<. 1« hriog lb* tprlnp. iitta uitoa, tlia po^onoftba 
MilCe la tlM trata, Uid Iha t^Md at wMcli tbe mia ia |»«ptU«rf, of aJI 
VUnh aoiiilltfaii ant inrfepcailBal of tba breathh of tb« fMige. We tain 
hovvMr.witlikviMratouking our obHtrailoiH oa lUi qoMltom. UnvoIM 
HTMll tlma vTtt oU Umb IIrm htrlnt itieir ■Milam in LiMdoa, and after 
■■UiC^ to iIh but tt aiu }o<ifH*al, CTcrjr allanDoe Ibr tho drcuautancet 
■b«*«-anittoa«d, «( «r« of vplnton lltsi at tkc hifher vebdlica tiio innlion 
if Hraaltj nna«thef oa Itie broad Range. 

aa»^-ri » BOW to be «eMid«ra4 ohather cilhw pagu hu t 
otar lb* olhar in ngmd W ids comyMce of fintrtl n«r- 



■ tbit head we dan raanaractuKil goodi and thafr itw luternl, 
fradocu. ttMti n cm), liinn. iron, aad otber ore* i KfTteolUral pradnoo, 
aach en com. bop*, im«I. caittR. and tlaiber. 

On Ihne poinit nc bare ttkni Itia nldence of (Knoni wcit acqnaiatod 
trUIi th« etTiyiog trade, snd frvm itiriT informalion. aad oar obMnmlisa, it 
4»ei not ippwr to be of w<M«qii«nee to tb« pirtict leodiiis or rrceirint 
gooAi wkelber th*y «m tnn)init(«d in «aj«ne eontxifiinf Gt« er iti tons, 
•r !■ vagoTM of Umr Mpurily, rmvlded tliat tbe w% ftml lecoriiy are 
tlia nme, anil ibkt tne turitrry nail'rtike th« reiinntibtlilv af anrdimagie 
IhM IDMJ malt from the ai«t of the loail. Rut Mniiirt. nornemrlChatilra, 
■ad Mr. Uaymrd, who »re Urgelr iniM!-tl*(l, aui Iutp hail psal expMimre 
ia Iba caiTiDg trade, hare expreitcl s. ilrong oiiinion thM the »mal!er 
vana la firlbc mere camcnlenl aad Koaomkal. Th« same opinion ii 
aid) mora ttrwigl}^ eipreMcd by Ihoie iviineiiM «c ban; cxitainRl who 
ban eipfncncc of our mia«nl diatricli, Tlicie penont lUte IhU the 
aoaller eragon eaa be rawe eerily hanilled, and nn be uk<n alont iliarper 
aanat flian wauld be iitited to a broadtr wagan; that lueh ibarp caf*e* 
art amy oosunoa in nrinoral worfcs and dlitrleti. aad thni l!in hrolren nitnre 
of the frouod wmld reitder cttrru of greater radlu* lacoaTeaieot and 
apeaaitre. 

Aaattief impottaat £Areace betin»B tho tiro euge*, in thit coaiiDerwIal 
Tin* of Ibe aaOitlM, would pTMcat itself in looaUlict in which there mar be 
a dJUcallj oi reedUjr oblaieing roll l«»d« foi the wagoni ai road ataiuint. 
Biia Um J«E»cI of (ha diad ««>Kht, which <t« And to appl; more partica- 
tarty toUia broad gauge, would be gKAtty locr«B*cd unlet* anotfanr crll of 
BtiUgrealec eomraercid importanoc ware ercaUd, tliat of detaining the 
waiont 10 rKeiK! full toail*. On tiie whole therefore, we eontid#r tbe 
narrow ^ug< aa ttu laore coD'renient for Iho uerchandUe of tlie 
coaauf. 

1. RdktlM apOEll. 

Wwil kvU'Wtia fbrin oar ji»d)[nicn( oD tliU *iibjrct,we ba*v esanlaed 
Ite ttaa-ablee flf Iba aa*o«al compuiM harieg esprMe and fuA Iraiai, and 
Hw rMtim* fiiriiiKtied bf Dinae conpanlea of tite actual ipeedc atlaiiuKl h; 
Iha «xpn«* train*, on 30 (ucceMitedaja, froin the I6ib oT June to the 15lfa 
oTJoIr, ISIS. 

We have atio, oa variooi occaelaDe, tranlled la the exprcM Iralna, nod 
Wtod UiB f peed, oUle by mile. 

The reeiilt ba* beo>, that wo itnt fully ntisBed :hat lh< a*erafEc fpeed on 
Iba Gfnt t^«'«U>ra, bolh by tbe eipr«M iraina aad by tiw onltnury traiai, 
Olcvrd* tbn hlflint «p*ed of einillaf train* on noy of tho imrrnw gaoge 
Uatv. Baiwnwarthalatierliave (raioa whleh nea«d ia apepd the cor- 
ropantHoclralaeertbe BHstuI and Gluumter line, antl aboof IheSwlD- 
deaaad GloaceMer line, both orwhich are cMthabniad gauge ; but iheee 
latter, M ia lo b« rami>raber«>l, wv >lilt ofrvwat eoDflmotlDa widi uub- 
vaaratUe eorrire and itnwilanu ; anil wo have been inbrnad by Mr. SL 
Mepfiiuaon, In hi* e«iil«nc*, Ibat at one period th^ ij>*»d no tho Northern 
aad Santera tio>>«vvn ftceaded that of the Urvat WealDm. 

la treating of a dilhrrnce In the apeed, otber eirevnMlancaa bcaldM tbo 
tatiapuseaiuat beconeMerH. Tliio IncliaalieaaaiHlsavaaaDf ibeGraat 
Va et ara KaUwaj-i brlwrni Lomfea and Btialol. ami «««n for 40 aiiloa he> 
Taad BrmUil, an>, with lhi.-f*«rp( ion i)f (he U'lKittoO' Um»«1 and tho BoK 
J a e Paaii, pefHaalariy favoiirabJe to the altainmpni of high *«Jociii«»i aad it 
ia (amrnHt lo rratark. Ilrat Iho iiioliftiili'iiit and eurven <m that part of Ibe 
Narnrmand Eaatmi Kntlway nlirrribe tumpriiiion in cp(«d wilb Ibe 
(Irrat Weattra waa [he aiuit auccc-tsrul are gEaerally of h llMlar cha- 

r»r|i-f, 

O (•■oTtliepriiM^ipIr melitee proCtieed for coafltucllaaDM Great Weel- 
era Ball way on the bntid |;auge wai tbe nttaiain); of IiikIi tpccda, ead (be 
cradti Df Uif pmj'oantMnmldelenderaofltaatMntiraetioa baa lbet«farw been 
deeply rnnaiMl Id main lain injc Iheni. 

Tj K elTrci nf icradieoti uo tlio ipeed of tbe Great Weatnatraloi, eveo 
wMb the poworfol eopaeeaaed on tbel llae,is abnwn In iheTiiiK Tabic, paje 
Mt where we find tbal wbUa lbs apoed (nm Paddieciun to Didioi by ibe 
•aprMi train ia IT( eallei per hoar, from IKJool to Swindon U iaoDly'4l-] . 
aad fmm Swindon to Glon«m4«r oaly If? ; from Swiadoo to Bath it la 
m-U. ba( rplitraingonty iTSt: tion BriiUii UiTaanloa tbe apeedla^G-S, 
Bildf^ooiTaiinlfMilD l^lrler oaly 10*3. 

PmtMilUf of Fmltte /aoraaat q^ Ajpenf.— We lanat obaerre, bowerer, 
llat wbilp tbo Or«at Weitero Ooatpany hare not aherod ia aay deem Ibe 

CD of tl»ir rngtne*, Itic kijchcr vclodtMe of Ilia oairow gae«o Uaoa have 
ti attained by tbe iatroduction of a laore powerful Liad of eagioe tlian 
WBsaviplajedal aa earlier period, aad pnibabiy tlia now oaglaea aowaeed 
00 Ibe narrow gauge arc aa powerful aa tbey aa well be made wilhlo Ibe 
Baakaor their K*ttge: wbereaitbe broad gauge llnei bare olill ameanaof 
Aalabi; on in crease in iho power nf their ongiaei, nod of lacreaiiag Uielr 
i, proiidlag Ibc road be ia a ooadltlon to aattala ilio great iacreated 



force whioh ■»>! reaaU from aay iaoraaaod weigfat of iba cnglac ■orioc 
at *ucli Ugh Telocitioo, 

Whetberlhepemanooeway U ia aitahaaUlealpreMnl iaverr<|ua9ttioa- 
able, or erno wbelhor it bi poalblelo all eiuiaiilude* of wenlhor to ntofa- 
lain it ia lucb r cojidllioti. We uusiiC nut Ki Itiio eight of Ih* fact, that 
eiDce tlic intradiictieu ofeiprew traisi tbe acciJenu anting (roiaenglnaa 
ruualDg of tbe line haro baeani<Lcb more ooaunon thaa in foraier jcar* ; 
indeed, tbeae aocideata hare been mora nnineroiu wilbin iho luot 
■even HMiaiba than wiihio (he preceding 6ve yt-arr, and it i« qucaiiuoabte 
whether tbia ei>nte«( for tpceil oagbt to be evritd tn nay greater Imgth. 
H'o are, indeed, tUooKir inuliTied to ib« opinion ntnlnl bvievamlaagiaeer* 
iu Ihdr eTideoer, that it iaiheMabililyof tbemad, ud not tbe power of 
the cngiae. that wOl prescribe the limila of wfo rpeod. 

Unihctiral ioirudaclioa of paae en ger nuiwaya, apoeda of abnat I2ntilea 
per hour only were antkipated ; Uio ratli tbcs ciaptaycd wcisbcd oiJy ii 
lb. per yanl, and Ibeeogiiie* about lix or trieo Una. A* arMB eaepmb 
of SO aad M lallea per hour were alteaptad, it waa found oecfMary t* 
tiitve rails of 901b. per yard. aoU enginaa waightng 10 aad 12 loiia. Siace 
tliat Umc tbe rnilt biifc been iooeaeed ia weight progrcaaivfly la liUb.. 
TSlb., aud tUlb. per yard, and Die weigbt of the eoginr on Ibe broad £atig« 
exceed* iKI tun*, and on tbe aarrow Raugo it aow oppreacbai HI loaa ; 
indeed, wo hare aecu a utrrow Giogc co^r on aix wbtvl* weighing 3^ 
(out. We doubt, hdwe*«f, wbclber a co/retpoodiog atability baa oeeik- 
aliaioDit la Iha ruad ilMlf. 

Ultltidf CylinUtr Enginft.—Xtaonttt other diaDgea Cot iacreatlog tbo 
poartrof tlieengineand ilieapradoftbe Irainoof (he narrow gauga Unas 
there have been the gi^'KC on locrentcd losglh to the oivlno, and ihc ptacioc 
tlinc)Iiud4T> on Ibe out*id«ofibo framiogi but II iaihr oi>ia]i>u of aoiuo of 
the wilneiies we have cianueed, tbal ihia puiiti^u u( llic cyltudsi lima 
tendriiey lupniduee a grraier wrarand tear of tbe JoaraaU, and a conH- 
iiuaat rucluae Bud irregular luotian of the aiulae on tbe line. This, 
liowercr, wliiie ihn fnnau ■* of otedium leogta. ba* been daaied by Ur. 
Locke, who hn» had Kreat oiperiaiioa In Iha wnrkio^ of ootsido cjiliader 
ouftmn. But It b autcd by Hr. Cray and Mr. Gooch, ihal wiicro tbe 
lenglfa of tho eogtne ii greatly iacraaaad, Ihia iacraaicd Uacth. by caaaioc 
tbaaitreaiiliM of tliu ougme to overhaogTOry eujiaiierably the ft>i-e hab 
hind axlaa, baa a nvat Undeaey to looreaso tbo irregular niolion prodixood 
by Ibe outeide cylinder. 

Ur. B, SlcpheDSon adnUtatbat in auniBurthe lulrr cdz^dci this Irrega- 
larity doea Mtbt, bnl he attribuiu it tu lli« wcigbt uf tbe pislou aad its 
appeodagei, obwrring. " I do not brliere that it ia the etcasi ihu eaueer 
tbe Inagular acdsn, bol I boliero it to be the men ivoigbt of Ihu piatoB* 
IbMnaelvee, and therefore ifivc could contrive to balance the pilton bj Iha 
weight upon Ibe wbeeln, wa*linDld get rid nf tlui vetj luuob." 

At aUet«nla,frooi wbatavercnnMs the motion may ariie, tbe oeeilla- 
ttnna are very coonidcrabl* in eooie of Iheoa loog cDginea, and aucb ucan 
Bcarcrly ba canaidercd nfeat Ugb valMUiaa. 

Thi* great tengd) of cokIoo la, however, by no meant essential Ui the 
ntlaiaaMol of high epoetl* oa aiurruw gauge lioo*. 

Wafiioad by timing tbo eaprnM traiaiLun dmr difTcreuil joaraeyaoa tha 
South Weaternlina.ia bolh direction!, that Ibc whole diKlaace wai per- 
formed tery aaiix&ctorily In about I hour aad a minuter, ineludiog Iba 
tiow uf two MtuppaKe*. boinz at an ^leraga rale of 41 mile* per hour, oa 
a line wliiiih. In ena diicctiuu. riM-a fur a length of mora than 4l> niilea on - 
a xry prevailinK gradient uf 1 in 310 ; and in tbe otber rite* for aevcral 
mile) oo a gradioul uf I ia 350. On eaeh ocoaiioo a diitan're of Ova 
railrs, onalartlpanof tlieruad, wat paaead at the rate of U mtlea per 
hour. 

Tbe leoxlh of tba engine boiler or.u only eltht feet aeren incbaa, Iha - 
driring wheel* aix feet alx locbea io diamdor ; the leadiug wheels hau 
both ioaide nod oalaide hearings. Tba diauoier of the cylinder ia one 
eaeewaati iachaa, lotbeolben 14J iaebce. both oultide, and attached 
lo the anofce-bex. 

feofiaraitM Poietr tj litatd and Sartou) <iair£t f.tgiitet, — Tn proeoed- 
ing 10 eompare ihtr liieoniuiiiu eugiue:!. wo renark, in tho Urit |ilnce, ibat 
Ibe firr-boiei. builun, &c., of tbe nanun- gauge engiucf UiU poffrea a 
emnllcr etapumlini; punrr llian those of Ihe bn>ad gutij;« cnciuot, al- 
tbouith recent alloiopUi liavi- been oiuJa In (siie tbe furuicr to tl>o Irrtl of^ 
thtf latteri but ihyso ultcioptj bo*i; iiwl auccceJedi ""d it ia iodla- 
piitable, ilikt Rliateter cao be dour (or the narrow gauge, la tbii reafieet, 
can be (urpasJrd oa the broad gauge. And we cuntur In opiuiua with 
uany of the abtnl engiiiei.-r». wholiate staled, that tbe engiara of both 
gauge* bate neariy ublniued ibe speed and puwcr which it would be 
Jufttiflabk tu cnipluy ia rcfi-rencc to Lbo present alrcugth of tlio raUa and 
Ibo iiruine&« uf lac earlhitoikn, 

DUmittr v/ Dnrini^ Wficclt. — Wo remark, in the nest place, thai tbo 
dlaiueicr of the driving wheeLi of the broad gauge eagtoaa tt gnikier Hum 
than thtt of the driving wbeoU of the o4rrow gauge englnu, and, al. 
Ihougii, ia many of the narrow g^ugc engiae* tbe UM of tboexlrroal 
cylinder lia* enabled the manuracturm lo bring the boilen nearer to the 
driving wheel axlee, aad haatbua priiniilfd an increuau uf tlia di«netce - 
of the wheel, atiJI it i» always ia Ibe power of Ibc cooAlruclore of beftid 
gaageenpnpe (o makea correapoodiDj^ f tiftnj^r, and thn*li> maialatn tbe 
iiip^tiurtiy ; for the larger diamctrr uf the wheel ia uoiiueiiiooably 
fjiuuniblc lu high «pe«d, both becaune the aienni it. uied to greater adiao- 
ts^e. and brcaaae the allera>tiȣ thncka upon the luacbfnery are !(ȥ 
mptd. It ia, hitwcTcr, nitrenjeJy dilflcult tn mj at what apucda lliti ad- 
vaatagu becomco ipprecUUc. Wo thiaiL it Ukcly, thai aa lac aa the ipced 




■^^ — =^3 



78 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



[itf AKOH, 



of 40 mllritsn boiirtllMrc is oa cnMililIcreK« belncvn (1m tv», biillkst 
far tprcilB of iO or flO toilr* an iMiir the didcrcDM to*1 bv wortky of 
Ddtlcv. Ii br«>nvr* •■■rxMUitt, thta. ^o i&qum n-liU wtj be lite p«attal 
•PmhI Ihal will pruktbly be declird ar iiiBuituiard ub railwaj't r*r unlisary 
^■rpam. 

It ij cMtain ibai Ui« nisbc* of the ^rnbllc will be Hmitril aeif by cantt- 
^t/ntlMi* of r<naom; ami Mfrly. The gpntcr ibc ffettl tht urraicr will 
be lite mtt i am) it appear* lu be tli« opIciiOD of nanj of Okc olficmof 
raiUa)'*, thai it woolt) bo difficult h> Maietain willi Mfel; ibe pteaent 
«s|-reii> BiHcdt upon the grril ituolc railnaya. 

n* riJcT iaipcrfiMfitJ) (• maiMlaiaiiig the pffunt rzprtn «prnf« urt^ 

I. The difleiilly i^ amngiiiK ibc train*, wlieretliv truflio i* fr«<|iieat, m 
fbat the lirM lrii)i>» oImH be entirely protfclei] froai Ihe cUaaea «f laler- 
fniDit with or comtAf into colliciou wiili ibe alower Iraiua, orthoMtbal 
atop at naaerouB alailonf . 

3. Hie Oidcatiy of *t*xa% nicnala, evpecially in (osgj trcalberi in liiM 
loetiabie ibtt cuctiie-iltivrr lu Mop ibe fa»t iratas. 

We feel it a dvty to ubeeetc here, tli«l ilie p«bllc are maivly iodeUt*! 
for Ibe preient rate vT tiit*")! Hcd ibo iaetcejicd acouiniuailaiioa «( the 
railnay cDrri*);**, to IK^ i(f niita at Mr. Brnoel, aad Ih* liberality »f Ui« 
<ire*l \Ve*leri> Itailway C-onpaDy. 

As reganlt Ifae Applicability of tlif annafiherlc principle of iractiun, 
ar (if any otber ptiiidpla didieruig froat Uw liicaaalitr, uc *cc do ditereiiw 
betwre* Ihenra KaitKe*> 

4. Tht ^*r«eiBn «f Cmi*Mr.— I'n^cr ibi* bcwl we IiaTe lo euiHdrr tiic 
wet of e<iaM/ucU«ii, U>e puicl>e>c uf lh*r |>ImiI, nlucb cua*i>l» uf eo|;inc«, 
of earrM);e*, and vf otber cairying alack ; and laitly , ll>e mmI of norkiag. 

Then <an ba bo qupMioa tbat, in tbc Irvl coeiBintclwiiaf a rellnay. tlie 
Mrmverue {«iigo,tli«Mnallerwill be Ibcooai of tbe worlta. Tbia ap, 
pIlM lo luBMl), hfideet. tmducia, enbaakoMna, mlUiixa, alwdai. wath.. 
•hi>p4, luni'iBMff, irabiTenc etrcper*, oadballaM, ami ibe parcbaM or 
UdiI ; bill ii lines iiol alttct the rail*, fence*, draiaa, uid gtstiVB li«a»e*. 
Tbc enact (Jlfferrncs, bwct«r, nmil depend ill « f^letl deforce upua loeal 
«tr«ua*>titiiQr), and ao aptiimw caa be Riveo of titc pre«iee rulto nf dtf- 
dbreoec nilh«ui goiugiaioaiery ralnotnealtulaliiuiQf ncli line on whieb 
the two tyttrnia are to be coiDpared ; for Imlaiicc. in a line (ri>e fiDxi tan* 
nels cr viaducM, and in a Out couuir), ulicrr ihrrr «re neiihrr oinuiii:* 
nor cmbankmcDts, tlie dtlTemica wuuld be liioiied lery nriirl; tu tie 
i)iiiiili(y of land In he parcbaacd (tbe KTtraBce and dttnaitc bciiii^ alxriii 
eitual lu tvib rsicf ), ll>e amouDi of ballaitln^, and aoma tucrvutv in Ilia 
«Mt of iba slvepere ; wbereai, iB a ler; uDduIaliag nuoiry, Ui« dilfereoce 
waold be more enoiiiletable. 

At tu tbe coit t>r the inainlenaQce of way, anppoalBg tbe cuniilraclioD lo 
be tbe taaie, tbal of tbe bnad saaie moMbe ralber theKrealrr of the iwu. 

CoJdif LoMmeliie i^vwce.— la respect la tbe coal of tbe engines and 
«uryliiE Muck, we have toobicrfe ibM tlieTareccacrally uiorccspenutc 
«n tbe brMtd ibao an tbe Dami%r W**t*- ''*■'' *** "" "il>'r band, ii i» •«• 
scried by l!ie adiocutc* uf ihir broad gauf^ *} item, that ai tbeeB|tiii*« 
will dran greater loads, ss tli« eairi«(f« will ncL-mnniudale a |rr>ier 
number «f pauengirra, KOd si tha w«|pin> are cepabk of etmieyinx a 
larger Btonuni oi iiinirbaudiir, Ibe wnilt cnn lie, ned i* dimr, ai a Ins 
(harjie prr inn. and llinl a [am [len •alien i* tbus abtaiacd fur ilic inc^rsM^d 
oulUj. Hiiw far ihia i« fauud to be praclkally tbc cum i* tbc acit »ub- 
jert fur ipquifj'. 

IT* weri- very de^Imui, if it had bMn fnniid pntuble, Ibemu^hly lo U- 
vfitigato Ibis part of the tubjeci by meam of tlie nflcial data t«Ued far 
by u*, and furiilsbed by noine uf ibc priuripal (viiDjiamej, NuiaiuinK« 
tiatenieiit of iJi^ir working eiprnses ; bui ne fl'id ibc circunisiaiio'ti m 
dlltcrenl, tiiat tery lilllc •Miifoclnry inforuialiou cas bit tti j* ublaiu«-d, 
tbat baa been obUiitcO, ibnt lia> nirielly arefereoc tvilm iri-uiunny »{ ttie 
(M7 (;ai)|[V), There titr,a( fonrie, vartiiiii mattcre lliat havr au intlti^oce 
«a Ih* ntluat co»t uf tLjr<iiii''Iire poucr and geaersi Infflo cbare«<. thai aie 
1b no wuy cooneeted wiib the breadth uf gauitv; luch aiih« nuiure uf 
tile curie* nud BriidWuls, the price of ciike, the gciirml natare nf tbe 
trudSe, Die mnde of Wuikmc that iralHc as adnplrd by diirerrnl cumpanics, 
the cmitluymeal of ea!;ines uf ^realrr vr Iran poircr, tliat inerrawil accuiu- 
BiudalitNi to IliC pgblic which iarolvei aa citnieii^n*! fvr rtlurn cir- 
fiag<«, &c. 

The Luiilon and l1iniiiB);h«ni, and tbe Great U'eilrrn Uailwaj-, a* >n«- 
UvpoIiUa linc« of (real Iraffiu and of eoasiilerabl* leii^ih, woulJ Hi flrol 
eighl appear Ii> furnith the beil iiiefiDi of cutnparisno, aud tbete i*. in fad, 
an liilEcully in coCDpaririK llie aciuul eiprniea; bul tbrie line* ddTcr es- 
KBllally ID lh« character of llicir cradieab and in tbe anicunl of Iraflic, 
aalintatnlat pcrmllc.aDd, aboTeail, Ibcy diiTcr ia tb« cburaclcrof tbe 
«aAlaRi they nm|i|i>y. 

Vaar WkttlVti^inti. — Tbe I>ondon aad nirmingham dynpany hK«e, 
(koiB the coniaieticeiDfnl. peneveredta tlie u;.o of light four-wbenti'd e«- 
giaea, while the Greal U'etlem, atailioK tlieusrltes uf ibe faci)iiir» ihetr 
Sauite UFonlA. have adopted tarj^e and powerful eDgiaet. which nre 
worked at nearly lliL- Miiiecnat per mile aa tlie furniL-r; nnd if tuch ea- 
giaea, aa IliiMe un tltc Loudon oitd llirniiuglttiu line, w rre c^rciitinl lu Ibo 
oanvw liauge, the qucsllou, ua lo Ihe economy of wurhin;, ini);lit be at 
ouoe decided in favour uf (be broad fan^e; lint ibis ii b; na metnt Ihe 
eaae; several aarrow pioKS llne» eaiplay engine* of prut pLkncr, nml 
work, ill cui)*M(u Filer, niDcJ>BiDreeIiei)ilT than the l^mdnn n'ld lliiimnif 
bam ; ibenTore, llie compaTiuio hriweeB (he workina etprntenof ihis line 
1 of Ibo Greai M'eMcm Caa only be coatldered at a usi vf ibe prin- 



ciple of worklog with liRht and with beavy easioea, and ool at ronlahlag 

a teat of tbe working eooauiay of Ibe litv gauiKi. 

It baeooiaMapeaetiep with dillereBt radway ciMDpaales, la ihdr balf* 
yearly reporU to (beir proprietors, to state the per eenUga «f tbvtrvarioua 
etpeniei. under a few iliitinM baada. an eoapaecd wttfa ibair revaaaa ; and 
frciin Ihnr it apprors that oa tbe Grcal Weitera, Ibe lovoOMMlva ebar|ea, 
duriof a period of tiirer yrari,liaea raried between K8 and II. 1, «ee< 
rasinfc 0'' per ccal on Ibrtr iocoio*, aad en the LoadoQ aad flimuagbun 
Ikrt haee iafic>l, witbia th« aakae period, between 7.9 and 0.311, are. 
raging about 8-C perceot oa their lacome ; and, Ihere&nt, on • luprrlicial 
new of Ih* quetUuo, tbe I^ndoa and Kirniinghaiu nnuld appear lo h4*a 
wotked thiplr lloe al a cheaper rate ; liui ealid utijectMinB haee baea tnada 
to ibU CoiDpariMa ua the part of ibe (i real \lc«iem; b«<4iasellis«b*loii^ 
from the several rclnros we liaia rcveivnl, ibat ihe Ijondon aud Uiraiiag> 
iuun Co^npaay ha* far Uio mwie abundanl trnilic per mllei and ougfal; 
llierefore, to be tipeeied t« perform it* work at a Iras per ccalagc oa lla 
lne«Me. It hai bten staled by Mr. Uooob, that a« Inooaoltr* iDpehn- 
leodent on the (ireat H'eaieni, he ia called npoo to supply a certaia 
nnitiuntuf lucQUioiivo iKiner, und ttint llin coat of aoch pawer U alaoet 
etilinly irreiprcliie uf llii? load or number it( paascDgm it i* made to 
draw i but that ihrae Dumber* are of grcal luipurlanoo to cumpariag tin 
lucuinolxe c«|ici>(cs wilb iberereDue. 

la page U7 of the appendix lu ilii* report, an ab*lnic< and cuapiriitiTa 
tatilD are giicii, foundrcj un return* fiirnisliMi by the (>'reat Wcilttn aad 
Lcindua and Birminijliiiai Hallway Cnnipanle*, allowing that llie rceeaua 
dented fram llie pataenger*' iraln is CJ per cent, greater per mile worked, 
<iH the lalierllian on ihc fotincrUnc. 1 1 aiiiBi, therefore, be obriou* Qud, 
as a teat of e<vuoni) for workiagi we canuui adopt tbe principle of a p<i 
craUf;coo ihf r«ieuuo, ueilber nill tlia eo4l per niilo r«ia gira a nxjrv jml 
CDitipurUuii as Id tba ncvooniy of the two syMeou, becaote it is a wcU- 
kncino fact that the London and Rirmin^baai Company bare be«a ena- 
veying iheir Iraille with enxine* of ioadeqaal* power, and tbat graat eeo- 
Mny would rciull to them by tha ailoption of larger engioM. 

Other difficuliica aUo occar la ill* cociipanMO of ibrie expenaes on dif> 
frreiit Unea, in cviire'iuence vf ibv dilTuroiiceia Ibe fannof tbe aCMaMg, 
and of thv cirrrutniilBnico uf ou« cuRipaiiy udopling Ihe principle of bavlag 
a n-BerT« fund fur r^nnwalt, and other eonipanie* haeinf; na «aeb fund. 

Proimbie Villi «/ Leromotiiia oa (>rrnf \V itttm if mair irilA .Viiiian 
f.'iii'r.— Wc art'.llirrerorc. of opliili>n tint ihe moit ■ala!aelary co«Bpa> 
ri»UD Ihal can be imideuf Ihc i-conuiny ut working the iwo gnaitvai wHi 
be, by applying lu lirtt principle*, eodearourini; merely to deicmiine wkU 
the working eapvuM'* oT Ihe (Jreat K'cstem line, with tbeir ptaMM 
amount of traffic, would have been, prOTided il had been OMda a aarraw ' 
!!iiii):« Itoe, and wurked with tueli engine* usthota emplsTod ua iheSeMk 
Veilern and luine uiher onrnin s^ane line*. 

The Biern^MriKhl uf a pii«>cUGcr-tra]n cm lh« Great Wecteni Kaflway. 
(imlejiriidrnt nf the engiiir aail lendrr, nhit h weigh SI tans) appran.by . 
tlie reiorui *rnt to ub, lo bo G7 Ions ; and the arcraga anmbcr of paaaa*- 
ger* per train fur lUe half-year rnding Ihe SlKh of June, |04S, as appean 
by our comparntite table, page 37, i* only 4T'2, whoaa weight, iuclodlag 
Uieir langage, muy b« eslimnled at abuut a tun*. 

Mr. ((oochealimiite* e.ich C'trriage aad it* pa««enzar* on the brood 
gaujte, lo weiRh iilH^it'.i^ liin(,nnd tlierrfurr Iliere iroald bcaevencantafoa 
to Diake sp llio or Inns at>Di« *pe(ifiiHl. The mihh naamndliiiiii iiaiilif 
on tile utrrvw gt'iKc liuer, tuch a* tbofc ou tit fioulb Wealem, weigh MH ■ 
than 5 Ion* \ H-vra *uch <-ari>*](e* would ihersfore wrigb uliout %\ leM| 
nnd bflii^eapiiljieorennlBiniog liM first clMaputengrr*, weighing, wHt 
ihnr lufraiage, \i\ tim*, the total load wonid be only 4ft| toa*. Now «•' 
llnd. thaieteo niilia tiafflDaslarge a* ihatnn the Loodon and BinaiafibMi 
Itallnay, the average per train woald oidy be 81-9 patiengcre, weighUS 
about Hi iua» ; au tliui, under the aappoiiilon of a traflc of tliia cxiaKi 
ll>« luad of the bni^n uarrvw gaug« carriage* so oMupivd woaUl only b* 
M lo-ia. 

But Mr. C:o«ch estimates, from hi* own experiments, ih* reUtiva pownt 
uf imciiuu uf llie i>r(iNd i;ant(e enxineB. and of Ilia nanow gaace aagiue* of 
Ihe Suuih ire*;crn Knilwny, wlion workiuK at the aaijie apead, as 1.06' la 
I.S'ja. or at <1T per cent., iiie lund of ilie hn>Hd gauge is Un*. lo it toai 
Mliicli would bifihecum-spunding luad for thu narruw gnage, m tballlu 
norrowgitiiKi* engine ba* mure punvr over tli* 4!l liMia II wuuld Imi-c t« 
ilraei tliaa the bruad gaiiR* baao*er its srcrage load of 67 loo*, bolli *(- 
rlu*i*e u( tlie weigbt u( ih« en^jineand teuder, the narrow gau(e car na)Ea 
til iliia *uppu*iiiuu being tuppoaed Ui couiaiD &4'9 paueugvra, and UM 
broad gauge only At-i. 

If, however, it wcrr aetmary, 224 Grrl-claaspaaMDEen aright beplomd 
in tbe aevea bn>ad ^ui:e cBrriDgci, and, a* it ha* before been aaid, ISO !■ 
the »ercB nnirow gaage carnage* ; bat it appear* libel; tbat tbia axHM 
of aoeonnniodaiion wouUI oaly be called for on snab rare aceaatnaa, tbat lkf< 
qawtionufprotidlagfarit. except by usbtant power, eaaoat be lakM 
liitn cuatiderntiuti iu tbc petacDtcuniparisun. 

Il laobvinaB, from tbe foregning itaieaient. tbal ih« tMrrowfaagee^ 
Rliwvf th«cUa* we bare bean couiiUurint; U« mon? powpcovtr Ibe aem 
narrcw Knnge caniage*, aad a load »f \iti pasM-n^crf, Ihaa tbe bcMid 
tiaogn rugiUF ha* over lb* aeren bri>td t.'a"Re carriage*, and Ihe load <t 
the uiine nniiibrr uf pauengon ; acd Ibut. Uierefurt^, if tile Un-al U' ellSM 
tad been n nirrow in*tr.-id nf a bruat] gauge liue, the Su'Ulh U e*lem CS> 
line* would bave had the sane coniniand over the cxiiliue |iatt«Oftf 
Irancof the Ureal UeUcrnas it* ono engines now hnvc wilb ihc praMi 
cuMinidibii of Ibal taUway. 



1 846. J 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



W 



W« nt»1 rwMark, bawcver, Uimt Uiii cnlcBUtinn i> Tor tntina nauMing 
ndniiiely ol |MiM*E«re "nd l>i«ir ixrwnui) lugittEB. In tfct Great 
ire«eni»*«ra|c iralDkof 4T loni ihMola rb Rllotiwice of kboMt tUtau 
for piiwntm kad InimoGc, iuclodins kcd tie men's mniaKoa. AUowins 
IW •UBC wciRht of luRi^^i* iin ilie itarruw KsuRo line, tko train ifiMil*! 
Mill not #t(««d 60 tanii, whirli i> eontidcrablj' wjlliin tb« ftowir of the 
Bvni«r gaBf ragiat. For il np|if>ni, by th» nprrflnonU thit h>*e htwn 
r«MaU) imd«i on ttaa Gr^at ^Vrtilnn BailurBr, lh« tiittml\*o( wbkh «r« 
(it«a Hi Ibe appfndls to lite uTtdtncc, ibat Uie Grtal WcMmi nipne i> 
TT^***" o^ IfTUpdliDC II too* at a srtatcr apctd lltaa the mittmgit apeed of 
tut line i 4111I, MUKqoMtlj, bj Vhm praporitoD a)i»ya alatod, tbe auiw 
srag* n>pM would tM capAbla of pMp«IILn|t U loa* •! tit* aftDia rata. 
ws eandiMh, Ihftvfcrv, tbal iha work wonld ba yeriaraarf Bt »boat tba 
tut* etpvoM for lueniOQti** power. 

That tlirtc BO} be caMa io wliich not on); the full ^xtwcr of a broail 
gmn^ eajtac li rt-qulrFil, but crrn Ibe aMiaianc« uf a second aociaa !• 
^atte cvitaiiit but wicli iralns form lb* cKvption, and n«t lh« raIo> tu rail- 
way pa*»tDg*f ti«A*t *"^ ""' dfltibt lli<? M>undD«-M of a priocipk *>hlch 
ia««lvM a past BXpvsM In CMttructtoA, for lh« tak* of pouMslnc capH- 
bUMin aa aeldow call«d Into aciioa.* 

[lit prajwr taobtcrTC. tbal th« tar*KDiac comparison woBtd haie ap- 
peared ta >iand toon In TaTour of tbe aamin- sanxc, bad ire tnkta hir Ibo 
nsina of tMopsriwiQ, one of thutc rxKlncs, u( mLioso iucmMd capa- 
biUtict eowe of tbc lopinn-lrrn of tlur nirroi* ftaus" ^j>l*-m bav« imhrmi 
Da;but Me hk*« prtferwd tb« comparUon aflordMl trith th* Month Wcttcni 
ragin«, fraiQ it> b4.'tag iht un* on which Mr. Good* at the Great Wcatem 
KAilwaj', tupcdnleaclMl ib« recorded eipcrinieata— Imc* onrdadtieiiuiM 
ar* made fruai darm runnibiil by tko adtocklcs of llM broAd ^tuftr tjriinu. 
wUbbut draniof unibinc frum tbe vrldeoco on tli* fttliar Mile; and a» 
Am* dediMitMa* axfficitull; demon 9 Irate (hat tliorc is no emaomf in the 
lowwiDli' 11 eipcoses fur paiteoger-traint recoiling frvm wnrktag a Hoc on 
the broad faateaytiein,eveaooiBeb llaeiu th<>M which ha** at ibe pre- 
isBt iMMDeQt Iha tMSt Ibnadaoi paaaeager tralHop uuy analr»tlM of tba 
■videiw* offered in tnpport of the narrow sauge sjitten appears to iis Id 
ha qaito swpcfBnoas. 

I*n*e ud S*t LoatU. — There i« one point, liowcTtr, glaled in Mr. 
Gnxfc's <oinparutiie Ixbltr, aed repented in hU c>ideoec, which appears 
soMiieb at \aii&nc«nitb Ibe rt»uUs ore Uaie obtaioi-d fram otbcr datu,Da 
lataq«ire explanation. 

Mr. UooeU has asserted ibsl tile Great U'nlernC^mpanjr work their p>»* 
•tocer'ttaiiu at balf the evpeusc per Urn, at which ike I^nndon and Bir- 
■togtiam Conpaa] nark their paateugcrlraim. Ihc Tact is. hunrcrrr, 
ftat Mr. Goocb's colcolaliooa refer to the icrou aod not Id the net loads; 
and llKrefure, the v«mpari*t>B ii not applicable, *u for a* rcxardi the |>ti>lits 
of Uiese cooips&ies, and affordt bo proof of econoniy in workioj; tbe pat. 
Mayer traflle on die Great Wea[«rij siiiEenj. 

Thero can ba no doubt, ju(l|;ia{ tuih (rum Mr. Brunid'a evidcDoe given 
to aS| aod froai hi* report In the dirL-n'.ursof ibc {treat Wutern Itailwaj 
CoBpaoj, that be ariKtnallr expctii^d there would be on ihoGrmtWciWrB 
Railway a demand for o&rrjrins gnat numbcra of paMciiger* at hi|h ««lo- 
ciitei, bat from bii own erldeoce it appears thai thin only haavj ii«M«o|^r 
mile apoa thai railway <« brtivteu Landoa and Baadlof, Ma belwtan 
Bath and Bnstol. being a total disiance of aEjout SUiuilet, uni of MS. 

On tbe remaioiBg part of the linn the paseenftr inlHc, p«r Iralo, Is 
■■all. 

J>irw«Mi «r Trafflt. — If the cootenicDce of titc poblla would admit of 
the witolc of the pasMDifcr Iradit ol this portiao of the line being too- 
«v|ed daily b; two or three )>rf;e tmiuit, Mr. Rrunel't riewf wonid hate 
Wat) perfcetly corrrci in prDtidiog tucli powerful niesod; but eiperlenco 
Iwapiotcd that Ihe public rrf[iitre pii»>va)[rr>lrNins to be run maay times 
4«(iax tlw day, and with rhis fmiuriicy of lrnin», such onmbers of pas- 
•f«Zen «• Mr. Brunei hai praiiUc'd for caoiiot bu etpcctird ct«n uo roil- 
wsfs of the largcx IrslHc, 10 that prsclicDily ibei* is a waste bulli of 
power and d( UMaos. In the cose of " );oodi' t(«lfi>u," the cmamr.ttntrt 
wa not the sum*, rolltray coatejanci! for mnrcbnniJlse seems only lobe re- 
^■md a tew iimei io i^och doy. anil thfi imini are tceneralty larze. The 
"Ihrowgh" wscoas harr, fur tlie uiott part, a foil load, sod the diipio' 
pocijoa bctnccD the Eros* asd the net nciKbt is uoiisuiurDtly much Irs* 
Ihaa in the p«**caKcr iroini ) *ttll| boweitr. It appoac* from Ibo eridence 
Of Mr. HoiDc, aud of other peroaas <0JiticcIc<l wiUi tbv Garrjing trade. 
Aatoatha Loiwloa and BinninBham Itailway it frsqaently happens that 
wagons are forwarded 10 a comiderabla dtflance, to " roaid-slde siiitiuiii," 
(sataioiaE ool mofo thaa a ton of fiood* : and there can be no duubl that 
this aiBil btpprn on aiij laoc Hoe of railway. The siune alsu ocrurs io 
wsgoos coming io fr»iD branthea along Iha tronh line, and io all >urh 
easo* the be>*y largo wagon uf the brnsd gHofj* niurl be ditrndTftqin- 
MOOs; but althoo*;)^ tba avil is ool so xtohI w>lh guudt' wtacon) a! tiie 
Snad fangcas witkaairpamu^r camsgeg, aiill the lowby dead wFight 
bpcaWr with theac Ihao uilb sraallef wajLOUS, and ne du out pcrceitc 
aay adeaatans in the broad icaugo lo counterbBliinre it ; fur wbere speril 
i* Ml aa object, and thia 1* the cue wiUi Kuods' trains, we beliete from 
•hareidelMe wckarorecdred, that tojiiucs of ui-arly ike same , tractive 

Kir are to ba found on many narrow gauj;* liueA no iboso ia use oa the 
d ftugt. 




in lira fun 
ru Kallmr. 

BiiiM tiio by 



iVriD ilMJiMjia.^Tiiiu far w« hare eouideiwl ili« itnettlon with ref^r« 
enealo the railways a* they now exist, and compote j, in a creat mensare. 
of Irank lines of censlder^le trafic. hut ibc ntilwaj* to be oiadr in fuiur* 
will, in SOBS degree, be hraaches or line* in dieirict* haritg mllic of Iraa 
msgoilude than islo beprorided for in the ciiitio^ railways ; uud lieuee, 
if iDTthegreatertraak llaesa luperiorily were' dun to the broaJ xau^ 
sysirm, thai svperferity would be le*i fur linei ynt to b» eooatrHcfcd of a 
Hiuailcr amount of tradii: : end, necessarily, if iho preference urrT< Kieen 
Id the nerruw Kaose fui the eiislinR lines, thai syslcro would be slitl morw 
entillrd ti> ihc prcferture for the railway* of smaller tnHic l» which wff 
look forward . 

Exptrimtnti an lln^xi «atl Samte Ctugt. — W« must here add that 
towards the close of ourinquiry, Mr. Bruael re^ur^ied, na the part of 
the broad gaoge coaipantea, to imiiinio a M-t of •iperimenls in ivst iW 
power of Ibeir rogines, and Mr. Bidder, on the part of the narrnw c*ag» 
oofDpanics, andcitook, lif consequence of each appllcaiioo, Io make corie- 
BpoDdinKeapcrtmBuUon the narrow* gaiiCF, AfUraanctioaing these trials, 
■ad beiag preseol at the performance of them, a record of which wdl bo 
found io the appendix, we iiisy obscrrii. wittiout entMlBg fata n Miout* 
detail of the result*, or tbe disc rc)iancie« botweeo the iviumsa* fnmishsd- 
by the two panic* Ihenuclrei, thul w« consider ihem ascouiirniis; tli» 
Blaltmeals ajid resulu Rivea by .Mr. Gooch, In bi* eridence, pmrlni SS 
they do, that the broad i;anfie cuslocs poesess irreatercapabiliiiesfdr npecd' 
Willi equal luaJ*. anil, generally spcokioK, of pnipvllmg grcaler load* wiLb 
equal ipeed ; and, luureotcr. that ih« n-rirkln;! *""> *noh eoginr* it teonO' 
mieul where »ery hich »ii**d» ate rr<|iiirr>il. or where Ihe loud* to he (v«». 
reyecl are such ■■ to require the foil power of the euifine. Tbpy confirm, 
niso, ihc cildcocc Ritea bj Mr. BUdcr s* tu the possibility of nbtalDlnr 
hi|{h CTapornlt''c power wilh loas englnea fur the aitrruvr ^auifc ; liul uoilcr 
sooKwIiat peculiar ctrtooistaaoes. It appears, mvrearrr, that the enapu- 
ralion thasablaiotd doe* net produce a correspond ing osrful clTectlalho- 
traettve power uf the eoKina ; a esrctimiaiioa that would prohahly be dif- 
ferently explained by Mr.GoDch aod by Mr. Bidder; but as wadoBot' 
refer to the power of ihi* dcacriplioo of cDKina ia ibe deductions wo havw 
made, ii is nancocMafy for as to allude furtlier to iliem. 

C»a<l«(ioM. — After a fall ceoMdcraiioD uCall lb* Eircnmslanretlhar 
hSM cfrm«bcfar«DS,andef tbsdaduulionsire hare made from Ibe eildeaoo*. 
we are led to coaeludc — 

i. Tttai OM rrfardi tht Mo/iHg, a e nmmtdatiaii, mnJ nnffMiene^ iff ike pat. 
timgtn, ae 4t*tdtd iirfftma U da* lotUhtr taagt, bat Utat »n tkt Imad 
gmgt tk* **e<i*a u geMTdUji umw raiy al tugit veiociiua. 

ft. Mat inrttftcttfriHtd. we cvasiifrr lAe •iilran(a;r4 airirilh (Ac Iroud 
gc»if€, hwl wt Ihtiiji Iht PuUltt lafily teouti! l-r <Hiia»:trtU i<i cmpltfimg ihe 
gremtrr eafmbUitU* ^ lot Jieueii fuaft mufli iti/imil Itfir yren'^t ere, txttjrt 
OH ree^ user* <«aael>d«fed aad eiorr *u/M(antiolly and f4rfuUg fortttt\i, Maa 
ihosr ^ tin tjuliag f tar*. 

3. in1.1i in tilt ruNnsrrrnil ciisr of tie trampert o/fondt, irr Mserr tkt' 
aorreit- x^'K to poswM Iin gmter ceaieai'ciwc and tttir tkt morriwifrid fv 
fh« f fnrraj Irujjtc ^ lAc t^mmtri/. 

4. Tkiil Ikt broad gatgt Urilrrs Ihr gratter niil/oy, end Ihal «v Aerc »ot 
littn ahli to diMttr eitktr tn tJie main/raoace a/ vay, in the fntf of Iocuud- 
f ire poirer, or in Ih^ other onnsLiI uftntti, aai/ adujuate ralucliuti t" tM*- 
ptHMatt/or IheailailioHalJirtt toil- 

Therefore, (stccmiDji the unpoxlance of Uie highest speed m eiprriu Iralna 
fur Ibe BCConimodnlion of a companitiicly nioidl numner of persou.i, honr- 
cfcr dcsirablv t)ml may be to them, as of fat le«* icoiueul than affordhi; 
eooveoiMico to tlie neuvral comBcrcial tialBc uf the e^uolry, wsarela* 
dined lu coiisiiler the aurruw RBUKu a* Ihat which ihauld be profrrrcl far 
gctiend cuciienknce ; aod. therafi>re, if it wars inipentllve to prodiine ual- 
forniily, we should tecommond that nnifonnily to tie pro<Iuced by aa alier- 
aiiua of the brood to the oarraw Raugc. more npcclally when we lake 
into ooDiideraiion that the extent of Ibc former at present In work la only 
314 mil c>, while Uial of the Isllcr is But Irs* thau 1,'JOl miles, and thai 
tbe sltrialioQ of the former to the latter, etcn ■( uf vqool Uuglli, vrould be 
the lest costly a* well lu the leasdillieult operatinn. 

Imtrrmtiiiatt CIoHjtri.— We are dosimits, howevu, of gusrdisj[ ourselew 
fnuri brine >oppi>sed to eipiess an opiBion, Ibnt tbe dimensions of four fewt 
cighi and > li.-ilf inthes I* iaall rcspeots the mosts suited for the geuenti 
(ibjccU of the touotry. tianie oftbo coginccrs who have been esamliwd- 
by ushate giieo it as their oftioiao, tlial &•« ft«t would be the b«at di. 
loensiuu fur a railway gauge; olhan harcsugftcsted S ft. 3 in., it ft. C la.,, 
and erentVft., but no»«ba>e rvconimrnEl<^) *u great k breadlha*I(l.,c>ce]>I 
those wlioaro more particnlarly mtereslrd id the broad KauKc line*. Agaiu 
eurae eneioecrs of cniiaencecoiiIaDd that n gauge of 4fi. ?j io. gives aoipte 
•pace for tbe machinery of tbc cngiao and all ihemitvay rcquircuitolo. 

Bod wrould recammeo'l do change to he made in the gaugr. 
-.He niay ohHrre, in rcftrcuce to ihU part »f the question, tlial the- 
Eaalern C.'»uiaics KnJlwHy was origioaliy coDiiLrucled 00 n gaug« of 
i feet, anil bat sioco been conrrried into a gause of 4 feet S| inches, to 
atoid a break of gauge; and wc hsto been infufrned that sume hue* In 
Scotland, originally oa the gauge of 6 fL S in., art about to be allurtd lu 
4 ft. Bf ia. for the ume nason. 

(•arngf «f farrijtit KaUttayt. — Whatartr might be the prefenibJo eoutse 
were Ui* qurtlioiis now to be discussed of the gang* for an eolire system of 
railways, where none protionsly ei.ltttd la claih with the decision, j*t. 
under ibo prcscol slate of thing*, we see uo auflicieBt rcasua to suggest or 
ttcaBUMnd tb« adoption of any Range inteimediate beiweeo the uarrow 
(•age of 4 ft. 6} iiL, and the brMd gaugeof 7(1., BMlweare pccollaity 



k 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOORNAL. 



[SlABOtf, 



•track by the dKonfUoce. thit aIniMt ill tUe caMiacutal nJIiraja hkte 
bKD fumed apaa U>a 4(1. S^M,, $»u»t, lb« tfnatm oambtr htrittg btea 
itudcrUkro, nfler ■ (osf <>Kj>«rten«« of Mi(b lb* btaad and BarraW <*I4?* i" 
tJii* coaaUj ; nor nnit Ui« iwr be lo«l Mfhi alt, Ibu mmb of lb»w imJIfraj* 
ban betn eonMrueled m weB u plsoiwd by RopUh «cioMn,Biid 
UMiifrt Ibu nunilMr ini tbid Mr. Brsiwl, Iba orlgiiAl pnltcicr u( tbe 
teoidcauEC- ^'- Braael wuabollif ruirarer uftbc McrthTrTj-ilirilnnd 
Cvdtir Liiic, niticli i« uu tli« lA. 8)ia. (Huge ; widuielhiuh that Uir tiM< 
U<ret whick led to lits «do|)tia<i of lb« ninvw KOuge ia (Uat toMattoc wusld 
•qutlljr appl; to na.nf V,iigluii tioM. 

We ari' MDiible uf tJie iiupuriaiice. Id uritia&rT circumitnncM, of !•■«- 
(■g mDnncixial eutL-r|)iiw m «rril ai the gpuiu* of ECtPOIlte nM ao' 
JMlMcd ; we llK-refurn ft-rl thai Ihc reilriclioa urthc iC*D|« I* aiwiiafe 
Uwt ahoiiLit out be tigtitl} cBltrilaiaMt ,' aiiil wc an willinK lo adntk yren 
it ai>t (or UiQ great «>il iImI isvit iac*iUblT b« vapericDSCil whco lines of 
au»4<i'l K*"!!*' C'^* ">"* CMtMt, tfau ■■rjiog EradiHto, curvoi, acd 
tnfit niiglil juMily iooMdiffeKOMiBUwbrekdtli afKaoga. 11ii*a»pran 
to b% lb* view wkicb Hr. Uniael arigitialljr look of tb« ftih)rct; nf Uw 
OmiI WMlen pfoper in a liae of hbimimI good gnAittat, on wbicb ■ 
iMfcr ■«»»(«- trallki frasualicipated, and Mil toucbed bni alightljr on 
aoj Biinvnl dnirici, it ctobmocd all ibc cWTMleiMn and adraiitup^* of 
Uic broad gau^c tytina, and wa* oomparatiTcljr In* from tlw toOucacc of 
tliote d«f»cl« «a nbicb *e have oorafueaiod ; but aoch a br«tidCli of gauge, 
batwvcr auilabk aod applicablt il naf hare angciiiallj b-?«a toDnidrttd to 
iU panieulai dialnol, app«nn nboHy inapplicnUo, «r al iMit vtrj ill 
Miled Lo tbs reqniremenU of manraf oHr Nortli«ni aod Midland linei. 

la TcfrrcncM to llie bfaatbca alread; In coonrxloa wiib tbc lirrat 
Vettera Uatlwar, we wa; obionc. tbat tlic gnaiMi aTenp train on (he 
Oxford branch, tor iwo wecki in Jaljr lud CIctvbnr, «*«• oolf 48 loac i oo 
Ibc Uielunhain briuieVi, ii did not iitee«d 4(i; baiwMa Brtiti-I aod Evader, 
iZ i and baMreen Sit iudiiu and Hri*tiil, ii was nodar 60 Iom. With audi 
» limrtfd tntHc tbr pantt al tho broad gauga «nglac Re«ici beyoed ih« 
rMBlrtaealB of itirxr dbujcla. 

E«y»fW<: «/* JUtriag- BrMd It Haram Gaagt. — Ve liod fnxn an 
«MiBial« funiiibrd Uriit, and the RMMCal Bmude o( «birli nr m« no ittnoa 
I* di*f uU, aod lli« MpaoM of altariag lb* MMbug broad gauj^ t# oarroTr 
gaagir Jin«a, incliuUug (bs «Jt«ratioD or aabftitiMieo of lacomatir*), and 
fanning »b>ck*, noiild nol mucb *ictinl ljaw,WOt. [ ;«t vb ueilb»r f«<«l 
diat w« can leotKOMcod ibr Legialalan Ui aMWlJon auth an cipraai' from 
tkt iMbUe Boniei) aor do ■« thiolt ibal the mnptaie* to nbicli th« bnxd 
g\njn rniliraya b«lo«g can b« calM wpan la imenr aucb an rajieTiM ibf n- 
ail*«3 (liB*iag mad* all Ibvir work* nilh tbc avlhoriti of Pariiasimn% nor 
«*IB 111* mur* linilod •tpeoM of Ujring down iubcruicdiale rail* for 
narrow page inDic. Scill Imc can we prufiMe, fur auy ndvaaiaga ihat 
liai bren auggrtiod, (be altoraUon ot tbo wbola of di4 nilwaja of GrMt 
BnUin wilb ibrircurryiu^AtucLiand cagiDca.toaanaiatcfnMdMaginge. 
Tto onilaj in tttls cnw wuulil b« verjr rauch own OQHdtoiUe tfau tha 
»iMB above nenlioutd ; and tbc ertl, lDCM>*«til«nc«, and dangar to lbs 
■rar«<1lrr, and the iiitfrruptiuu U> tbc nholt Iraflii: «r the cusatrT for a mn< 
BklaraUa pariod, and almoat al ana aod iha aamc tine, wuold li« »«cb Ihat 
Uda dMOir CKonot be ferloaaly MicnaiBad. 

GoidMl br Uic foregoiac oeoaldarationi, wa Moa( dntiftitly subnlt to 
Tonr H^aat; tbe fullowiaK reGOinineoclBiiMis:— 

1. 7Aaf iifjfMigt ^ 4 A. ^ ia. la ^telartd Ay <&e Ltgulatmn I* be the 
f aaf » (a t« nafif ia aUpMhtit nailMMjrf now tMdtr e\ntt<t9<ti«n, ar ^r^rqrtrr 
i« frr t»mtt*vettd, in Cttal Hnta\». 

t. That unltM hf the cattrat tf Ih* l^gUMur*, il ahauM a«( ht ftnaifttd 
ia tA( dirttttf* q/' KMii ruiluny caai|mf (a ^(ar (ta fOHf « «f ikA ntifiray. 

S. I'Aaf im order U evnptttc lAr gtntral «Wn t^ narrata r«lV emmtau- 
MCofiaN A«"> (A« "ar1& ^ Emghmd fa lAa aanfJUn* aaaal. mg mttabU 
mtmnrt tImiU bf fTfmtM t*/«rm a Mrrov g-anfa fiaA /ran f/j/Tif fo 
IUtdi»g, aad tJLmca <• Btuinf Hakr, »e hy axy »Aertn- r««<« wmnrftin j (A( 
pntfoltJ ku/;ty aiul (Jj/ard line vilh Ihr Svnik H'tHtm ItnUimy. 

i- That atavfjnmttumla ir/oriutJwitha troad gauge lint troitid iniairt 

-a break tj^ ^av^'i.jiroridad oarjiru rttommmilalitim b* adoplrd. fnat e»m- 

mcrtiat cMttMientf vwiU t* *ttai»td ^ rrdating tht gaUfe of t/ir ptrtin 

Irtacl gat;t iintf tt tkt IMtfotg fOMgc ^ * fret B) iitcln»,miut we, iktrijarf, 

Ihmk it JifiialrU fAai aaHH t^iuUUi mtaiu tkmU he fmittui tf pruducmg 

. ttth t»lirt inifrrmitf if fm^*, ar ^ adopting tmek alfcrr tmrtt ua witaid 

- aAmilii/UtMafr»iDgauifte*rrMgttpauiitg,vUK*iai»ttmifli»n ordaagar, 

..olaaf tAciriNidgaHKtliaaB. 

(Signad) J. M. Fainuic Shitii, <L.S.} 

LieuL-CoL Kojal Engiocari. 
O. B. Aisr, Aatronomcr Qajnt. (L.S.) 

Perti BaaLow. (L.S.) 

Broad aad Narrow GaugM C 



. Jbtm 4^KiM<My«/ar»ifJM by tkr Btard *f Trmii, 1M5. 
UlLVirS 



ManvwOwit^ 9rMd Oaaac, tfbfcOaaia, 

40.1418. 7tm. >n.iiB. 

„ . _. •"«* ■•'*» "*i- 

aw H lwai< la 1M4 .... MM a US| 
VHMi Ibf BatiM of Caauama. aaailoat IMt 
aad Ham Ukdi lo b« Mmaiwd la »aB- 



T-Kalkapb 



4.UU 



W7 



773 



Tlie Brvad (iaogc iaolmlotlbe Graat Waitera, Cbclteaban brnoob, Os> 

fonl branch, Bri»lol and Kirler, and tht Britlol kod Gloneeattr conpMti. 

Tba Soiilh U«ion now proKrastini;, and tlic Hridol and ExMar hraniibf, 

CorawiOJ, Ei«Ur, CradiiuD, HouUi Wales, Vi'tlU Mad Suneraat, wmt k 

pnrliamtiit. 
The Narrow Gango JncltidM 33 milca of ihc ArbroaUi and Kortar atd 

Dandcoand Arbroaib Ballivay, 6fl. nn. eauEoio b^allertd lo4ft.91iK., 

and tbalriih gMfa Itennincd to rtilwajs in Ireland. 

Tnbla naliibiiiag Ilia P.«pa«ditura of (liu tlieai U'atlani awl Lwidna nd 
Rinninghani ftallwayg f»<r Lucomotiva FlDaioaa, Carrlagn, aad Wago^ 
from lb« commaaoamant of Iha tralBR in iLe presanl line ; aho the S^ 
Tanua Balurna ofaafh for the la«( iwo >«Br>, and Ihe Eipanan «f Lae»- 
niDti*« fnwer, as dcduood fnim llie flalf-jearly llepanaaf c«cliCaiB> 
iwuj. 



ilii«cn'Mi«n.— TauleoMOflMonoClafaBgliua, laedtra, carriacai, 

Londtn Bad Bastacbupv-^TDlal Mat of IiKvnottaa aailDaa. taidw^ 
carriaii*^ and WAfoiu. to 3Sih Juaxi. iHi^ 
Tltnwaitjnaara'Bciiik^rr af ihfclkaffrft for toconnatlTc. ranliia^ 
aad mtiiii ttptlrt, int: \.6tn u, ihr batr^aartf •(eaant*. Tliaa 
ijilMf iMAit amaunifi Ln i^ .>-.u run to — 

Oust U'taun.— Trom lat Jm- ri jum. lau 

LaiulDBwidlltnalsKlMn.— >' . i-Ll, liilmli Jum, IdU 

Tb* toalol lanmalln ] 'i>l t: miiolii ul li-u- -ii» iilltr an. 

^naa, rvalf cdIvi vri^d, mii all JDe)dei3.la] chirg**, bava 
aauiiatad In iba >aaia pariad tan^ 
UMBt nrMtan— Frau ltolJ%]y,lUS.iamOi»tJm*, JSM 
Ivtuilsn and Blnntiifbwn.— Fiuai 111 ufJiiJi, IM3, la lOiti gf Jnaa, 

Tfci rsmnic for tbs auii Ivainrti tor tha cMrlaga of piiwta|ira, 
malia. (ooili, ftc. — 
Ui«l Watorn.— Proai Uli>r Jslf, liUS, toSOtbDri un^ l»tt 
t'iDilnii aad Blnnluahaia.— •rnia lat at Juli, iMi tu Wlh Jun*. 
:wi ,, ,. ,. ., .. 

TLc uittl mlraga tXwinif puarvgar farlhalaaltirarBwa 
■Bii.uiita la— 
Citnl Woicru.— T\ita] DlkajfB (nwi III cf JuK, IMS, ta Mthgf 

lant, IKUi 
I.iniiluu uiij Biraioabui,->T-JU.I mUrw* tma IM atJalj IHL 
tolOUlorJuiu.lMS 



«,»» 



« a. ^ 




iTaVMU I 



Oraat WaaUra aal Laadoaaad I 
llallo of (VM <rf*n|[lncaBit PuHaitT plant ,, ., I la . 

Hallo of re^nlri fllcn^lDfl for !b jfari .. .. I la 11 

X«Un «r ro*i *.f l«f<iniika^rc j.iaih'Fr hir f jHa« .. _. | tn 

Hallo <»r iHMfnirra' aillrage liif 2 fHTI .. •. I ta 

Ran* •JtiilalfiaaKncHi'R**Diua far Sfiar* 1 la *Mn 

During tba pcrJoda wbiub (hen ratornn emtirace, the leagcka of Un^ 
worLnl Ly ihn Orval V'aalaro bara mritd by Qic vpenlng of diSbml llnaa 
and branchoB ; b«i from tb* SOIh of Dacambar, ISIl, lo Jiinn Mdi. 1841, 
Iba ounibfr of milea wcrked hava been cuiioiant, aii., 192 mllM. The 
laoglh workad by Uia London and niruiiu^hiim h»a alsa baanj conitaBI 
during Ibe tain? periud, and Sir. Cr^td iu bin nidrnce itaira (ndadiaf 
iba brandica) ibat ib« tliMuticPi wurkcd nnn 1 13 miles, and tb« rerenna 
and milaa^^a on ibii Irogtb, Unl ia »lill csvluding ibebrandiea, be giTea m 
balow, , 

Siatllnr KataDMnla ar« given In Ibe appendix of tba reTeniw, nBcagaa 
ttc, on ibe Great Wettem kir a like perkKl ; from wbicb we have ftc fal- 
lowing eonpariaoDi :— 



<l»a[ Wnlam. Imrlh of llor Mirkfd 

LnnAnQniuA n^nblnphihfn, l^njfth «f l^nf wprlsad ., ,, 

UcraL Wnitra, loUl pautucm' atlkaca .. .. 

Loodoo aad BliMi(i|lM«, loUlpaiacaim'nlla^* .. „ 

Uraa« WrMaa.oMltaniabrfaaaaiicarulna « 

Idodan and Wnntitehini . milfi ran Vr pkaangcr tialna 

Oraal Vaacarrii ■•crapt Diiiubtc otpawcnccnpcr Italna .. .. 47-j 

IjMrfOiiMd airaitti)|liiim. mraav nunibrr otpaHcntan prrtrttna H4 

Onrnt WHtHB. >n>i4|r puHDgin* rfwnui ptr tntnm pTrai))* ,, w 

t^iidonaiid filnnliifliain, artiagi puaaoccn' itraog iifr Iraliia ptrnlle .. tdibflC 



ntjm 




IifpaovKMaMT or ma StVBBK. — The Riter Saicro, wtkh la s 

a^UiiitlaaoBdaaB^dnmitM.hat. dnftogtbalan Iw. )Hr>. Uen ^natly Im 

ilrfdaltif. ind trjr tba aiauMa •( BlaBnllc **li> aad lo^iki. Thctt auHttan- nF«< 

IrwD Bordlfy Ui WonMlai, adliMacaoCarTiiulMn tnlln.aiiil rram U'eti-tata*' to'Qto*. 
OMatr IW rfrHh bfiof drcpttMd tndivdgliif and etntri oiliuiJiurDt, lti( Scrcia a«l 
llgallliif Ua crccltoB of mln arttkb Ibt (oanlv of Wor>wwr. B* tht inaraltaa tf 
AadflBf. laBfrockr ih-"it Lan tiata aarHoly rrmsHnl. Tti* Iivdnt luck* ■>* hat 
blaalaa a adw waWt, and, iIu-r«rorTi aaati j rcmorad b j Ibi ilradging watbinn lipvaNh 
otMtMO tana of aiail. hcIi. |r*n). and aoll bai* almdy baea ralaadbvu iht Vil W dM 
SammbT Mfiaara. OittMll and I'ciu't dtadgtaa miclilaa ilona. baaidn wdat liH bMS 
■•aui«adb)raaa(bM«iBlncuir, Ai(.lmriiri.Lrr lihaibrta TucfMiytn ramova it« oriha 
^imttaUaA of oaaaf tha fitruof t]i4 old brld|*, and ka tiia ivuftaaf tklaawfallaai^M 
otclaaa idkaaranclnl coloa ban baan illBcurarrt. 

■ Buttt wan . 1 ^ wbola of tbe gun* fur ihi: dd rorliRcallon* bate ^M 

anhaiften Waal'rtch. T%«Tar*ttlnnuBh*r,andart of lbara!U>ii1njdm-ilMlaar> 

riaht-TBcb ciiBt, Oe tut. ruh. 
I and444 laahfi>u.-'<S <t. 



lalfhUDCb noa. M cwt. aacti, II rati looci Vdaht-TBcb (hm, «THt. ruV I Ral 
taoi I W ai.liMrb_Buua, M (vL. aarh, * fi. «la. leW| - - - * - 
6 ft. fin- looff. Tht wofklDvu nocr awsJl b^ antral I 




uroaltrttb 
■waar* 

pralHiifla th* binvfci. Th» rnw wiiflat pnijpua rapidly ; tlic iHtttry fomlaf 

llie dnkrant (alt m ii<>w lantKl to iba bi41bl «l Ibe iiUUunit i Ita tarllmi praci^ . 

hovravM. !>«*« dtfftrtil till ilit furtaallon of Ihr daap 4Ueb Iiy wUeb U la lo L« ynAnUI, 
andau vhlcb all thp wprbiutn arvnov aaBg<aljalad» Waodaa laaillw an ^>w ap IBT 
aBoiharbttUrr. altbwblcliUiitlilobaaoaacciad braaiuakakiw^aUlauiWaMfc 
warfll ■UlbacaBliauadisIa Iba bwfbMvmtHullncaoM tbaXInHi ia ~ ~ 



:i 



18»1.)- 



TRK CIVIL ENlilNEER AND ARCHITKCT-S JOURNAL. 



^ 



T^ NEW CUfKCllES. 

AU Sain/!. Ri», F'*rVfAi'-<.— Cvii»i*it tl « nave and cIiidmI ib Ibii Pint 
TwBlvd tl)1(-, and udt aSuuI 4'>I)'>I ; ii U capable ofconluiaing VIIU I'tr^-ottt. 
The chanci'l it aacrniled b; aan utRp at Iho tinva antl l«i> more kt tbf >1tar. 
n> lUlla and Ihv 9l1>Qit( ihroutiliuul nro of nak ; Ihr Quur ii^ Ulil vuli 
eBna*ikltk»; the n.ilt at hleh u thoinne-courM i> tnUid wilh ilttf. 
* f-*---- t ■ 'l^f wall la uwd fur a crtiirnw. Th* cau wloiJow of Ihrec 
l' 1 with ttaiiicd tUa* b; H'ailct. The iloncw^rk bfliTMfl 

b I . I il*u>r«>ivi> coluurJDK, and the wfill* are arnamviilrd wdh 

icrullc. Tbc apacM bilwo*o lli(il»inni« aflha roof arc painlfd blno with 
(fit tun. Tha df ilala of liin pil Ian are ;[ili. 

HnmtrUa. — A oew cburch U bgildiRgln HomBrMn froin lh» detlicn nf 
Mr, Aihpiicl. n'ben we bate pfalnrd ii« nulcriitl, Ktfillih ra^ mib the 
«)r«Bala|;ai,&c,. ia Cam iloof, ADilita E«Dt'ral plao, obaiintl, uari*, toutk- 
^■•Vpwnbiaail wcti luv>rr, vr« ItavD naiil all Ihal «« can in lis favuiar. 
Tba cbanoel it *«ry tborl, ami a utriily i« add'd to lli« iiorlL-wi.->( , 
ioalMil of Ik«lMrt]l•««alo^l^•■ chaocp). AfAta Ihe (tyl« choMD i« Tlilril 
PoiaM, bat wUh a puur Biltiii[>l a( lnr<rr>' of tlio Midillp polakd |i*ri<iil. 
Th« noaUiagt ibruti Jinut a(u vmj iciiccuratc. Thf' Mot lovrer U itiiuirc, 
Wllk * cuTDcr turret ; ail uu Uk> tniall a Kalt. The able is to lia«e a 
wpanil* gatilr, nitli xmt bauiicket. 

£f. JoAit. £.'ii( Ott*M«>-i(, A'<nl.— TImi ^routii pUii oftbit churcb is a 
in4«ot>lAOg, iiilt»>at aiiir |>r»tcDGii tn a cluarrl, Ih^rfi ar# iiorlb. luuth, 
and RHl galitriea, ih* latit>r tvulninliijE tlii> orsmD. At (he ««kt end ottitr 
■oyth cluialcr thrre U a duur InlwUtil " CAnjurf Clrrk't OJJiet." l'»rrr>- 
pwiitins ttiih llili oil Ihe oucilt &id«, li aooibT dour, witb tile iiiicri|>itt>u 
"tfiN^tr'a I'ufrr/' upon iu Tha «lUr, an old oakn labia trdl currril ; 
kltar ebairi llic eani* j an allai-pieca of Carrara nMrbio; alMr-cailB wt 
■ikMiic fjfj inurbt?; a pHtjiil otoak paofiwi wiiii ban rvtief, a b«iaiionn| 
fiuil ofnlhii^ i.idrtjU : a brass Itctero; a lilaii; di>sk (turned ib« wr^nf; 
way), tUrte Curni a caialuniie of erini itliktm uK wilb in thii uonnli]). 
ladtvd tb« wlialr have ttera iiiiimned (rum llic cuiilinrnl. Tlirrr nrn Iwii 
tbia wr>l«ra lowrra ca|ipi^(J ttilli sb^irl iihiD|;l«d ty\tr%. One of thcni caa- 
latat >i( bflU, TLc at)l« wf tliv cliurcli it iulciidtd lu be lialiau. Thn 
•wiBdnw* arc all riiiin'lh**>>l<n) tt>|>let4 KlaKi'J will, giuond glaH ; tliat 
at tha «Mt rod is ioiluded ia an coarraftiia srch of cunainiciiuD. Tim 
maAanry la <»f iIiqi, nUhdrMclDgaof redand nhiiebiiclL.aad wbiit aihlar. 
Tkaroof iiafitaiui^d ilpal. Thecburcb Is said lo ba*« covi nettXy HOUV/, 
■ad holdt >M i«otiiliip|iFr». The arcliiiect ii a Mr. M'ullaitcn. ilcrc ni>i> 
baa axain lu lameiit tilt lavitb eipcndJIiire of luuucj upon an uanorili; 
cJaaif a, 

Wttt ,Vm«, Jffinf^AiVt. — Cooattid of a cb*ne«l, (SOfFM,) oavo, {74,) 
VHk Biklra, ■.juili purch, ami ^*r«l toner. Tkc aljle i* lb» tnaailine 
belwfrn Firit nud Middle PainlPiI, and ^et tbore in not lobaaapirw. The 
naiarial i* Dial dr«Mrd wltli ilonn. Tlie rerrdui » a irvfoiltil arcarle. 
Tbtnf ar^rrmlia.only Imircfcr two In oumbor, and a crrdencn. Ilir 
ra«f and aenii Mt af ilrtl. Tbe Oaorlag of the cbanccl U b1ii« aad ivliiie 
liaa. Mcuri. Sc^iu ted MoDatt arc Ibe arcbitcci*, and the buiMlUK p'ir- 
■akaalou much »f itm Hne'n«aa eanap-ieuAut in their de*isn«. lu pHrticalar 
w« abject la Uip prri-liwkia{ namtantBg windnn a*.ir tha norih dnor. 

Mjtvgkton.-'S^ f ti<Mo neea * liUiDipaphiiit vie" tif "llid airw rhurch, 
LoBKbloa." takPD from tbc N.E,. tn lablcti ntr. S. .'^nilrke't osnm la at- 
Mcbcd aaarthilrct. It U a most UDsatiafdcior? prmlucUodi: of KuRlish 
RonaDraquc »iTle, cnifilonit, nllh loir t^uara centra) tuwor, baviug do 
attffiug vhmtrtet abon* it* psrapeL Tlie (tinduwa ar^ all largv aud 
nwnd-tieaileil : ibo tiJv <mlU bij^h i tli* «trint(» clumij : Iba biitliuxra 
vary uDliki! Nurtnnii ; anil the vrlinic rlTi'd (|iii<f diiri'n>ul fmoi Ibal ni any 
aacieDt chtircti wr vvtt iiw. The vlfvr nln^vt it iiorlh vnt purcb, a duur 
ia tbt oonb Irantcpi, and a (bird dour into a kind of hclfrj turret, wbidi 
ocoapiw Ibe aagle Lctwteu thv aorik UAntrpt aad cbaoccl. Tbc fai^ra uf 
tbv <<•(■ gablc-fruod »huviu in the view Mrc nc<aaed, cot umJtr curlvl 
laMei, but niKlcr a O.-ilaidrd triiiiiguliir li<'ad fciitAwlaK thclin*8 of Ibv lu«* 
eabie, in tba nott r«niarliabl« naj. M> ihaui;lit It had ttrm InoK ago ud- 
■tiled that all RaaaiiNqu* towera oii(-ht tn baTf a liiKh cappiai; ; uulliio]; 
can b« itnasiaPil wttne than Ihe Hat pitrappl id ihM example. 

JhwJcAaai, Brtiku-iirlh, Surrty — Ctinaialsof cho'iccl, tout Iodk eiio«i|;b, 
bit wtrj BiDch brlter ibau tlic utdicarj luiiO nai*, iransfu's, «a raibiru 
BJala t(i eaob IrBOMpI, ntirth pMeli, and o>citnil t<ivi>r. H'» h«>u uflea 
pvDimad aploal ibo adoptioa (esctpt unde' ppcniiar ctMiiniiane**.) of 
ilw cmrtfbnn anaagMncat. In ibli cam it wa» caprciallj bad, becnuae 
iha tut;<U, w* uodintaod, fell ibort. Tho atjlv la ft(«i PotiUdl. Tbn 
Ubc«U arc aal too braad, bat loo iborC. and tar toahixb up : ibi; rail roA 
MBCaiaa a tnpUi of a ici> noadcMtipl kiud. The north purch w im- 
■a aa i l y laolarK«>aadat>*urdlri:Uburuie. TliuMtii>i[-iMurMi»itriTiivuBlr 
(uitty. And, worM llina all, l)iu pivo, butli of thcM iii«l«* and the txilfrj 
arekn, ara aiMla indeeit of local kiutie, but arn to b« taaail, and all the 
owulduiB*, rnn, la plaiHter. On tb« whole, this cburcli la Ttry unwuithy 
nf Hr. Ferrrj. 

Ttitnt^t lit I ktkirt. — A uuall cbuicb, the tbetl of ntikb did nut aot 
■ar* ibaa VUOl. or IVOI, has bcco built iierc from tliediiiensorMr, Pugla, 
altbtr ptprnic uf SL Mhij Mafidulcu CollcKe, Oafurd. Tlir must tiliikins 
Ibatare la ibe r««f, of aauftaally sharp and lofi; purh ; whivb has bi-«a 
MMPvd aa e«e3»l*« by naay who are niAii dli>p<t*Ml to fniour high mul*. 
llw vtll-kativB eianipie tifilieTutf of All SainlN.Skettna.innj bepT*fii4r'l 
taa pr«c«4eaL The <test end dbpla^t a bell xnble uf tnn nictiFs. uu-J ■ 
|tcluilrierc«d betwvee tba beaJa, wlUk a iutiaicd i;fvM ataiva. All 



I 



tka windows mi the oorib ara af mna aanaw lixht wilh trafull bMdt ; tba 
cait wiuduw uf Umi chaaccl haalbrae ligbUMilh flowing Inoerj.utid iboM 
on tU MHitk vide arv of two lights in fiwm oad proportioii bke tbore un tb« 
iiorlb. 1U plan i;uo<>ute (rfobaacci, vrttry ia ilie north tide, iia»««, aad 
MUlb porch, Ibe whole pa«cd arilh iji>«ll uUi of a dark icd cwlvur, Tba 
altar auil pulpit arc ofalonc, both plain, ai U almost avetj detail of lb« 
cburcb, with tba cioeplioa uf the foul, whlob is lery luhltaod tKaBiifulU 
oancd. , 

5(, Jamn, U'aoii(iif<.'-We ba*oM;caemyKltajtr.-i*lDE of thi« chuieh- 
fmni th» ni>rlh>«eal. The •ichilvcl It Mr, C W.Butleiiih.of Lteda. The 
ttjle ia Middle i'wnted; and U>o plan conauta «r a chaaoelt uave nitb 
wwt bclI-«oto aixl mat iloor, uonk aUI*, with a aeparale nMv, and north 
porcb. AU the Kablra arv mped in Rou#, and hake cmue*. t.i|iou ibt 
nhnlo wo ari- nrll wtUIicd. and bop* lo ineFt Air. Burteigb again. 

^dii'iJMra Untdiag, t^ieltfWi|!kl. — U'cbnveaeeniililhograpbaflheDat* 
eburi-h iibuu4li> bn creeled at Saeduwa Bnwiiac, Isleof M IKhl.iu tlio Fini 
I'olsted slyb. Thrre is a toulh aiiU and«r a aepanile nabk. The eaat 
wiadaw nf Ike aiale i* a triplet, and (oo n>i»cb lik? a chancrl vest wuida>r. 
The toner wilb btoadi ifiire li Hgaged in Utsaiili.- at iti »<•■! cod. Tlia 
mofiattuf ajfood pilcb. iUr. tt'vudniaii ia Uio anlkiltci of Sandoieu 
cburcb. 

CiimCH ntSTOdATlONS. 
SI. Vvj, BalrrJ.— Some »»ry inurcslioc wall-pa in tirtea, wet* lalely dla> 
Mvrrrdtn iheaeBt'ltiMuaiKii^aa oavnoflhedeniial ehurrh or St. Mary, 
Itaitel. laaplleofcarnesimDiintlrBnrM tbe cburchwardeuti hare amfa 
whiioMaabed llx-in. Tbu aplata i>r the cleresturT windows aei» mint 
wtlh wh.)le lefi|[th £i;ur»«. The wort* in thv diancel and lU aUle* will 
h« donu 10 Ike right dirtctioo, ikeao heiag free from cburcbwaiHlcu'* iu- 
6 nance. 

■Sf.jlfory. &'iwHi>ikaM.—Theni<iiniac(>nt Middle Pointi^d weM winduir 
of ihi» cbutrh hai beta upeiieil atul r*palr<-d by ibe eierliaaa of the curate. 
It istu br lilleil wilh ■taiirrd ifiasa by Mr. \l'aTrini>liiii. 

St, Ui*lutfl, Sffvlon, iMmatltirc.~7Ur Hiurvti -if Wt. Mkhael, Sowtno, 
I>»rM»hir«, h«» b««n rm-nlly rebuilt, ai ibu aolr rburec uf J. (iarmil, 
)-l»q. Mr. Hayward it the architeei. Tin. ttyl« is Third Puioled. Tba 
plan cuMlalt of efaanerl. ««*«. uoKh aitlne, ond u^iciu lower. The ttoue 
is rcd-»and>luae oahUred ; tiin dr«»in|;R are of L'ai-u itoiie. Tbo cxtcnur 
edlrat Is (kKrIbeil ai br^in); rvitgioun and unobtruai«e. Thara u no aaviog 
oTespeiiMieiteriinlly.niid there u much eonahnieiit withia. The wluduwa 
ate lilleil with ttaiuKl gtaMchieS) by WlUvairat. 

Si. Livnntd, Uitftri, F«cfo*irr.— Thb cburcb cooiiitcd of a chaocat, 
nn*e, and south aial». and prvaentsd all ibadhtgurGments of aaih Mindows, 
ptisan rnlr>(in(l-ni-ady yallariaa, WlUi a luw ceiling entirely bldiatf tke 
Mood'wnrk. Tho reatnratlOD bas been iiudeftuk«n and carried out m an 
t^xcclleni tpirll. A now north aisle liaa bce^naildeil, mniaiuiug four wia- 
dowB. In Ihe nare the cciliCK has been rruKiiod, and tbculil raarba« beea 
eariebed with cuhpr. \e. Tho Kallery winch nccupicU the wealerii end. 
and eomplotfl) t.io«ki-d up Ih* lower, and a very beautiful arch, hai beea 
pulled down, and tipimstu view a Siia Tbird Poijited wiiiduw, A large 
■lack 111 pulpii and reading desk II StLunly tj ba riphced by new uses 
of propef proporIii»iB. 

St, MaTf. R¥tm€v —Tbt masoiacruc abbey churcb of St. Mary, 
Itonifey, ia under TettoraKea by Mr, Kerrer. Tho spirit wilb nblcb the 
Kork boa been laadrrtaheu ia dcaeeeing of all pntitt, We arr grieved 
buv-DvertosM tiich little reapool paid to tbe peculiar t^haracler of tke 
ltuinaoMi|u« aiasnnry. The new work ia liae.dn-«»ad aad olo*o->viiilcd. 
SiiKb an alCrraiina gon far lowariJs tlmnyiag (fas geaaineoeaa of any 
biiildinB. ThonSeRNTexalkry whiLh tpaaBsdtbecbuivhhas beeoairead* 
twepi away, and tbe lanwru is about lu be opnied. 

St. Mary, foituvU, Keai. — The church whicti is naioly Middle Pointed, 
in of Ilial pi^culiarly uauiaDageabie form, a chancel aad nat«, with a slncle 
aisle (Haniiik on*) wider than the naea iliHf, and with a Mparaic rvuf, 
I'beiiiiiehBaaphaaoelareh, nollheaiile. A nwd-acraenhaabeeD put up, 
and the east end ol the aiilo paidoaed uS. Tbe pardoae baa do upeoing 
at all, Icuvini; the cbaoiiy to be entered perforce ihrDagli tbe vbitiicel. The 
wuwI'Work is eery cmtly and wrll-imcationed, wanting Iiowctit in sin> 
plicity aud in furcc. Tbe pnyer-deak we are sorry lo say Innki weal 
Tiiura are altar chairs, amn^ however narth aod south. U'c- may in 
PDHsiax, remark ili* aiireDM alioriueas of tlie chaiicel. TIte Mt« aad 
uihIc are tilled wilh npen Beat* uf uiih, with puppj-liraiit. 

.Vr, ttalotpk, Ifotlua — Tim resiuraiiun oi" ilir inagiiiGcnnt clionh i»f Si. 
Dololph, Huston, uuder tlio lupenatciidriice uf Messrs. Scolt auil Mi>lf>)itl 
bai vuinnieinccd. TbeinUrior ufltie na*« has already been ileiiudrd uf 
vrhireoaah, and suiBe archilvctural rrtturatiuua have be«u aiade la the 
nieritir. 

m. Dmit, ttothrtfitld, AVnl.— The skiuaie mriug of Ibe spire fsur- 
luouiiteii b) a ii»hw cans ana a cuckl.aud lue lUlencir of tbeihaiicel hate 
breii rv|>aircd : tiic pitciia. sedilis, <tii<l ilic sLuup al tlie Pnoi'i door, all 
■nlbesouUi wall, ■■•«« been resluied. Ihe piftvina ia cirLular-beaiJHl ; 
the aedilia arc l-ir>i Poiaicil, and coaipoacd of (wo arches uf UDei|uitl spun' 
aeporaledby a aiagle shrifi, aud ajipareolly iat^nded fur otic anil i„q 
uceu]HWiI>rcapecii>ely. The paveowut of liio euUfe laciarium has bet« 
raiseil. 

.V(. Jaftoa, IKeM'iD.— The oiik upea benchna in tho tiare have ksea 
enrefiiU) rcitorcd, aud tlic buc cuM Hiri'ii ckiiurd. The cliancclhaa been 
lebailt and it* fo«{ leud«d. its bltiagt ai« uiilu<(unahli al deal. A west 

11 



Il 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[Mabch, 



Call«T it pmnillcd to rentia. The EddI i> mMf«il lo iu prajMr plio» 
UkI « north iloor U opened. 

At. A'iraloi. Cmau-y, •S'«rrry.-.The cliMDel i> krateJ alallvise. bol 
williDUl rvlurai; liic ilr'ail* •»■ pwr, Tbr p«<rUic u of nicmiktic Ijin. 
Tbe &nliiUba*e bnn ivv'^rt*). Uil are nn4 uml, soc c«n llicj b« Htiilv 
Ui« slur niU (rtiiun. ThcK la ■ ^uir enjiltf. « (>ul|»il waaliiiK iM'gil, (.& 
(■uU uu th* itKhl kxir), aod a ivkdiitg-p»w Ibat (w«i loiltlL. ta iImi mtTe 
itrr lou liombla Uil vlaburale); pAoallcd KuUtric* bclneen Uin flru a»il 

fil. ir<i'xn/rl, Lynu. — The parcloae of tka diftD<«I of St. Manvrl. 
Ljnii. li iu vuvrat v[ rvsUiraiMa b; Mr. Paltcnoa, carter , vf (hat Iuh» ; 
uoOmUk »u|Mriiit««tlcooc «( Iho LjfUi kad Weal NorColk Archllvobir*! 
tlucMly. 

Juu CaOiBtfCtmMdjt. — We are rfelightod lo be iifor«ed by a cot- 
rHpa«<tfiiit,ilMt ibv niMier cifieiuj Caileffe, CAinbridiiai, baa aiinuiui««<l 
hU inimMn of prcarnuag live Maianl xIaM nindawB fat tbi; Udc«i> un 
th* iiorili rale «f itte clMir vrtbe ooUc(« cbapd. TL« " Fi*a Siaun." «r 
Vixk, wiU tw Um pmhIcI. 



THF. COLLECTION OP SEWAGE H&NUHE. 

In coniectkin «rltli ihe tfai\a t}ta) hate rrcvnlty bcc« naila ti> lnpraT« 
Ike aaDSlory cMidUwn of larpt ivwai. 'foc or the oioit inportant pn>|Ki»i- 
IMna i* ibe plaa caterlaiatJ, afflyinf U tfritul '" tkt r^fmm mi 
drmwgt <rf La^t». 

It it arfu«d, and appftnotir witb (Cood r«U(M. tint ky Ihla plw Mtooly 
wmiM lurigr i|MHtlltet of laluabk ■aoars, vblrh ia now wuImI. b« uM' 
fullj applied, but Ibai abu, tlie plaa wxild iuvuItc laure rjTeciual aiFatt* 
tifrMnmini; lt,tb«Bby lli« flowaf ibtTkuwa.aail ibal a fruitful k4.nac 
«f inlwniM would bf rtnrated. 

Two Biudea uf rircctiBR Ike reqahiw Ah>«ei hav* b«n aajncMMd. In tb* 
Ffrvt lt*part of th« Heallli uf Tunva CowiBbatoa ar* poUbthed variou* 
roportt aad MtlHUM nade by Mr. 3«ltb, vt Dmnauw, io which he buc- 
iceait t1i« practicabiltty of itiafier>iii|: Mwate waier of lanili ia ihe it- 
riaily I'f Lonrfuo by a »;■<''<■■ (^^ Q*eil jr;» or Ihm pipn. ami more rrrenllj 
detail* tirr i!i»en In a pnwpcetoi iwu'"! bj Ui» Metrtij«ilil»n $*wat;« CoiD' 
fwiy.to which Mr. SaiiiliV name 8p|i«artaa r»*>ulun|{ M(ttD«*r. 1'be 
■ebcme a <'at^l by ihn proiperim in hn«a baea aitf/wrd (M oooe^iag ihe 
•nwafic wHt^r af Lonitun, by Dieauvnf a tyftmi of pra^f *«-«««■"<'* aail 
^/irjiMto^e** tolbatof (lieertiil ifeter CvwfNinirr. and thut dislribuliug 
lb* reelilliiOK lulilall otcr tbv land, In auuh initancr and |>n>pui Iioiit a.t 
may be Iwil adapKd lo the rarioiu kiniUuf field and tcnrden cultiiatioa. 
The a**T«« quaollty frqaired titr asrlcolliiro ie rdinialHl at W *•■• pr" 
mtrx. which can b« tapplird within aboul SH miUt pvaaif Ikt wutmpilia 
ol leH U.BD a quRner oi Ibe cmtof «ial>teor (arin-jard naoare, and al 
Mf-ldtiA tfT Ike irpnt. 

The PonleMi of itieM acwen arelo be rAiMd by powcifnl rteamensinea 
and dlMnbi'tpd by pipct atfraii esleai uf #i^y *f*MrT (ailri, ttirooeh the 
(tardroiBE and SKrlcultnraldittricI* t<i (he •rratoir^. A' awm of >tM>,(KMI, 
only will W rT<|»>r«d to carry tliii part of Ihe plno inio «fl««t. On coot- 
parioKlho relaiiva vipeoM uf oonveylag Mlid aad Dqaid manure, ii ii 
ealeuUted ibBlih* coKafthe flooeeiaiiM uf liquid luaniire by ptpei, is. at 
tba «*r| outHlile, rHie-lKvafirClof the traiiapurt uf aiilrd manare t^ tiirli. 

Thoaulhnrlly qnolnl Is Mr.T. Hawkslev, F.iij>iM.'Fr, of Niiiiiuulkim ; he 
(ISlMin eildenn ihat die codI vf InnTsniillinit wnlcr In a iliilBut'e vf Jfre 
ntflH, aail too hei(lhlof tOO tt*t, inducliag wevi- ami tear of ptini|Hit|; lua- 
obineeTi hi^'i labour, ialereat of eHpllil in«««led in plpea, ri^B«r*uir*, en- 
gines, i.C . Btnouiit* lo S)d. per Ion ; (lie msl uf earlugi Iu Ibe ume rJiiu 
taaeeaod belgbt will, nndcr faionrable circunximncet, amouni Iu 4». pef 

Ion. 

Tbie ptaa depends chi«lly »pon the auihurity of >lr. Smitb'* rrport and 
MtlmaicSi poblithed by tbe HeaUb of Towns ContiDrMioa. 

Ho apite>r« t«hav« made Mteral Mt>i*ninpni* retprrdng ibe diffuiion 
of walcr by JvM'. ia applting Ihe r«iultt of biaeipetiniru'i lo theea*e of 
•«w«ltF niinure. He italri llial Ihe water must lie al a prMSor* uf from 
ISO to I.Uiyr^l at th* ;iDia< irJIrre i( is (v be dulrilmtfit by hot over the 
taad. Uirh ■ pressure at Itie buso uf 130 fcei.tiE tiiunil ihal be could, 
lhro»itb a >| inch Iiosd and aone inch tiu«K)(,ilttinliuie wslrrover an aiKi 
of 'KB >la»ii<- acres — bul to be Mfe, ^sy one flatuie ocrr, and if tlie liiml 
ris««an H.I<M|r.n aiuil he nvleia the p(CMar»ei|Ukl liilli<f ri>e in the [anil. 
Mr. Saiiih italec tbot for hit ntintaie t>9 assume* 'iOQ fvet it>tal bright lo 
raite Ihe wai«<r. 

Great duubl* hate however been axprcMcd as to tbr practicability of 
dittril' ilOK the »«wage water bj jets. lo«»o[Kirllo llip Louiloji -S^wMsr 
Company Mr. U'ickitced.C.B., propo*ed no allOKelher ilifferrol plsti, blJ 

broaijbl (urviard powerful ars«aienu f«r madsmniag ta tola Hr. Mukth'i 
•ehtiM. The following extmcU euibudy lbs priac.pal (wiais of bis 

nply !— 

■■Tli« (guanlll* of twwer waier luW supplied is equal lo I'.O'.Mt callopi 
per acre prr annum, osc-UiiiJ of whjcliMr. Sinilh bu)* can be delircrrd iu 
oaobmirtur SVli iiallonr, or about 16 cnb>c ftel, pei oiiauif. Al ibis 
rale Ibc engine ««uld lapplj 5 J«l* only at a liiue. Mr. Kaillh protrMe* 
fot M Jell, aftd H line< of trrvires eaeh two uailes Itrn^. wbleb Ki*«s 
B plof* lo SWCb line of Bervire pipes. Hr. Smilh sayB be never Iniesdi 
tun ihui lw« ^ts tn bt playing al uao Itiue uu a scjiite, Uut it, louead 



m 



eflbtjais playioiforan bpnroetr an acr«, Ihey ars playins fur ntber 
mane tbaa Ibrrc hanrs ; Uini Iwo Jeii on rack sertke, or IB jets, mj \m 

playknit locrlbef, and tbc eoglne will sspply Iheni Tbe sddilloay 

liesid required (o orcroonie ibc frictiua of lb* water ptMinx throutk Ike 
■naio, BCTTicn, and liaw, wili b<-eiiiinl to 34 fi-Fli but If only S jc's, or balf 
Iba DuMber in (bn foraner esliaale, nre plajing &t Ihe lam* lim*, then tks 
wBMr niDsl Imvnl ihrouch Ihe boie s( Iwie* ihe velbciljr, (to deliver as 
eqnal quuilly of wMii'n ami ibebeador water lo uvercotne the fricilsa 
mnsl bc3S feel, and if only ijolaaieupeuat the Mneiime.aspropiOM-dby 
Ur. Stnitb, to deliver Ihe same qusuttly of water iu the saiur lime, Uitad* 
dilional brad raquifod toovereoiuefrioiion would be ptill fu'lber iDCreaSel 
to 07 feM. Mr. SoBith howsver aeema to have Iml liRhl of the faet thai 
friction of water througb nipsa loervaMt a* Ihe aqonrea of ibe velocity, 
and ibni lo fi>rre iluuble Ine qoanllty of water thmif b ibe ■iiihf >iu<tj pifw, 
l*«iiii>«leiil la dnuMlDg lis iriocity, and wrmld ibervfuce rcijuire faor 
lime* ■ Ik piesMirr, and cunseqiicsily an addition roust be made to iho pro. 
posed bead (•■». EM feel) of H tett, 39 feet, or GT fcri, drpendinx apn 
Ihe nuuibor of Jrtft npeiMril si one lime, whirh rtrmlBlrs Ihe delivery ; and 
If In lh« latter case ihe leiel of the ground proposed la be otaaiired ihonld 
be 131 (e«t above llie town,* Iheee would be no prttturi at ibe naixle Is 
cr«ale a Jet at all, onlesa the hewl or pepMure bv iitcrvu^^ beyoad the SM 
fcetiBudnblch heail, to produce the etfect Mr.Smiih pr«po««*,mua ba 
3St feel, or tH fret, ur S6T f<t«l, depeadlag upon Ihe nnmbe) nf Jets play- 
ing at ene lime. Bui ULiag Ibe aiosl hvourBl>lc srrBaeeinent 'or workiaf 
Ihejels, ttbich will be wbeu Ibe (troAtesI number are plHyiuK al tine lime, 
■he proposed head mast be iioreased t* IBl feet, ai>d ihr |i.>wcr \a 11 (V-lt 
horses, and ihiswill be putting the selieme iu a much tn«r« practicable 
foriD, aaJ will enable roc to chrrk tlie ettiinatrs. 

Mr. binitli buwev«r further aswris Ibai the twel*« inrhpipe is amplslnr 
(!pn6lf the ustent uf couair), aud Uicrerare ono»idcr« he may led'Ke Us 
ndiBnii; of the coat of ib« main lo uu? half.t — If lbs nBio is saiple ibr 
dovNe Ibe extent of counlry. II must be cBpabla of convoying doujb tts 
tjniuility of water, and uf mppljiDg tbu aJdiiiosal aontberof sfrv ice« ht 
tfosMe Uie txlent. aud tbe head reiguirfd lo nvercome lb« friclinn will 
iDcrcavcd : with ■itlreii jet* playiua on tiKhptot,H wtll b» ciiiral to UX 

iuilrad of 21 fiet; tvlth eight jcia on fMh ptoi, it will W lUl ^rrt iuslr«i|'' 
3A, and Kith live jtlioo eacb plot. Hi feet instead of 67. It U evidc 
ccranMBS Ifarrefure in suppOiM IUrI the same siud i^ipr <vii/J cvniey drtUi 

Ihe quantity of water ■■ tu supply other M'ciinns of Uod of «|uitl evieot." 

Again: Mr SiiiiUi give* aiiuiher ratmale of tbs CO* of VUppi) lujc dsuMr 
the (toaiility uf tewrr wuiec to the sawr section, and aS'umea lliat ihii oan 
be dooe for Ihe snmc outlay, loncllini; thai tbr brnd 1\ir fnciion laaat be 
<|usdiU|:led ; and thai if IS jcla srctv be Bupjillcd w ilh uouUe the qiiavtity 
uf ^^al«r, il wuuld require a bead of M fcnl luitead uf M feel ; mid lae t 
jeti it would be 140 feci ia(t*sd of IS fret ; and for 5 Jelt SC> '<^H initead 
u'OT feet; bat tsking. as bpfors, the tnnit favonrabl* case, iKnt of lbs IS 
JHt, tbebend ofwalrf miisl bn 2UG ferl tntleadof *JI>!l feet: and tbe powir 
re<|uiried for raltiOK douUf itic quaalliy of water, neder ilils (nrnwsirf pro* 
eurr, ainnl b« ri|Udl to W.H inslrnd of ID linrsce power. 

The next pixni for coosideraltoR, and u niu*l important me, In rtferoae* 
to tbe supply nf uwer wnter by pipck, ■« the aclusl auubar of daysduriof 
the }«ar, on which !hn oiiginrt e*n hi' krpt at work panpiBif lbs snwsr 
water on to the landi — at il a eeidrni ih*t upon this polM nmst dopsnd 
tbe power of tlie engine, tli« »ize of ihe pipes, and tbe Capaelly uf the ntn* 
voir for prcscrvui); ihr sonaicr, al prrlods when It tsnnni be IbniM n nwr 
Ibe laud. AMUiuiait Ihe priiudt fitr ibti purpofc tp h« oa ilw n<t;rrgala 
i4|iia] In tit weoVt m the ycsri and Ihial thf rcglne nill bs eiiotlaally 
pumping s»w*r water during this iioiv, I days prr weel:, f»f 1 1 hour* escfe 
<1b), divqusDiity nt walerraised by Ibo eaglaes taiut lie sqnal Iu 8,IM 
cubic feel per mlonis. 

As the sew ate waier Is conilaaily flawing everyday IhruughonI (bt 
year, while Ihc period for dellvvniig it upon ihe Iniidn is hot sii wrrfcg— 
i.e. Ml hours in 0,7(1(1, il is erideiil thai tbe mrrtvir mutt be cnpabk 
uf boldiug tbe supply aKWdeil dormg s,;i^i> hiiut«, <r 
i.020,'J7ti (OOH : connriiui^ntly the rapsi ily of Ibe reaeremr will hea,lie3jrlT 
cubic )ards, and al s depth i<f Vi (e«i,or four yards, Itt area at tbe B«n 
water Hue will t>e equal lo 341 Ktrcs^if a square, Ibe Irngib of each Mt 
will be liXUO yards, ur NctitiY tnKti. ufAtniu or a KUt. 

Takisg Hr, i^uiih's suiidiud uf KM feet a* ihe wkok presnn at As 
engine, which, a* ha pn,pii«et t» rstse the nnler uvif a •(«i'dpt|is c«ti>BSs, 
may be consiilered suffk-ieni,: Ibe power of the rnjiinut rvqulrad will be 
equal lo S.SHB horses, and should II be thought sdiisabl* to Inetvasa tbe 
preuurti. Ihe power mtid also Iw Inoreased in thesnnw mud. 

In explaiiiiun ih« plan iiropcsed to be suluiiiuud, Mr, Wicksieed ad* 
duces auine KeneraJ rraiuiis fur suppaging tbnl the drasMnjc of tbe mdra. 
polls would be securvd rlfecluall)' by niecbanicul ircann, ihita liy Ih4 t'vtti 
aciion of Ihe riter. At prewnl II ti necetnry lo nuke Utenmin sewers vt 
grrat capacity, becauM tbfir eontenls can be delivered into tbs river, atO( 

* Tlisl Uiu (tnuloB oitT tv fipnifl In ca>«s irScre H tt dbccmbtt ia |s iq a 3IMaaw 
rrs«in*ni«n.*R«i> UIiik^ l>ttn (TLilr'-iJiHl tiy Mr. Hnhb Maseir, lii his ttstsmd 
quawd h) IMft li v( Ihl* Itiparl, KhiiH br .Uln " Thnl Ih* VlM( vt mMl 'w*fK OS h* 

uMpBMiar al miiD to tslt« reel, sail «U1 MUqm be m(iilr«illa to rslBnl moralUa 

t " Uochair of Ibe coBl ef the main pipe IB dalr rbW|(<L ■■• trtm lla noililm Md (>■ 
uuMy. II U wAihnt la tupiil* t.4h*r fattitm M Isad of e^usl nISBl."— Sm U < . a«ilb*( 
bqM*liioihB*|ipllcBaMisriMiR> WbiwU Afncdtonl psrpuKs. ruUlsbiil trtt* 
Ueslia oTTbwbi I'finniBriaB. 

I Thtbdftil of ibf lUodplpf IbWIt trMtrd'T aw al lb* Orand Ji-iKt'eq W*«arW«ik) 
wai Kcw Artlr. U ■Msl 3W (•■l.-ita Mim w tJM Hmwnaat I* absst Kt Am. 



^ 



^Bbtf low wAltr «nl; — • p«rioH M vlikh lie driivrrjr opon llic *l>orM 
^Btwl WTrcaiif ii> li* pablit ; ind kllhiqish (bin p«r1 of ihc evil nii|^ in 
^^ mme mrunre t* ri-oiM**!! bj th» ailnpiion of tbe plan« protwwil hy Mr. 
r Walkirr >o>i Mi. Fur. for «ii>»ilinK ih«" piiRiin|[ itrKcr* inia low wai«>r, 
! iliU lite ciiaUBifiuiiun uf llic ilicr nnuM rrmaia th« ruiKi. At all ciher 
• Uir< r>f diFliilv, lliB M'HMle is pent Bp Sad held buk, thcM Ikrci; «rwcr* 
^(r-iciiBi; mrrvvtre. le t^oaiain llf ■laatttitj' rallcolnl durisit thotic pirindu 
a Mtiidi lli« Wif^t of the tida pr«tMt* lU dt><:liarj;« inia Ihf river. 

Ad "Dw^revfl sow *HMt,DMHOM off.-fltiin llua iujurinn*: I lie fan I Air 
■ot being carried oVt* ill) lkecurKDliatQih«ni«r,afcrMmril]r luiil nmurall;^ 
itoa tbrou|[buij ujiCDuigi It c«n lud, ud « slccun of doxIour cfflnrlk I* 

A rutlber (liMdraotACC mvIliDK from Ibh pcDolof up W tbf Mirtfv, to, 

thit th>- rnrrent ttirovgli ihr nrwpri lir>n)[ ckvckrd, th» vr4t«r bOMiMI qal- 

' The bF«*y ptrtkltrl pr««>uUalj b'ld IB DifchaBieal MlptWlOl 

I aiid ftFL-uiBulaif. U' ben Ike curreal in thsMWfra r»-«oM- 

□if. 11 la *1oiii.tk>per.<liasupaa Ibe nu nl nhich lh« ttde falla Into the 

tr. t'olil ii ku ralleo bcluw the ktvl uf Ibe peat-np MWKge, xhert H 

I fall in Ihe leocr. Then aa the tide folb iBcb by 1d^, m diovi llii TaU 

I tW *c"er iDcrtasr, but rnt io the game raliv, brcasao th« water bciii; 

, (uuntD^. Ike rvUtivf) diflVrcnt* b#tw««a tkc two le*el« I4 alwajB 

itisj;. Tkc <■■(• wnulil l>» diffffcat were Ik* Mwpr *rai«r h^td back 

baitical luraai. nolil th^te wa* a infflclevl fkll of lldf la Iba hter 1 

IKX wi— itiF iiiottti it tfradual, and im fait U obtaioed mncienl la 

itaMa} ibv mruit-iiUti-d ilepoaiu. Henet tke DMeuilj ot miuuitlla' 

_.>r to clear an«y ILvm ulTsiHiva d«pc»<l»i «kl«k nnal ba brought Iv lb« 

■urface, ur f-'t tn«cbU>pri fo( carrying il offbir BnMiin^, and Ik* d'iniiid for 

ta^pf t()|i^1ie« of natrr, whUh wiiuld be ucleu hdIvm thprci wr» an uniD- 

lanD)rt*(I rurrvol ia (h> ««wtn. 

Tb« rollowins U on ouUier of Mr. WickitcMl'i own plan ttt mukinx lh« 

Hwap- miuiiirc atatlable. He propoaca latulled U Iq uac UrE« rtec/volr 

wkerc it i-> til ba dried aad pockrd Uk« {tunao Tor aala. As rrsarda tha 

ctDildeof UieTbancSi il l« prnpoaHl to rnaMract i C'ircoUr Sewer 

[ ctftbl ThI diuroitti : to «tt«nd froiii the end of GraateD(ir-t(i>id, In piiaa 

Ib.taadeRiterlj ilirecli'in, Tulhlll-ilreet, VeatmlBiler Abhey-janl. 

rl, Ubitrliall. SiriQd. Io Ike eod of Fleet ■ si retrt ; from Ilintcv a 

riwrlte fi-L-t dimcttrinciontiauatiou acrus* Ihruugb l.iKlcato-hill, 

kiilitJ'le (rf Kl Paul's ('buTcb-yanI, Wall lag- slrret, Cauipua-etml, 

T«mr-I>il[, llii:;li[T"o b^ciwiy. Ciwnairnjial-road, HoderllwriTer I.'O.Mb.ira 

tl-' lr.,>. nnl;:;?, aoJ fruai ^heoe* in a itnJ^kt line ihroanh Ike M'ntt Ham 

I Ihe |irofotcd warkj.in an angle firmed b|f Iba ir«i#ra hanka 

II ^ C'rrrk and nurrbnii bunk* u( (be Tliamea. 

^^L 3'ka DfcpttMty rumamnidiiua lirtwe^n Ibe [iretent tenrrt and ihr lotei'- 
^^BcpUng ipurrr erill be rCrctrU by Bmuni of BbaAii fruui Uiv in|i uf the |rrt>> 
^^noaed *c»er to the aadcnidt' of Uh> ■.'»i'tin|; Hwcm, *'> tlial Hbatetrr aa 
^Bj^nt lbr"iiKb tb« ptcacni >rwrr« oiiibI I1ii>* iii(>i (be mtorception *«irar ; 
^r MJru ia tate of long eontli.nrd rain* &r ttomiR, wkeo ir much nuim than 
dautJe Ike aiiul qvHiility of waler ibuuM pasa down, Uian 
ea *»aa aa tli« iuter<eplia|[ tewer la fiilli cbarRrd, ibo 
aarphin Kaler would run olt Ihraagb ibe old dManrlR Into 
ibeTbamn, Tbe MWen will, bowctrr, al these timea, bo ivlien-d bj 
aa a'l<lil»"anl millet of lar^ (apafilj', the prvpaaed aewar fonuiajl a tioai- 
aiMiiuatiua wtUb the ThHiues at Barkint:. All Ibe flapaat tka nMialba of 
Un prf**Ht aewera will haie lu be tnade waier-llghi, U pnwnt tbn wa- 
tte nftk>Tluiina< htwineni high waier into ilie laiert«pilni: (cwrr. HRKat 
niairr^, altbtMBblbla.nrcutirM, wdt nut prevrtil Ibeir beinn aiaitaUe for 
■Ikiwtiig tbe sariitua wade la don intolbeThanwft whra uer.r*aary. 

Tbe i»ew itwcr hat a fall vl tl lucbpa per laile, wbkb will p»" a telo- 
cily "f |2''J f<-<l prr minute in llir! II (t^t wwrr, and 9KV-I* re4l per 
niTiLii' i!i :iir o (vet lener. Ttir main sewer will tprmioala in a rcrrif in;; 
tmurtou, IS ibe Uaikiiij; Marali*>. The enK>ne» will tie e^ual Io an htirr-- 
gaia ponerof l.OCU burkr*. ntxl will be capable of raiilaji. wliein norkediti 
Htflr full power, Sd f<-rl lii^li, lH,ll:r,3iO cubic feet iu 21 bonra, equal li> 
■ore ihaii H tinir!! llie itrrsc^iit uTdjaarj qaautUy vf acwer wnler. Tlie 
aewer waUr hiU >>r rai>T<l -.r.'o reaervmn aiiltineoUf rievaled Io allow t>f 
ilt aulid roalcati beiag (l^|^»it#d al a level abaie the Trimly liitik nati>r 
laaei, IO thai il can «Mil; be skipped, er luailed Inio railway tnicki. and 
ikal Ibe refitie liquid may be diiiliargrj al all atiirt of l(ie tide. And 
laaily. 111* d^'piwit in Uiu reMrtuin wittbe mnvtcd pcriiidicnlly.Bod diird 
by a/tiBcial iMau, and ibea tvnpiesaed aad packed np, ready for traoa- 
mmiaa by had or water. 



16.] 



THE Cn-^IL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



SS 




k 



TUBULAK DRIDGF. OVES THE MENAI. 

Tbe foUowisK U an abatmct of tbe rrpurt oa iliii liganlic undi'it^kins. 
Mule by Mr. Itobetl SiepbeaMo t« tbe Clwaler and Hulybead Uailway 
Co«paoy> and read at their laal nicetioK. 

" 1 lMe« tlmu(kaut ihc eipeflniealu nrt^wlly •Iiidk4 (be reanlU ae tl>ey 
imioftd ibcinedtea, aad I ana aatuferd thai the vimi I (ralitrcU u ei- 
prea* i«i:1^* iDtiotbi e^o wn* in tliv lanin (urrrcl, and iJiul tha ailtiplion 
,{ H " lub? 19 Ibe inottefliciaal, aa well aa Ibe niuU ecnnoanical 

itK-'i iii^ture that call be del iaed for araLlway bridge at raoa tha 

Henai btr.uLft- 

•• laihecouraeoftheetperimefllaa itia tree, lonie unexpcLied aadiioa 
Maluu*mn|iaprirseBb;dtlteKi>elKai bet naweof theiu Imded, in mr mind 
ta abun ibai ihc lubulat form waa not the eery brd for oliUinins a 



rifid roadway far a railway over a tpaa of 4SI> fe«|, whidi U the abaolott 
mquininenc ur n bridge over ihc M^am .Siniita. 

"Tba Oral terle* of aipefinwnu nan made with plain circnler Inbea. Ihe 
■eciQd wilh •lllpllcal, and the third with re^iaaxolar. In the wbule of 
ik»r, ihle rcmarkahle uid unexpected fact wan bmvcbl Io Uebl, r'a.. tlwt 
ia euch tubta the power of wrou|cht-ifoa to mial cotniireMion wat itiiich 
lcs« ihait it* power Io reaUt teiMion, being eitellj ttiv rrrtnv of that which 
halda «ii!i cast irna; fiw esainple, ia cail-iroo britm* ffireuiilainte}; weiKkl, 
Ibn (.n>]wr form u to ditpoaa of Ihn t^reilcr pnrlion of ihe BBterial al tha 
boilomalde of ib« bnto, wbcrea*. wlib wiooKhi-titiD, tfaeae etpetiniMts 
dcmnMlmie beyond aor daubt (bat the greater purtioa of the oMiiwlal 
■huuld ba dbiribnlad on the upper side of lite beani. We have arnrnl 
therefor* al a fad baving a n>o»l inponaoi bcarlnj; upon ike ciiaiitrucilua 
of tha tuba, vb., thai ri|[idi1y and atren; Ui are beil vbtaiaed by tlirowiag 
tha graatewtihiehfieH of material into the upper lide. 

** Another In-imciKe leaton whicb tke aspvrini«nla have diaelaaad fa, 
thai tha reciangulai tube 11 by far the alroRgMi; thai Ihecirctilar aad «UIp- 
tical sboald be dbcardcd altoeelbcr. 

" Tkl« reaull b eitreiBaly fertunahi, as It greatly facilitalea tkr meohani' 
col arrangrmenta for Dot inataty the ootulrueiian, but the permaaeol maiii- 
leoaaee o( ibe bridge. 

" tl'e nay now, ilierefoni. ooneider tlial two enaentlil poinia htie be«n 
finally determloed— tke fonu of Ike lube and the diiUibeiion of Ui« uia- 
tetial. 

" The Duly iaportaal qneatlon dow romUalng tn he soiled in. the almo- 
lule ulliaiiitc alreiiglh of a labeof aay giteo dinarnitoni, Tl>)4 i*,iirconr*«, 
anpruaiiiiatiily solved by Die expenmruta already coiapletcri; bul Mr. 
Hodgkinsufl very pixiperly staie«, Uiat otfaert, wlUi Labaa otmnt* varied 
dlaieaaioos, should baconliouod, lo order la olaar op some aaoBaliea which 
ilill axIsL 

** Tha faraiwU, aa at prexnt brought Ml by Mr. Hudgklnann, gitr* t!i« 
rtreagih of areciaagular lubc uf ih« dimcnsiiHU I prupuacc)— ijx , 45a (tri 
tunc, 15 feet widei, by 3(1 fret high (awuneinf Ibe pluUs to be one ioch 
thick) eonal ta 1,100 lone applied in Ilia centre, iarludiog tbe WriKbtuftha 
tab* Hself ; bni, dedncUug tbe Uiier , equal to T4T tona in Ike ci.aire, or 
double ibit, tuppoiing the weight to b« uairurn;!]: diatributed over the 
whole iiit feet. 

"Thik aoiowntof nUeaglb, althougb eufflclcnt to carry any welckl that 
fan in praolii-c be placed upon Ibe brid)^, la iiiil eofHcieatly la emeas fur 

SraelicAl pur)>u«ea, 1 1 Is on thia ground, thnr^ fore, I have re^uDtieil Mr. 
lodgkintoB ludeelsea few more eipeflneale lu the shape beit <dt«iilal«d 
tu free Ibe fariuula frnia all anbicnily. In Ihe iBeiiiitiuie, kuwetrr. as 1 
couaider Ihe amiii quealioa setlled, I am proceeding wilb the dea<£ai aail 
workiog plana furihe wIjdIo of the aiaionrj, whkb I exiiect to hara tba 
pltaavre of aubnulling lu you tu h furlniuhl fn'io lhi« time. 

'' Yea vrill obaeree io Me. pHirbairn'a mniHrkv ibnl be tontempUlcs Iha 
feasibility of slrippiag Ibe Ivbe eotirvly of all ibe chalne Ihat ntny he re- 
qaired la Ike ereLduu of Ibe brtdee; whereaa, on tbe other hand, Mr. 
Hudiihlatoa Ihiaksilie cliaiaa wdl be anrtsential.or al nit evenm a iifr>rul 
autiliary, to ciie the lube the requisite slranitlh aad rigidity. Thia, Ikiw- 
erer, will be dclrtraitird by (be pnj|iuBcd additional expcritncet*, suil docs 
not interfere «nlb lbs oonttniClKiu uf th* niaionrj, wbicb is dfaigncd 10 aa 
Io adsslt «f ibe tube wHh oir wilhciui tbe chsio*. 

" Tkc applloalloii of chains as au auxiliary, haa ucupied mneh of ay 
alleniiuo, aad I ani aaiisBed that tbe onltnary node of applying iheoito 
auipcunKiu bridge* i> wholly inadtitiuiblp in ihe proeot iMtanc*; If, 
therefon). It he fuund hercafler nccetsarji ur drbimblp to i^plny ibem io 
ooeijuiKUoa with the lubr, anolhec aivdc uruppiytiiK them must bcdevttcd, 
U it ia abaolulely eiaeoUai to airarh ihrin jii «ucli a uianacr aa l» praclud* 
the poMibUiiy of lh« smalJest oeciKulinn. 

" la lire acoaiaplisUnenl of ibi» I see uo difKculty wbalnnr; and tha 
dcaigu ban been arraagetl accordingly, [u order lo avoid any further 
dda*. 

" 'the liOurioui cooMqusDCas allending tbe enlinary mndn orrmplnylng 
(Iiaina in Mi»pea*ion bridges were br«uxlil under my obaprvnliini lu a very 
■triking maaner un tbe Slock Ina aad Darhiigioa Kadway, vtbrre I wai 
culled apvo to erect a aew bndge Utr tarrjing Uie railway aeroai Ike river 
*rera. in Ueo of aa ordiaarr suapensioa bridge, which bad prated an eaUrn 
failure. 

" Inmrdiatcly on opeaing tbe siitpenaii^a bridge for railway irmAtc, the 
undultlions inlo which Ibe roadway wan lhr<>uo, by the incviialile ua. 
rquul diotribiilion of the weight of Ike Irain upua II, Were *uch •■ I9 
Ibrealen Ibe imluni downfall of Ibe whui* luiiiciure. 

" Tlese dangrriiuK <in<}uliilinii* wer<.- ni[<»l nuiturially Rggra>.iied bj the 
chain Itaelf, far Ihis nbviooa reanoo. — Hut Ih>' ptxtform or r<tii iMay tvhtch 
was cuDSlrucied wllb ordinary imMinii fur Ihr purpnaa uf reuiUdnj 11 
comparatively rigid, wna suaprudml tu ibr rtiaio, which was [jrifpctli 
legible, all the pirts of Ibo latter being in equilibrium. Tbe airaeiurv 
wn*, tlieierorc,cuiit}ivtTiloriwo part*, ili« aiibility of ihooue liein^c (orally 
infvmpalible wilb tlial of Iho oUiei ; fur (ixnniple, (h* nioinrat an iiiirqoal 
diilrlballoa ofweigfat upon Ibn ruudwa; loi>k pluca, by Ibe piu-aj* i,r « 
train, lite carve of tba caain altered, one portion descending at tk<> pOMil 
Iniuieilijirly above tbe groaicat weight, and ouisequratl) cau*in( SMoe 
other puriiun (oaKcnd ID a correspaijding degree, uhlch oaciMhiiily raited 
■he plaifurui with li, and auKincuicd the undulalioB. 

"80 seriously was this defn:! founl lu o|>cr«la, that lunediala ctept 
were lakca to support tbe platform naiernantb by erdicary truaiiag ; m 

lie 



|T^°° 



81 



THE CIVIL ENCINKER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[MAHi 



ihert, by Q>» vrwIiM «f « revplHa rnxxlrn htiift, vtlilch twk vt 4 1irg« 

pOrtM««rih* ttrKia npnrt lh« chaitio. iril-n chAiai hatl lw«l«ihvll5 ff 
DMimI, the lubctraelDr* no<i1<1 have Iw«d mnre affccli**; b*H u Ihry wcn 
•IIiiwmI Id rrmAln.ntUi IHa iletf of B*ii*tiiiK, I boy Mill |>trl!tko »< iIwm 
cliBnen in the fom of llic curt* <Mn>«i|ii*ti( spnn ilip dnhiiiiiI diitnbuliiio 
urihe xrliclx, aoilfvcitlUkllj ilnUv]!^ nil tlic outuir<ti>)D> of ihr wootlm 
rraMrn-urk iiiidrnn-Alh Uie pUlfvtnii Rail rira louimrij anil •nifrudctl 
n>«n]' »f Ihc piie* ujKin whicti Iks fniaicvr#rk rnteJ, •u4 lu nbich it wai 
bUmImiI. 

■■Tli4 Mnili «f ih*M •oti oiker eIrcumiUiicp* Fonnreffd wilh (lie }l|iM'k> 
lu»^l(li:c Inil OM lu rrjcd tU idia ur«lcri>iag ud fruni dMin* mplajiti 
in lbs urdlMry tii*Bt>cr. 

**l b(«9l1ivn)fi>r«turMtl mj •Ideniwa bioibcr ni«t<»of rmplojini: ihcm 
■• roiijiiBtlivn Willi Hit wnxiglil-iroa li>b« (a* iiiKI^trd Lj Mr. Iludikiit- 
a»n)f if auch Khoiil<t b« found oeooiMrf upoa furibur in»<tif;M<inn. 

*■ Af 1 h«*a Kimdy alaieii tn (htt 1 pcrceiie oo diilicult} nhkiHirr ; iir- 
<1«mI lh*re la oo other nBainiaUaa vlikli bai oecutml tu ni! nliUli pre- 
atauiiich feclUiln aaitMrrciaacDltr IhIm! biraocb a coinbiaaiUtD. 

** Haiiflx. 1 u«9t, ctt-ul] rxiiUMeil uy vipwa in tvfercBoe lu th(a trn- 
porlMt work, I bn>v oaly lo aJil (ImI ia Iwo ■vstlu I «X|>rct cvtrj «r- 
nograaat mil b« complflml lor cnaiKiencinc (b« iMua«r}t wbkh aball be 
nwluclH w;th ilir d1bo«i Mitiitf ami •ilgaar. 

•* I cao acani>l7 voolnrctoaa), uUll after ibno arraatiMBnUM* fliiii]!; 
KMnplcMi al wbai period «« mkj calculate upon tbo f<uM|ileltaa o[ ibi* 
brkliEai biit I mbmI neoaiMFMl luw lo cakoUie ypon ibo nbala being 
acEowpJialKKl lu h*» thao iwe jvara aad a balf," 



WEIRS ACHoss Hivrns. 

Rrpfl if tht C»mmiltr< if Ih* C/yrft Tru*tt*i ti tkt Weir Qaritiaa, 

Tlir Ci>inMilteo believe (be preient |>o*iiioit »( IJc i'\j4e TruilrMi, aa 
rrgard* tlic qnealkia of Ibe ireir propa*i-d tu be nectad ai-nua llic CljriJf', 
U »a r<illaHa : — Prom ibe Atl pmc-THl I«*l .Semlon of HarliaBiiial by Ibn 
BfiiI(«Tm>ie«(,c«iiaiiiie|[clauwaio Ibe folloninc atfod: 

1. Tbal the DridKc Traaicen arr cDiiilcil Hi fonn a on* ilam or vi(lr al 
nr abtMl aa« btiBtlrcJ and forty yarda aboie Hutcbtaoa'a lltitljEc, liaiiiiit 
a kick oe *i<irk ibcrcio, or coaoeeUd iberairilb, al tlie «i|i«u»e of ihu 
ayda Tni«t«aa. 

t. Whan Ibaae work* are rrceled, tlia llrid/e Trailcpa ont Iboa au- 
IborlMd Id rtinoTf thmairor ttorkagiUccdal ihe Slockwrll Siroel Bridge 
by Hie Cljdr Trutlrct, al llic llljde Truxcra' eipeuie 

3. The Uidc Tinatcc* arc gblignl lo cvobibtito a mat towards ilDkini; 
aa'lbuili]io|;tke plen ond fooodaliun* of ibe ae* llrvlijc at 5iucL*>oll 
Slrrnl. Aud the ('l)dc Traaleea ar«ofali|t*d U> ataidUuii liiK v\cir uu'I luck 
RoeMrartpd bj the Hndge Troittet, at ilir;r stficitae, iii h11 lime rc^ulug. 
No dctalleit plan* or eiiiniale* exUI Of the Aeir uiul luck. Tbe Act pn>- 
Tldea that ihe OmI lo llir Oljde Truatr^. of tiiv whoio voika for uhicb 
Ibrjr arc nade liabls, ahall be ixnl by iwo EaitiiicLfa or Aibiieni appoiui- 
cJ b; Ibe SbrriiT. 

Wbetbcf Uie Cljde Trtialcea uufilil lo coittribule lo lli<- builtljag nt a 
nrid|;a orrr tho Ciyde, la not wlUiiu Ibo reinil lo tbit (JoinmilUe; and 
Imtisji itHltd ihe preaent poiilion of Itui Clyde Tra*wi-» a* raani'U the 
weir, iba Committee proceed lo lilt (onuiferalan of ihe eRtcl of iLv pru- 
poeed dam or «e>r upoa ilie naeixiliun lA iha Oydc. 

Tb« CiioiaiUlM bclieie ihalall Huji-urc» eon aci npon ibe pfiaciple. 
«r pting Ibe Krealcit poiulble frccili'i" "( adnnmiuu Ui llu: liilLil mittrs, 
aa Ibe beat iDeAiia of Unpniting naviK'bl* ri^ant, — 1!» [cir-U'in iif ihriw 
water* carryinic dnoa wllh them lo tlie M-a, Ilia altuvUl iiitlli*r liHiJ lo 
aiiitpeBM by tli« wateis of the rtrer ; and in prapiirtiiia iii ibe qtiuiilily 
aoU reloclty of lh« TciitioK tidal nave, ia ibc U'uctti drriied fruui iia 
cleaulDK and deepoainK power. 

luorderWcarri oitt ibia pilD«)ple. oaw wcU undcrKooJ and unitcrtalty 
aoted U^S, Rngioeera widen, »iriiiitblr« and dcepeo tlieebanaal of ti*er*, 
ft«f» Iba eaa npwarda, aa far ai thn iid*l wave oaa be euUccd to come, 
aud br#ak up and remote all otHiaolea lo 11* prngreM, Mbctber nniural ur 
artilicial. Tbe ildsl wave IB ihe Clyde, acconllue tu the rcpori u( ilip lais 
Mr. M'Uulatuij. cuafirmrd by auberqutnl otisriiatiuo, can ht made lu 
lluw aeieii niilea abuve IImt Clly of Ubujtuw, iwiJ si(B an adUiliuual prea- 
(iri* and mpelu* !•> Iliv retiriutc lidnl wave of iml h-x* lima rigbtyniilligoa 
ot cable f««t of water at ordinary lidea ; and il IIm> rt<'er b« prupcrly 
deepened. even Ibha quality of wali-r may be lucrroaeil. Tbe Comniitee 
Iberefor* take leave to reoommeod Ibat od hiIt or daui be erecleU actow 
Ibe Clyde nrithlD Ibe reucb of (bo tidal Hon. 

TheTniBioca arc aware ibal tbe larceat porllunof llieir ilaU«I auUay U 
upoa drcdftieK iu llie Ui*er and Harbi>uri aud Uio Cviaicilite em latie- 
li'd Ibat a 'iry lar^ pro|ii)rtii>u of tbia outlay niiglil bg Mvud bj ibe ciu< 
plvyiuent of Ibe {itiniTrul natural ejeocy of tho iidwl wuuni. Tbe ei- 
penie wf dredilDf (ri>m July, I HID, ti> July, IHt), aaiixjnltjd la a very 
lariie Buio, aoil II contiliuirt by much the larc'iii ilru uf our annuiU pc> 
pendtlare. The hcavital porliun nf tliit capL-iiJiiuie waa upon Ibe liar- 
Iwuri wbFer* dredsias ii perf»rwtd al errat iucvuicoieaiie tu iba abipping, 
aad l« the baaintta uf the I'iirt. Nor mil il iu Ihu upjniuo of tbe Cum- 
nilltce, ever beolherwiar. aniit the Biver above be cluaoedaod d.'e|i<ai:d, 
aada body of waterpmctircil anllici'i'nt l<i acmir the llarbotir, whidi at 
preaeal aerrita ai a letilmg pool for ibe upper waiera. 





It will be >aid tbal Ibe Clyde Tnule<« bave o» power ander tbeir 
lo openle upoa the Kiver to Ihe Mitward of Slookwell 8lrMt llriilne, 
thai Ihcir Acta bindUiena lORtaiataia tbe preient level of ilie II»t?r. 

Tbe Cinnmitlee believe Ih at if the L'ljile Tiiiftees can aliuw ilut tbe 
N BtiKnlina uf tbe Cljide ia lo be beuvtilril by an eiteBfti-uu uf their potrera. 
say for aevea luilee aboie tbe Siochwcll Slrvct Tlridi^e, prDetraliiis inlo the 
brad of ihe miaeral diatricte, ParliaiucDt will Kraci tbcac panersi aiid in 
rr^rdlo'htir obliKatiaD* to itiaintain ll>e ptrH^ul levrl of II^ KivFrto 
the eaat ofSlDckievU ttrtdge, for Ibe |in)tvc!'"a of certain public work^ 
Ibe Commillec brlievA Uiat tbe Clyd« Triiittca were coerced iiiio rbr aJ- 
Biiatioa of tbcio tJaaaea into their Bill, aiiJ that there are olhtr uiiJ bciier 
mudea of pnleeKiic Ihne work* than by a wiir acroaa the (Hrile. Tlie 
Cumniiltee refer lo Ibe aaalogoua ci rcu nil lance i and cnodilioii of aim 
nnrhg alDD| Ihe c«an»e of tbe Oinsr, beaialh Ibc Sigtkwell Sirccl Br: 
b^caute, ifn like prolpclion Id theae public niirlca had bfrn aiutai 
thrre O'nild have beea uu deepeuiott or iBpraveuitnl uf ibe Clyde Na 
lino. The C'oromitlee, in iliurl. believe, Ibal nu public compaaiee. w 
C'laatjloicd by AU uf I'urliuinent at Canal Coinpaoin, ar M'nier 
paiiitii, Joinl Muck Oociipaniea, or prlvAEe iudividuais batiat; irorkt oulhc 
bnnks of a DBvif-able riier, uting iU nalrn, or h«*iii4[ « risbi of ancaa 
tlirrvlo, c«n for Ibeir lolereilB contral ur p'cvent Ibe in)prof«a>anl eita 
publie DBVi^ble river, at far b> the lidrvl flow rvacliea. 

Prom ibe Bbaenoe of all deUiled plaaa nr deacripliuni of (he warfca t» 
be erected at the weir, Ibe CoDimiilee can five the I'niatcF* no infotruaUon 
Ma to ibe beicbt nr rtcrnltannf tbe inlend<?-t weir; but from it* cnnl, 
beiic eoonecled with a Inck, ihe ri>r;Biiitre are led ta believe that 
or datn natl be elevated toKrii a hrigAi aalo enable (be Iwcklo he 
al all timea of Ihe lid«. and in ail cunif ititwii <if the river, nr it is ov 
muit be uideai for uaiiBalioa purpnaea. TImi CommiDre ranuot 
(linl eo bold and iujuriont a nraKire ai lAr rUrvlion uf llie cbanoel af 
CI) lie would be Bllempled. Hltboiish Ibrn- I* an iDdicaliDn ofaiinb on 
Irniion i>n the rerj aroall plao aiibmllleil I'l I'ariiBmeaii oniJ wilhaalai 
eloaiiou, ilif works dcflcrlbed appear to the CoiumilKv to be cither uaclraa 
or impravti cable, 

Tbe CooitniHlcc. thereforej tate lva»e lo reeommeed ibkt tke O; 
Trualee* apply lo Parliamenl aeit Seaiion For powera lu open ap Oi« 
vifcatlon of Ibr Clyde lo a dialance of any le^en nilei above tke CAy 
f^laagow. to canitmcl all necaanry worha, and levy aiich diic* aa al 
he Jndced Huiue and proper, Tfaey wilt ibuo. la the opioton uf tke C 
milter. civcKreai facilUy (or tbe DDatcyancvaf mluoral*, coaatry piuJiite. 
and IralBo of every dcacripUon to aod from (he Harbour; aixi whaiiauf 
eqaal, if nol uf Kr*ater imporlanc", lb«y w>ll,liyllie rereanon of Ibe lid al 
wafer*, be ensbl«l lo keep the whole ebaniMl aiibe riier clear al a vary 
inoilrrale expense, and Ibereby be enabled to devote brvctuI tboiuanda 
a yrar, now eipeoded in dredgliif tbe River and Harbour, to oiber 
purpnthc*. 

Tbe OiBiiBillev farther racomaiead ihac Ihe Clyde Trattcea inlinate to 
Hie Urid^a Trutlf-ea their iDlenlivo of noing l« i'atliameal oaat Seaatua, in 
order 10 pravent tl>a Bridge TruKlcr* friim runvlxicting a v>eir acroaa llie 
Rirrr Cljde. wiih a loch orworhs IhereiD. iiod that tke Bridge Trutiree, 
in ilie rieciioD of Iheir BrldKa,donoi in the niraotiuie interfere aithiha 
bnl nfthe Kl>cr. to as to prejudice ibe Cljde Trutlees in ibcir [loailiuaaa 
rcfnrdt the Waler Cooipwiy and oibcr pudira. 

Before conclvding Ihalr Bcporl. Uie Cuiuniiciee a1»o bcK lo direct tke al- 
lenlioa of Iha Trualaaa b> what la alr^a'ly [mrlially before tbe Tni>tee«, 
via. — iheatiampt upon the part of a Canal Cotntiaiiy, t> luLo poateHioaot 
the River Clycia at aad above ihe priipoiiid Dew wcir at lIutclMaoa'a 
Bridge, aod lo make addiHooa) wurka In counection with that weir. Tba 
Cotnniilice have tiul bccB able to procure a ai(;lii uf [be pUua of Die wurka 
wbicli lbs Caaial Cumiiany propote lo attack lo tbe weir i bulaa the whvt* 
•chonie ImpUea Uie oislciKc and cuollauanoeof a vreir aonna IbeCljdv. 
the C-ommtt1a« Inul lb« Clyde Trualeea will Dot be OooMnllnf; paniea to 
any tucb acheme, but will oppoae it with all Ihelr power and iDieresi, aad 
compel tba Caual Company tu (ermiuaie ihcir worka wiUiin ibc uuribeffo 
tine of hlsh water. 

And tlie CommUtec farther recommeoil ihdl a copy of ibis Report b» 
fnt lotbe Lurdt of Ihe Admiralty, and anulber cupy lo tbo Tidal liar- 
boor Commiaaloaer*. 

AitcoD. M'LiLUkM, Cmreatr ^f Ceauwifre. 



i 



PROCEGDINOS OF SCtCHTiriO 80CICTI&8. 

INSTfTUTE OF BRITISH ARCHITECTS. 
Jonmarjt ?(»,— J. B. pArwoam. V.P.. in ihn Chair, 

The Very Kcv. W. Buckland, D.D., waa tlectedin lloDoriiy Member.aad 
Fi C Penroar, Baq., an Anociatc. 

A letter waa read frocailevrilaBtbfboDorarT and corrcipandii^ noniberof 
the Inititiite), at Slut^jird, dcteriptive of a Caileo, now neatly compMai 
fr»m hi* dfiign ani iinilcf hit anpevlalendeoce, for the King of WirteBbim. 
The iim dure— named alter the royal owner, " Williplma," ii of tt«ne.m 
Ibn Mereoqoe tlvle, tiM eourtet of tbe miannry b«inf coluareit nbile, 
Kllew. and red (tjlet, and covered wiih copper, iiartly pdl. It It iitiuie4 
In n winter (ardcn, in tbe midit of four contcrvaloriet with potli(«ra. Utfu 
and tcnacei,aBd parUrm i— il cotuiatt efa tettibule, an (JrieataJ court. 



IS-MI.] 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECT'S JOURNAL. 



8ft 



iiartt b a foiMUin, ■ pittarc t*ncrv> ■ djvin, ■ uloon. in Mtinf<r»aiii inil 
■hmtcMncRu « alceptsc and drctung inoni, and a liath witll «n arched 
^Bf. d^mtiltd nilb pendlDt*. Tbe cuniPrialvnM and pvclicoci arc of cut 

•criaiorU'i itivrilfil into two lUtei, UBlaJnin^ VMioni rvt I1b*n»,ahiil 
axaiiMi too pAtlliom, lunnciuntrxl htr flawd ccitnguUr nfOlM, fcr tropiral 
IMMa i— (lie rtitup tfittnt li aUout 3^0 f«ct : at ilio md of the eauttrn- 
UmUm ib«portico«i cooinieDce. utiich Toim the encloaura ofa Aowet-gai- 
tlea, (or the pririic uie of th« kiDj. 

Mr. C Fnnlcr. Pelbw.oii jimrnting inme plant and deiigni rdUtve to 
tht profCH-d Thiiim BubanliiiXDt and railna)' iirKt, rrtd a paper on Itie 
lK«icrlcii lino uf rjil*»j in the mctropoli* about t» be lubtnilUd to IVlii- 
iMnt, Mf. KowUr tlatcd that he <ni indeblrd for luoi of the drlajlt to 
Ur. AMtia, UieaufpDCH (llan. Stfrelarf tn ihi! Mrtta|>olitnn IrajirOK'nitnl 

Slilf ), Kkg bid brm 11 cnn4t()(nht« p>inx to prep&re a pluit cf tlia irlLiiie 
h(iM li»nfor KhLchllie d^^oiili had bei.'n compitied. lie need ktiicet; 
ilut iheie had Ijmd a auuiljer of otliet itlieniea, wliidilmd oat lunivcd 
fatil tffrcti d[ (lie panic ; of ihuie that remained, it ippmnd from ibe 
fH» fiat thrrf vnr /u-ra/y>oiir itfffreai linn, compriiin]; 100 Billc* o( 
^rofoatd raJvaj'. nitliin a circleoffltc milea froiu St. Paiil'i. Tbe apicea 
■dicdakil Fsr Icriciui williin a Cktde of fuurtcca mile* of St, I'aul'), lOKelhcr 
«ith Ikii B«cr(;*ti| for the ronalriiction of lO ouch of tbo liner, conttltulc 
an arei of little ihoti of 200 acru, bdng ecjiul (o tliat poitton af London 
nteadm; Ircvm Iligh.tlrcft, \Vhitfcha|icl, to St. Panl't Caitird'-al, included 
IiMwm l«adeitli»Il-tir«cl, CoiDbUI, the Ponllrf, ind Cheapilde. on the 
UMlb, and itie (iter I'liimet on the laoih : ntaily equal tu Dii«-ihird of the 
Citfi and lililc )r» ilitn one-half of that deia*latrd li; the confligialinn of 
ICU. On a niodrrKr ralciiUtion, it trould invulvc tlie dntruclioii of be- 
tween 9M0 ind 10,000 hogift, and caitn an Huaiiillcuie, foi iLc purthiae 
of ptopcny alone, of about fifteen mUlion* aUrfSng. Mr. I'livlnr itaitd, 
that ■ BieraaiUl on the *uljcct had been forwarded to the KuiC C^minii- 
Uaaet of Woudt and Forr»t> \fj the MetropalitaD Improvenient Society, 
■v|]p)iliB| tkai the Mtirof'niitan lRi)>romnenl Cnriimjixinn ilioold take ihs 
■DUjeei Into ilurir ronttdtfallon il an eaii/ period; and obseiietl (bat It be. 
bnea ani only all pr(<feulonal men, but all who detire lo tee a tight direc- 
tion 8>Ten lo ihii uticirdinarj niuienieiii, to auiu in promoting tlin ttme 
iu anter that thin liranch of railiva; miamitnicilinn ma* bo dealt wlili arpa- 
tai«!r and dlMiiic^tr, so that a couptchcntivc and tyutmatic plan may le- 
wlt irom nliat it |iic«col it (heap of cuufutiou. ariaing ftom the foct that 
e*rb line hii Srru ti-piralclj' laid iIoHo, nitlioiit Tcfcrcnce lo, Or ihr know- 
ledge of, wlut U piopoied bjp toy other. Mr. Fowkr alluded to the new 
prlaeiple nf rtilwtjr ilrecU. and to the double nhjcci tliallhc Thtinei Ein> 
batikmmtiwl Rail^sT JuncilDnCompiny hid in vieir In adopting it. namely, 
tbuaf carrfiDg uui a great public iitipro«enient in eunjunciiua wiih llic ci- 
leoakw ul lailwa; communicnlinn ; Itkewiir ttiil, in Ihr cvrnt nrOoTeni. 
■cat aoceifii^ to ■ ttpaialc and diitmci canii<lcraiion of mctropolltin llnct, 
an ttpporiDnilj was at prc4cni tlTiiidcd whicli could nocr tpiu occur uf 
effecting the iuproicnient of (liti great ineiropolig. u tu taluhrily, can- 
veaietice, and •pIcn'lDiir, wilhont, prohnbl;, inr Kch^co oo the part of the 
CowraaiCtil. Mr. Fuwlcr adicited t« hit dciigo fur carrjiiig a lailnij oner 
IjasdoB. bridge, ai one of the tne«ni propotrd to rannect the linn now ter- 
ninued at the aouth end of the hnilge with that prr<;eeted iliroiigh the City 
fion llungerford-niirkel lo the IllA'AKall line. Tliii na« viu\vii>ttii to he 
cdbcted by the addition of arcadet; conering the footntrm nitti iron frame- 
aoika extended mer thi? rnrria(e-«ay to entry the laili : ilir fnrmcr of Ihrte 
iddltioat had tirrn pr\ijccted hy him in one of the dctigut Buboillicd to the 
UouM of CoBtuont, wbca ibc recooftructiOD «f Ibe bridge wu under coa- 



Fthnttry 0.— Mr. Ttrc, V. P., in tbe Clialr. 
NEW MODEf. OF THE PARTHENON. 

A dtecai^n look place whicb excited more iban ordiuarr Inler«il, am) 
allrxtrd ■ tery cruwdcd nkMlinj; of the incinbrr* uf tbc hihliditv, Ibe tub> 
Jaet being th* cooMderalion of cnrtnin queiiiona reufciing (h4 original 
atchUtiauK of Ihe Parthenon, ingjeated by Mr. Lucai's models retenily 
depoallcd la the Uniith Mntrnni. 

Mr. Lvc*i cooimencrd the dltcnssion by readinic ihc followlnB i>aprr, of 
wUcb h« hai obli^lBitly furolBlicd u« with a copy. 

Mr. I'reahicot and OcotlcaioD, — I beg (■> "il'"' yoo m; betl Ihaohe ri>r 
jiiar i-)iligiDg cniiiti>*y, (n tlu' npportUDity tbun alfuriled me of iotr(vducin|{ 
tbo Mitit'^l of lh« ile»toraticia of the Harlhennn, brliirn il may be, the Rinct 
■ '■•re, but al li.e Mme tmn crrlainly, the nioul conipeleni trtbunal— aud I 
Umit itii» tittijtel befora yoo wiih miicli aotiety, conwiooa at I am ibul 
Ittr pui'luD of dij work you nre niott likely lo ail In Judftmenl on. It thai 
to Niilcii uiy pr**iout itadk* bad bren but curavrily directed, and tut 
ikal I appear InfurD }ou rnlbcr lo cnurl correction than lo inipurt lufiirnin- 
IMM, 1 4bouM now feel ua Ihnugh I wrne lieardinj the lion in lit* own 
ttan. bir, li In aur lot (v lire at a ptriud when improvement! in every de- 
pannenl iif trieoce bate been cnnteil lo great rctnltt ; and iliouRh in the 
laeartt. a coRinientumte dcvclnpincnlof lucccttful coersy i* nnl yei ap- 
panait tb* liaiv i> now cume wben iho artitit wbo«e work* arc the nioiit 
iBdttriagtbroniclrinjf Ihr srcateveDlxof tbcir peri(>d, ahuuld bi-»Iir tiicn* 
■alvaa, lor it cnunot hnve cuoprd onr obwrtalion, tlial within tbc Init few 
ffun atmallanenU'Jy nnd apparently wilhniil any eoaticeliuo, a general 

Clu nrite Ibe *lud] of hifih art ha* i|>run| np in l)ie mont iuldtec- 
■ dfEufv^, ia tirtniui), Eagland, DeooDark, Fravte— tthilc in 



Engtand, from inioy happy circumttnocei, arl appean likely to awase ■ 
biGh p> nil ion. 

f hn*CtSir,liilbetogr»eofniy readiojtiiHl wllb Ilia oliterratien (hallo 
haie a difficntt fubjc«i tborouably ioveitigaled, w« abouM »et (v (he (atk 
ooewhohaan Olliiifi anoont of natural qualificaliun*, bu( wbo i»eDlirely 
ignnmitt of Ibe theme ; place at hit ditpcital all tnrana nnd applitDcea of 
tiudy, and if it ho hi* aim (at mine !■) to tcieolteaie palely for the pm* 
duriion oi ill* (ni)h, }o« mny ibeo gel the tnbjeci inured vriih nil the aeal 
of ihe adTocBie. unitrd to ilir mImticM and tobriely uf ibe Judge, etea 
iboQiih Ibe tubject mailer be to latporlaDl at ibo niatter work of Irliuas, 
or Ihv profound tcifuc* ditplB)ed iu the Iriumph uf Phidias; a Ihtme f« 
gloriout immediulely rouirt in Ike tnind of ttii> iiTeeligntor all Ihe latent 
or diirmatK rnnrgiee of lija nntare, with no iBaccnntte early impreiai«int (o 
rrtnoTe from hit mind, no ermcieont foreitoiie conclutiont lo biai hit Judg* 
n^nt, he *iirreyt wiih ardour and raibiitlaim, but tecordt with calmneu 
and ind-ffcrrnoc. untramcllrd by ilic vitidarta ofearty iiupTCMiousi be it 
compdeat tu eeisa and lo aoaljce alt tbc Miienl potote of cuuUoi enty, aod 
to iirrlvc liy roduvtion at loond cdiiclui-ii'iit. 

tiul rroiri I lit mode of pmcerdlnfc one defect may be Anllrlpated which 
ouKbt to t)« jtoarded amlntt, ntmeiy, llinl In loeetliitatlnE the delalltof 
on Inierctllog tulijecl, a few poinlt already lu«i parlially Imr hi lotted may 
be taken lur icrauled, and ihciefure tome maliert uoi appaieuily luiixinani 
(v tbc bigb bearlagt cf iho catc may be oTcrlvolied urundcrruled; but it 
il my jiuud fortuae In introduce Ihe rvpiijL uf my ltbo«r* where tbe tpiril 
of Item will be fairly apt^raelaled, will for minor blmniiiliei not malenally 
efleel the whole performs are In itt poneral appeal Iu the undcMtaiMliBt aad 

I am aurelhtt jou. Sir, will alwajr* apprectnte a work acconlingt lo itt 
mrrilt, and judge die ariitt wiih rttpect to hit inteotioos. nud liie peculiar 
[ircumntauivt noder winch hia work wna eieculed. Our MibjFcl, 8ir, 
appears ntiluialtT lo retolie ittelf iuloa rccapttulaiioD of ibe hooi'D and 
e-lii<i(lrd facte of Ihe cane, iocludiogila geueral hivlnry. arrhiiecturiil ran- 
siniclica and teuiplural Adommetiir, with aroDtlderaiion i>f the dmiMful 
or uiiccrUinpof (tout, Included io which ietobeplM'Tillhc()U(i>[ionielt>liTela 
(heiiKcriocof theTrinple, in poljcbromatic adjuucia, ilit<^iit)»-ele[ihnniin» 
ttalne of Ibr (itiddeta.llie centinl portion af EuUfn Pcdiiticiil. wittj iht 
BiiMiDEiiicliipcafrlcae-nhreldt, t<c,aiidbaviDKeatmincdlhe>ii: ronllcrnl prcH 
pone Tcry btieOy lo in>e»tiga(e Ihe prioetplca Ibtt gnidtd Ibeiie great 
irtitit in tlie adomoient of their work". It it orceiitry for ilie unity of 
Uie (ubyect 1 nbouid notice the known parls. but tiuty very brirflv. 

ItiawellhnotinUialtbel'arlbeuou wjit erected at Aihrut iibnui a.c. 4(0, 
iu the ntott flnutinhing nod glorious pcriud uf lluit great tvpiiblic, under 
Itieauipices of hrr i;rrBtriI gialeBiiinji, Ptiiclet, aod fci'Tnihr ilnitrnxntiha 
K"-t'c9t tculplor nod of the mml ci'IrbralcJ arofailcct of the nncirnt worlds 
I'hidiaa and Ictisoi. Il itocd on the tammil of Itio Acropolis, wiufc 
iJoHc lemple, itl (ect in length on the Upper ttcp, by lAt fr^i ,b l>fei>dlh, 

II «-nf contlrucleil enlirrly of Fenlelic marble, and, iiirliidlB|( a >lyhibHt« 
nf fnur Mf |Mi wat 'W feel in hrii;lit ; it wa* called Hecttmnpedon, or lb* 
building «f a bgadred feel; and fmtn i(!i united pJccHrncira of dealco, de» 
I'liravlou and maierlal retuliing from the Anc taMe, uaboundtd means and 
munificence of Pectdet, it may be recorded at the iDoel perfect that <•«• 
ever nectited. In Ibe I'atlbcDoa waa cuniuniiualed Ike noble triple 
union of sTchltechire, teulpmrc and pamlinf ; la it wtt the nrUit'« 
triumph complete, and net rrurhrd i1> aenti^. 

In ihe couitraclinn of thr- rolumn* of ihn eileriw mncb itibllety of 
niaoajiemrul tppcartio have hrrniiK'd,)uih at Ihc well knuwo fnctiof ibe 
iui.liiialion of tbc columat l|\ inch inwirdn, nnd that of llie ouleror aagu* 
lar one; ufUiC e&lcrior btiDg lorger by'i\ iDcbetditoieler (ban llieolherai 
nnd I have alto been infermed that Ihe euntatia or rncell is diMlmjlar la 
lliedt(Ferentcolamn«,nnd thullhc ilinmetitniof niber* beildeaihe eiid i>n«e 
nn alio differenl; hut ihe most cutioii* rircuniMance It llie Imt I haee 
heard, tnd which I believe a lalctilnl nirrabrr of yout Ia>[Jiii(e, reeenilj 
arrived from A iheot con tctlirjloy«u,ri]i., ihaiailfAcflipitu'j nn thetoutb 
aide of (he tcniplc treO Inchoe tninlWr than aay olb«r>,and 1 hopeabo 
now lo learn If tlie dtniinalioa of Ibete capital* be eonboed (o the ovolo 
under it, or whether it HTve (o increnaa tho eatiuls of the eolumDi gene- 
rally ; oilier fnither pccutiariiiet of tirnriure may here be alluded to. Mr, 
J. IViinel borne in hti work obMivet, that be found Ihe iipiier »1ep of Iha 
I'nrtbenuu in form a simple curve liaioK 3 iochet iu ihe te-iiirc, (ii«t higher 
in (be fiuiil (he curve cbaogrt i(t character, aud iu (he anhilmic hrriitiiei 
BC'irre ufu double eiirialurii. And Mr. flrHi.-fbriilK'^ iiiformrd nie thai itq 
htn^Iching u itriog friiin Ihe two rnde uf the fiiml lower alrps he found iLal 
ihe rf Dire of il receded (wo inehet from the ilriBf, 

[IMr. Lunit then detailed al tome length ihe hitlory of the Parih*nan 
friim tli« (iuie wbenilieArropolla was brteiged by the Veaetiant in lOFiT, to 
the time of LurO Elein — ibe general cliarucier nf tbe tciilplure, tit., but an 
thcte pUFiKt arc fully coiitidcrrd in Mr. Lnoaa't puUiebcd obscnaliuD*, 
Ikev are heie omitleil. After a i»itiu(n ritminatiou of Ihe de«|Bt of llw 
aculpinre tn the pedlmeni, (he Uriurer proceeded a* fnllown.] 

lnreU<>ringibe Pirtheoon (be qnetilon that it moM diOtcult ta pnpple 
wllb, BDil leatt likely to b« aoccettfully lnvetlig[ated, it ibn inirrior iif 
Iho Temple, it havloii: undergone au mniiy traniformatioat, each [lOHilily 
Icaii&g aonie trace or irfligc, aud (bi^rt vosliges to coniminaird t.igriber 
tbal lildeaatiafaetuiy iii(ii>iE>aIioii can bo expect od (o reMill froai tbc lnei4t 
(telerniioed application. Thote mm! eonipeienl lo Judge on ihin mutter 
(Ceoenilly arriie tt ditlerrnt concIaEiont. At regartit ^e roof, tome top- 
pose it wat opea, and nilirni Ihat U wateollrely cluied, bimI that the 
nntur^l liiibi of the lieaienn waa topplird by artiDcial licht. but both the** 
auppoaiiM"! appear Iu be nntraable; the opou roof faypoibetl* beuig uvl 



m 



THE CIVIL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOUttNAL. 



[MAmoH, 



by •& ancient epignn Ao tlie lUtosar Japil»r in Ivorja&d gM, ia a ten- 
JAt aunilnr ti> the l'«Hti«a(», naoiel)', IbU {/ tJkf god faM A« u»»!d ttrry 
iKi nt/ teiUt kin : wtiil* lh« miln cluaisg tke mof ud caaMi|aRiil ni- 
cluilnn ci( ili« li««l ligU Tor a lUioe, Uio ligbl or dar, m«ri* varj intpra- 
tublc- A |nrli*l DpewJBK ailinitlin^ lisbl. bj Ike means of Rfimc tcoil- 
UautNUeat tnUtauce, appean in Uie abiaitoc of all proof tlie BoclfcuUilv 

MpfHMtliOtl, 

At Id Ibe eeldintu lliat ■upporled tbe roar «4]imI nbienrilr «ii«it, tha 
nod probtbte *upp<HilMn brnuf lh« last ooe oa tiii! tuhjrct, nnd which ha* 
oaljr bvM Inn); brousbito ligbl u« dMlnqring ibn igiHqnf, in ISti. M. 
PitUkjji, iaal«tU!rlaiiieUDtbeHbject,ciT««UaibUb«)i*f, that the trace* 
of Doric columiu found on tbU ninoTal of ibo niMii<i«, witb a niatuctcr of 
five fed, inpporwd aa upper tiw of ibo lonio order. Thia staleaaDat uf iba 
dUiMter of tbo lotMr or Done tntr, being of Ibe pruporlMM tA fire re«( la 
dlamoler, ia cMtliiMd by tbe pmonal obMrvaUoai of Mr. Hracebrldgv^ 
and of Mr, PeuroM. On Ibe ullior baad, in IttUr* read at IhU Intiilullon, 
tnta Mr. Knovrlai, a montb *iiii», tbo dtaoiflnf it tUea al 3ft. 7) ta. 
lamalalnsfUiacccnincfor this CKiudtanepuic; aaaaubjeciaoiutcrraU 
ingi U'l apptrvDU; m mi| to bo aioertaiacd. Now admlttiog Uie Doric 
1« htn b««a thooriguialilraiiture, aod 6ro (cct Uw tliancUr, it iben 
appeara from lb* folloiring diagram Ibal there w avid bo no apac* for an 
uppar tlor, for If it bo an Ionic uoe, it mu»i liar* bawi d lepra porli on itely 
laall compared wtlb th« balk<r Doric bcloi*. Suppoting the l)jriv lo 
bara baea naed, 1 am rather diapoacd to beiine that au upper tier could 
not fcave beca ased, but (bat vonto otbtx atchl^cctaraJ feature mutt bore 
b« iuballtiitad. 



Ho. I. 



Ms. I. 



Xo-S 



NP.4. 




tIMtl. SfMtfe t(«l. (ftMll. 

B». t OuUr Conn ...-Ks. ) Coliami ef tb> PraoeiH^No. * Slu *( llii UKM cf CBlomna 
lilrlr *l»anttrd^tfa. 4. TIm tnaufOBaM at Ut laledDC to U» neunOoB. 
Wilh regard to Iha ebirf lourcea of autheaiic iiiftirmttiao ai to Ibe 
QM of colour* br ih« ancieaU, the aubjeui ha* been cibauslrd bj lb* 
ab>a remark* of Ihc nriini* writer* oo ihi* nxitlci i Mr. Hamiltin, in 
Ua tnnflatiou of the report of tbc cowmitiec vht in»i:*tigalwl lli* mar- 
Uca of the Partbtaoa, appear* lo have had no bia> oa the subject, nnd 
UMiDfanaoaa I dcrirofrom hiatmnalatUiB an>, that taamot Iheeaflj templfl 
muirt bara bees nhila, and tbatoUieranere eerUlnlii pain led, but no hint li 
givea a* to tbo piiriiH),iuid an (n tbo aiHual tintaoD tlio m<>*t perrect speelteen a 
of rvmaiolng colour ts the lemple afTbeaem, Semper found ■ome Una colour 
andcr Lhc aeclE* of one of tbc anui:, and tbure for* tire** tbe oon«lii»ioB thai 
Ibo nbole ofibe wall of tbe celk <va* htue. Scheuborl an iha «ili*r liand 
*ai»bafoaadoatho*BiiieHNtt colour, and ibnt it iviLiynllow.and yellow in hi* 
opiDwn wa* Iha Mlour »fu« eclla. Artoiher ^btervrr fuuuil nbatht- con- 
»idandrtd,auddraw*iimilareuuclu*iua«. Duialibougb Uimiliacrrpancy 
«>tiatt on thU point, all agree in alaUng tlial abore aud below ibe 
frlcae. In Iba Fanheoon. the meander oroaDtot wa* paiotMl >» a 
rvddiah brovru. On ibat brown, gold baa beoa dUcovcrcd, atid therefore 
■oDviappoto tlie colour (o liBvo been tb* gr»aod for ihc ^ltl> aod thIa 
4lw ap|iti«* to tU eloaaal palm leave*, on tba beta, bcLuw the trigljph;* 
aftd tba ornaaiacit oa the pnlinioni. 

Admlttiag as ure mait, frooi tbe ammiDt of efidaooe Inat ibr Greeks did 
uie much colour on ilirir work*, jrc witb regard to the actunJ niude of 
appljias il. o( Ihc period of it* moet evoeral u»c, wo ate "o a rtute of great 
undoriaiuly. 

It ba* boon obai^rtrd retpadiog the parity or impurtl; of Ua« in tbe 
UM of eoloor by tha tirarha, ihal ilii* cutiaideratton wat roreigo to a reaio' 
ralioa, that it wa* for ua to decide uu Die qw!*iiaa bjr Iha proafi a* add»i:r<d, 
and Ibat In realoriDR we mu*! nmlore culuur as ifrmenjtroted, unU thai we 
bare no rigbl to tet an; fnatidiou* idra of uur own ia the u*« of cvlovr 
ID oppoattion 10 Ibe vraclicc ot tb« Ureebs, wber« Uinl practice adinit* ol 
proof. To this hoHoicr [ mould beg lo demur, that from oar ptMlim is 
the UIO of colour, w« bare no right lo astuirw. that the ■Bcteat Clre«lu 
uedooloarai we iioivapp!| it, eipeciaUr ia tbeir applkalioDofittoibeir 



bighenl vae* la ptloliag their diriaitiet. We ban it ia e>id**M tbal tW 
colnma* of the I'anheBoB were pkieted red, but ihe firriimalaMa 
tbal tbe paint eiiit*iuib«(v>eai*tf«flA(>inla uf UiecoluitiaadeinoaatTatM 
(hal the calourwaaapplied alii late period, autxrqueui pf-rhap* lo ta«a 
rarlbqiinlie or olbcr oomiantian, becoiiv oa the coaiplcliiiii of tlio Icinptc lb* 
joiot* were lo clone a* to preTcnt Ibr iiincrliun of colour. Now it Joe* a^ 
pear to Die, that of a *t 1 1<i vf ur( fi te* cf e aod cbulc aa tbe areUlaolDn 
and toolptare of the I'arilie^oo, tbe bigb eicellenca eaaoolf be oi^ 
prtebeodrd aod apprraulod, by our having (till in eiiiteuM annot^ of Iba 

CreeiDiw fragaioDti toformaovnecoocepiion of 1becffe«lBaftM« •>!-. WbM 
ind of ide« ci>ulil wo bate formrd of Um arcbllacUiro and sculixuiw fmi 
Mnre deacriptioa or fraicmciiUry rvidnco? Let D* nOoci'-wltat idaft 
docs oor own ait give a* of the perfcetJoa of Oieok art* oMefit m» a elan 
inahatiaa of thai which actually riuU. ViUioal the aclaal worb of Un 
Greek artlala bafora a*, who ci>uld have proponaded any rMoaeitatioftW 
it* high esoelteocc eiibnr iu litrtu or eMcvtinn F And in lihe naanar (hn 
Iba ustBn of lliioga, 1 am rniitltd lo oonleod that in the ba« Una* of 
titvok art, where colour was applied, Il was used wnb equaJ aeveilQ, 
sbaaiItT, akill and puritj, aa tboaculptuni and nrchiivciuro deauostnMb 
and tberefero ronaoauiK (nai aaaio«T aa fnxa fraKuwul* aloaa, we cotiU 
net bopa to realoro aa a whole, nHithcr c^n wo ia ooioor hope lo rtcoulniat 
with uur linited oppoitontty of obaervlDg, not *o mueb peebapa a* la 
Ihoaotual lint* atlo ihe roeclianiical application of them, after Ibe tievutiful 
aculpiuro bad reoeUed all It* wonderful diicriiuinattte Uiucliet, ib* 
marking of bone, leoduu uad muscle. Doc* it srrni peob^le ibat 
men of *ucb culti'aled Uhivt would have suieared o<ct IhaM bisblf 
wroughlforiitswithi.il aud eattb^ Doeait nut, Sir, areni more probable that 
the turfao* was atninrd with colour, not coaled with a ptgaieat.' lo ntiof 
colour to embody the furnii of their dt'tlies, we may be aaaured Lbal the 
■am* amaant of *kill, pure iHtte. aod beauilful ap(iliance would be nied 
a* was ibown In prodaolog nud Duubiu^ ih« actual funii. Viewed ia tUl 
light. It it by the power of ibr loMgiDaltoa. aad ibia punrr alone, thai m 
of (Let* Utter d«f» c«a cooiprcliettd tbe gloriou* uspeci of (be FartbcMa, 
iniUialagriljofcoloareLSwellesfiirm. It may be tLiulin) bias aia; rvadar 
nw an lacompaleDt Judga on thi* anti^t, bul 1 liare searched wtlk 
mucb aaslJuiirt and I belmte thai all the culuur 1 hate seen tctulti 
from the aurfaca bein^ tlaiocil. nol painted, la souh! parts colour r*> 
oiaiofng, *hrw8 ihe punt lurf^co ut ibe marble where il has bee* 
proltclcd by tbe pedimenti und nbereeapmcd. In soute perls the orlgiaal 
surface i« ttill preserti^ by Ibe tnesos (applied tv lint il, aird as tbt 
nlhor *urri>uniliag portion* are deeply eotiudod by lime or drip, so I 
believe thai tbe priMesa of libling hardened and prcirned the *(«1. 
iranipareacy uf theoiarlilr; and of that mode omrcutioa as applied Is 
sculpiure, t do nut thijik ne have acquired ibe sccreL 

liaviDf ibu* brieHj eiplajoed ibo itruclure aud decoration* of lb* 
Parlhroon, wv piocccd in uui endeavour* lo ioveitlKaie the principles of 
deaiun thai cbanuieiiso Ibis greal work of I'hidia* aod Icuqb*. The 
eiect which thoir work create* va our mind* appears everywhe-rr lo be 
proJuocd by the same mean*, — tarjety anil cuiitniit iu unity — whctbcria 
its arcbilwclural consirnrliiin. In the selection of ihe subj'*^ for lb* 
loulpiom, or lu iheir cumpoiliion and Irealmeoi, lo th» archilcetar*, Ibk 
eoteRio aod riKoroui onlfuimlly of il* iRiis*e«, and lb« seiere propoitlaM 
of the columns, cuntrasi marviHIously niib ibe buuiidlru direrslly of ite 
liue* at Ili« sculpture. Aod while unity b lbo» pmened by the symm^ 
trical cbnracirr of the wholr »triivlur«, clearly aud iulrlligibly statMl to the 
•ye, and e"inm3iidinglh(ii>h*''n'nnc>-'>f the miod, Ih* ulti^olioa itauti^ati 
and prBierred by the beaflliful and huraioiiiuuH pltty uf li^hl aod rfiwh 
rrsuliini! from ihe inner coluinna of the pimiuu* bpii^g amallcr ihan the 
ouicr, aud beleg H'"^*^ "" "'*PB< which enny ilic^ lonrr architrave bigber 
than Ibe outer. The beauliful frkec i* thui pluced abiric Uie ■poclaior'a 
first glance, and reserTv* fur }i|ai braulia* veiled fioiu bi* trat Impr 
and iberrforc far more eir««t|*« in ttieir uoobtrusice display at the 
prriMl. 

It wa* Ihu*, by an Inethaastible power or invraiiaa thai Pkkili_ 
duocdlbat great itittkressiou. which all iiniidst'ifii'd with a peroepUdBi 
bcnuliful ackauwled);r, ia the cuiitrm pin turn of ihe i'arthreon: andt 
o-irarlvea, let it b« uur study lo dwell uu ifaese noble work*, and to seek I 
imbue ourselfrs n-iih ihpirtpiril «ud puwer. in the choice of uobic 1 
composition and tri>a(nieni. This, Ihrn, is the proper infloence these i 
f «HnipIeR should eiereiie un our art, lo pruilurs a truly National I 
Scntplurv; foewecauiaui be blind Lo tbe ciicumsUucc, that merely I 
petttioicibejurms uf lireekarl; uiuslallogrlhrr fnit in producing evol 
jesnleraiuui. (Irrtk urt was pcrfuct because it wai notional, because I 
pnculiaritien guiled alike tlienstiuMil fecliog and ihe natioua) religton. 
nllcmpt lo repeal Ihe mere forma, wlnrlber uuiled lo ihair myths 
vrlUiMl thai appendage, luuit Tail to *aiiify in any depanaieot of art, 
far as regards tbe pruduting an Ln^lnti tlrboiil, eilhcr in poetry 
Hculplure, paiuliot; or architecture ; yrl (hi^ rutilcmplalion oflbeMylbSi 
the Urveks ia full uf inicrcat and usr, hj atJding to Ihc amouitofi' 
kaowledgo of tbe uper*tioa> of tile buiuau mind, and here wo taay |e, 
liow nan someiimes prodiwe* re*ull» »o perfect as to bctomc laws, and 
il wervloform an eleruil osodcl of EtcRii aod pmprirly, ll>e remll i 
wauls perfeclly supplied, of idea* pprfeclly embuUird, o( natknal 
Incotpuraled willi and represeuled liy nntiunal emblrms. 

Il reqotrs* indeed a ooDsidoutile knuwledge of Greek art to be aU^I 
apprrdaie ibefullaiDouni of iQllueneeii nay ai(rcice, und a sun ■ 
Iherwigbaciiaalnlaiioe wItUtfauir works, tocoaprebeadtbeir real ecspti 



in46.] 



THE CIVrL ENGINEER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



n 



i»ftt, aed it i« sot Ibcnfarc Hirpruing that a hisli gewnl MtixiU* oftkiB 
art itiasld ^»«ai1, lail jH ihai II >lii>u)il Ih LutlilUe undenilood, or llial 
IM lalarvcc vtiuuli) bt Haultd. It mttj be Hid— ntial arc ihc 
eaorllracka we arc In t*rk >d<1 to xite, to rgnn ai it were part or o«ir 
MtioaalilJ T 1 aa»>cr Ibc urucrat compr-litnMrrtKM of |iI«d, i<» Otoe**, iu 
ffUdtiir, ila priifoBtid *irirnce, and g^nr-nil aobilitjrof trratmcDt,to noliko 
ibawaanMtof pltn.'ipdil; anil iitirr pixiKraticHi of xieoec, aa oftoB 
dlacanraU* in tHnrk», priHluord mit <if iho paiaotCntk art. 

Tba * boJa cbaia of d*p«iitlriit facta ma cvolttd and laid «nt to be 
VsaBlMd i the woat deliulB ihadc* cf tiuOi »cruiiulou*ly dlttln- 
^alatod, and aa *o actmce can cslat nllbotit demonimilpa, tlw nliolc ex- 
Mtad aa one. ArttiilMtitt and Sttilfture, aud Pumtinjt btrodcd iiilii ton- 
fonpaiab ^muie; : (be PartbcBonWiunniagniAivivlpnoni, ci>mprrh<uid«d 
U a gtaac*, anit in ihiapofm ofa (bouMinil aiKiUHii, nvrry arpaniln (Braa 
waa a !»«■ lu li)i>)r, bni aubdu^ nod aldine to ili«i ffoml rilVcis hj the 
itaaaa ofiU applkcalloa, amJ iLebarBoaj o( lla propontoo. Tliiaactorata 
«jMt«aiio ferin vrhkb jdita lo Qntk art ita utJIttj aa aa eiaiDpl*, indwil 
la M be Ibuad no «>btnr tUt, tad wilboul it kc caoaot nBd«ralBiid tba 
aeieace of art In Ha truib. Now l« apeai ofa gtiicrni ijUcm aaapplifd tft 
UeilitfraJ art teanda raihar (ortout. 1 iprak htr» nf Hi* ailomiii«Db 

^^■ncT, there an altaaiidit]', hial aad b.ipotbesia, doubt and dognatlam, 
^Hios aod rraaoB, cold mailitnialical aiifruifiun, and lli* aioet corcroua 
periry.thcilraMi anil the lectort.iliusBriiruani'iJ ilieridkuloa».all iknxini 
|0(«lber bj a baad cairlv^a in it« pivfusiuu of riclint, bolK diajciintcd, aad 
cMiatilulfd— ibt^ Ar«lhecharacterl«lic«of thanoat p«rfri-.i tppcloioni or 
M«dta>ia1 art, nnd in this art they often w«m to haieoierlook«d that great 
•dvaatageie (imkan.ilieeiquliite beaul) of tlieir ronni. W briber Jt waa 
•Umat* or naiutnl irmpcraiure, or trducalion, or aocial clrcumManoea tbal 
fOrvaka ibcir delicate prrEeptlunt of tiniveniai bi-auiy, do pauple 
7 In wboae kappincaa it »iu su nrccsMrj ■& iuicrcduut. ur to 
^^tofnAm*e\■J mioiilpTd bjr lh« gtrniua oftlivit conipottra. TIi«ir 
wWc aaloro »«> »an6a>-A that truEd Itripptdorf^aee and beauty, could 
aa nure to«<b ilirir niiuia Uiau religiuu llvfir heart*, anlrw veiled uudur 

• P'rEe**"* mjihology. 

TtwB fimks aarcrvdw) in producing pcHWtioo in the art or KJence of 
pMrtrayinxibcbaaaoforni in ila moat perfect beauty; ihia ne altsiBualUMi 
tot wtibrnat It oar art muat retroEtiul«. 13tit «e r«^«ir« aonetbgoi niure ibaii 
lfc« »«iriK« of braatiful form, hc mu*t iu« llie fcrrn, and auperadd a 
tplnl of nationalily. Thticulptur* of tht «nei*nti ii the rnoat faithful, (h4 
moat rloqueol, the moal nndunuB clinmicli! of Ihnir )rieatiie(«. If, ia hia 
aoJama durmirnrnTrr thr-r -Uin Id haltlwfiir Ihrir couulr}. Prrioleacould 
■ny llMl^/'iJ'a'f'wn* mni mUrarth iraalAtirtOfni.uiid that their namfneert 
aa< Birrffjr irrarcii ra tkt ItftltlfiU OiarUc aimvlf tkiir vn-it kinitrtii, iul 
•(arnr>|i /or rrtr, tn Iht MvWtldt TtgUttrt <if inemarg iu vlUe' Unili ,- 
ao nil) vrt a«y, at tka clor* of Ibi* oar oawy on fhidiaa, ili«t 
(kviiKh ihr |[l«ry of it, manlf«ai*d lo hit cniintrjnMU in dtaiioct and 
(aiuili-ir (haruciarvanri in ihefutiieu of its mpauin^, la lo aur dUtmit age 
aalf rliaily and diaiauily rev«ti«ij ; if ne know it oaly by tba ftvr fraj{> 
Mcata we bare prMsrird, or by itiuMs atatund in forciKu lands, or by 
c«U deliaeatKHu and siill ooMer tiricriptlont, yet the iinago of the art 
•onlvea tolbcminl gf niaa.to lwrrB«<1eda|[ain«lld axaio ia ikc ihouglil 
ofrroiatc poMerity, an unwrllten record and rileot wilncM of tha gnaul- 
BMo «f the Aitn-niin people, aii-l ibe grnlaa of Ibeir icnlptor. 
" Tiivj: fo Mpalcbered In aucb ponp do lie, 
That kint;* fur luch a Luuib might triifa lo die." 
When Mr. Lima hailiiinshrd.Ur-DuanldMii mad tlieroUuvringr^Barks: 
Toa will duut>ilr!>», geoiilcaicn, bare been aliuck Mitb ilio energy and 
iBadWM of pufpuM! wilb which Mr. Lucas haj Folloii*«) up hia prio|«<t uf 
irarUsK »<it a r^puialion fur biiuaclf bj a rfiiuratiaaof the Parthenon, the 
da* of srhicK, he hoprd, would bni'^ hiiQ fiit'uuriLbly befor* the notice of 
Hw publico, and no le«i plumed by tlio fraukncu wiili which he baa cois- 
■mloaMd Iv iH hi> idea* on the lubjcct. 

BbI iben arr ui her conaidcratiuoa «f very grcikl iraporlaacei nblch offer 
(betnarlrca in ciiniirctitir nith «> raat aa nodcrtakii>i(. The boldneta of 
iba attcaipf mix* l>e j'lKitfiiM liy thequatificitlianauf llii^ eolerprl(JO|{artiat. 
Tba taalo aad pmciicul ikill of (he aeutplor mtit.1 bea^eoiMled bylbelesrD- 
<«g«flfce antiquary, lh<i prafeaainoal axpoHenrn of i)i« archiieci, and the 
■McUhM af the moilelier. It aeenu bejood llir> nniie of human probabi- 
Ely. tbat any iblog leaa ihaa a tIrIi to Ibu ooblrti of ancitnl nioauiucDttf, 
aad naoy wwhi, nay nwnlbt, derated to the elody of ii uo the ipoi,t(iuld 
roablc any hoc, n«itoT<r fitted, lo »olve aallarMtorily lb« mauj dnnbiful 
iaBti««a Mhick baog oT«f Ita complete raaloralion. We know that PaHa* 
■ iVtif tiij|pdK»ni*erebe<ieBtur««ltopuhll«hbi« nonuinenlaorBoniaD 
Vl'^iurr. KruQ>-llrfcAI rriiinird again and ngain toaiudy tba bath&, 
.rmpJvii, and the mini of that aftcl«:ni city «n> lie fvit Mliified to nndvr- 
I ih* cooMrBctiua of ihe donie ofSania Marin del Fiuri, at Floreotw. 
4a rrpratnlly ticnl to Napfca lo ncaaure aad draw the rewaiai uf 
ri\, in ordrr lo enavte a acrnpulou* and rttiUifiil record of Ibe eica> 
J build I OK*. 

,' Mr. I.iif IU hnd pabliabed hi* moilel aad de««rlptlonii of it, as a re- 

Itinn uf Uiv MBlpluri'i uf the Patlhenou, If Ibe laudatory pamtirapht, 

■ted by lilt lulmircni aad fhroda iu Ibe public prfnii, had conSneit Ihrlr 

Klra lo till*. bikI had laid aa hieber clnlm ibaa Iu the merit of hatint 

Ut« nnrk of the imaionni PhidUa, 1 gbuuld ha<r« l«fl lootheia 

■prleal lh<a uyaclf, attd b«ttur acqiiHiiilnl with that aitior art, lo 

^j^ftl iato the propri«ti«« of the rect'VAiiun in that depRrtmrnl. 

rtUIa-pBfeof Mr. Lucaa'i awn pamphlet, copits of vrfatcb we owe 



tobie f.-iendly eoartMy . stalea Ibal oneorih«iRon«li nhihlu tikt tem^t ^ 
it afprarti la Ut iilapitlntrd Mlalr in Ita (rr^ntfeaf h tntury, amd rxteattd 
Jii'Ht tht rrUtiue rnruiiiM, or/mmiiulArntkdnfM'iii^a. Tlie o4her briMg <m 
iilion;i( It reilort ll t« tHt/itlii<u t/iu arlfiiml tKMti/ and $flndaw. It 
is upon Ibe fullaey of Uir«e »iatc«citta> aa reganla tla arcbilrt-tnrc, that I 
feel obliged at unce lo pnileet again*! 'he modela — tie one a* aot being a 
faithful reproaenlation of it In Wt dilapidated ital*, not eiemlod froiB es- 
ialing renutna nor (rom anlbrntlr drawings— Ibe other being iaaeeBrata 
ffenrrally In lla architectural detaili, and being i^/lcieMt, inaleadafei- 
hibiiioe lb c /of a/«* of ita original beauty and ipleodour. 

I feel called upon to ciauiluo ibe tubjed tlins aptxially, fbrtho arcbi' 
tecloral errura are io eoiiUarji to the CKOOna of Ihe art that ibe cbartcter 
of the proff taioa U inpliealed.xrhpn we lee lhalth#TruKl««i ofthc Drttiah 
Mueeuiu glre Ihe aianip of approliaiioa to Ihete miiiakta bj pnrchitgliig 
the modela, and eihltiiling iheoi injntta'poaiiiuu with the tery naibleti of 
the Parthenon Itatlf. We mtial cive them full credit for nithlngio da full 
Justice lo the high reputatioa ofphldiati it i* nnly to be rcj^tted ttat* 
from paraUuony or iguoirauce lo tttcmxlTe* or thuae arDand theiBilkeT 
■hould hare (orgoltea Ihe elaim i>f Idinni lo tkn rharBCler of die first arcb^' 
tecl of hia ovrn or tay age, aod aa having produced to the PartheeoB « 
work free from every defect, pure In every detail, gruecfiil la every pro- 
pan ion. 

Io Ibe model of the FarlbeDOD lu iu dilapidated etale, Mr. Lncai hti 
errODeanalv rrpreacnkd on Ih^i are1iilnt>e oier the oolamna of the PoHl- 
cum, Ihe fillet tapv o^cr div gall«. lie fau out placed Ibcm at tbr aogles, 
and has eoutioued them alui^g the llanka. Ther now exiri ti (ho aoglca* 
nnd at equal apacra aluc^ the front, aa thovrn Uy Stuart, and thiire mere 
Dune aa itaual aluiiK the ilaak. 

Mr. Lu»i hai cuniiuued the BDt» cap nonldinga alooK *>>> *vstll of Iha 
Poalicunii and along tbe.Hauk wallofthecella, latMtb which poiltlonilhejr 
never csialcd, Mr. Liicna baa reprvaeBtcd coraicca oa iho Inner (kce of 
tha cella wait n(ier« Ihey do not eiiat, nor accaidiog to the mo«l probible 
mode <jf resioraiiun, ever eould eiEtl. 

Tbeae iotruiiuciions ure totally at variance with Ihe drawinp of Stnart, 
and caunui puuibly be eitant in any other authentic drawings as staled in 
the titte-page uf the pamphlet. 

1 inu>l nuiT reoturc lo allude to tba restored model. In the trvt place, 
It it l4«« accuralc as regards the atep*. than that of the rniEcd Icraple. Ta 
llie latter there are only three. In the former four. Vpon refrrrin* Ui my 
own atddies mode tai the apot, I find three llepi of marbie, and below tha 
loMierniutii a aJah of the same heigbl und atwut tliu came proji-rtion of alone, 
ntid ihni apvcifically ntnted in m} sketch. There it thru ■ innch ivider 
eUb uf atone, atid a drop beyond ofsfl.iin. ll appeared concliiaite to 
Eiiy niiod, Ikal ibe ilone tlab was a portion of the pavcaicot of the area 
Brtiuod the temple, wbieb was laid wlthalabf of stooe, the upper Mirftca 
beini; levd with thn upper fuea of Ihe alone alab «nder the IhirtI narbk 
atep. I a faei, it woald have looked tncoagrtiouH lo hare bad one alep of 
aiunp and then DirtMi of marblp. Heshlee which we bavo Ibe leatimony of 
Viirutiu*, who aayi. Hook III. c. 3. '-The nnmber of step* in frani 
thauM ofini^s be odd, iilnce In ihat caac the rIcKi fuol, which begin* ib« 
accent will belbal which flrri alights on tlto Undingof tho temple." We 
kiion (hat oar Kr«*> tnutor borrowed all hiv canDos from the Ureeks, oad 
Uint Iha snperatiiion* of tha noeiaata had a cammoD orlgia and a coniaoa 
■occptailoa. 

The reatored model ahawi no tntCM of th« plhlh wkkh eibled betwoaD 
ihr lower partaof ihscalumni oF the Po*tlcDoi, aad ol wlilcb Ibere are In* 
disputahio tiiCDB in the Panheaon. Thia plinth, wbkh viiu f«-t I inch 
high, aad half as wide BKain aa the ceatre Ouling, teceiTcd the ataiidnrdn 
of Ibe cuelal grating which incloaad the inlerculuinniationii itp Id the aiim- 
iniloflhae*pitj|s,na tiauertained by tha mortire hnira atili exiaiiug in 
theauts. Ill U ineul work na> for theputpou of giting teciiPily lo lb* 
I'nsiicum, aa within It wrre ripoted to puUic view many of llie voliia 
olTcrinKa of beauty and value, the richo of Iho temple, nnd being placed 
wiihiD [he nietal railins. Ibey werg prevented being injured by aiHiitJcnl a«- 
purloinad by Iho etil diMiuii^d. Thi* grnllug waa prtAaUy of bruusc gilt, 
and niaay Romaa bas-rrjivfit olTer authnnty for a reatontlloB. 

Tha Bell Inaceumcy lo which 1 wish to call atte«lMn, i^ ih(> doorway. 
Tbe old aperiure bad been narrowtid long since, eiiher by Ihe Venellans or 
Turks, by llie introJucdan of slabs In Lrrefinlar coun«> ; t)e>oud theaa 
alaba the wall is perfectly plain. Itciisofliue from ifae nini;aiflc«nte and 
iiiiportaace of lh« Partlicuun, whiib would bo cvidcnlly defivicul in eTcci 
if iha dtiururiiy wei-e a nien> «qaart aperture ; rtaaonitig frora the analogy 
of Ihe Rreciheum. which bat a magulficat doorway, allboagban edlfiea 
of less Importance than tho Temple of Hlavrva, and rMtanlng fram the 
evidence lobe found on thrapertitiea nfUii^ Pmpylca. which had evideatly 
brootc dreasiogi, I have little heiltatloa ia slating my apinlon, that iIm 
drcBaings of tbu Partbeoun wen of brooxc, and that tbe model ia tiagularty 
uu'uitiiaiile iu hatioij oooaule* or Iruaiea, which support aathing,iire m> 
companied by no corresponding embciliahment, and arecanlrary to all rea. 
ton, propriety, and eiamjili^. I haio already alluded lo tlw contlnnation 
of tbe mouldinssof the aatjs capt, reiainad in thn minratioD, and quit* 
contrary lo fart. We now come lo ihc Interior nf the cella, and canaidei* 
iiijt the toinplexity of ihe opinluns olTcr^d by Mcsir*. PitUi«t», Finlay, and 
uttiert, who wer< vuntuked by our autkui, it ia iM>t aurpriuog Ihnl bo 
ktiuulil have found himaelf hirolvMl in a mace of dilScully. ll appiara 
thnt Mr. l>>rkerell, in lh« sevenlh ridurae of tho Motuuni PoblicalMiBa, 
bat reilored the loitrioe wilh two onlrrs nf rolumn* ; tha htwvr are Co- 
rinlhiun, Ihe oppci arc Dorio< All llie rvlcs of tlic an, all aoaloey, and all 



83 



THE CIVIL ENGINF.ER AND ARCHITECTS JOURNAL. 



[Mas CD. 



pra)<«bllit]r hate na outiotar lo ikU dariog wrutrcmtDt, In <b» tcmpin 
of Pk*(iiid w« fla<l a dvutilfl liur of culuiuna. udd vv«f th< oU> t, iv aup- 
puH l^< r»»f uf (li« liypi-lWncni, h.iih Durtci but III* «utt«] •U'nmcDt uf 
Blr. loniVHl, lli*l ■ panloQ ura Cnrmiblan capital wu broui(M '''V Kim 
from Ttip t'aribeiiiMt, ud K similar fra^mpnt diwmrrd la Ihc Tt>iii;<I« of 
Apullo I'ptcuriu, al B«M9, nrar Phigalik, Mcm to hdie bMo cintldcnd 
MBIciirotlf RTSve aulhartiT for ihe latrodacthn of Ike Oariiuliian. aa ooe of 
lb« liionr 0nlm vf tbo Paribaoga, AtHOtliif itt Mcr that Mi. Inwood 

Kil il fniiD Ihr I'urthvDQD — Muw di^ il (•libera t Wat il Ihers oriitnol'] ' 
111 any oilier IravtlleT — th* pr^ci«> iipOD and Vh^tlfr. or ihe IiiIiMiuci 
Stu«rtantl He*«il ever imd II' Ainonx (he Strang imiamorplioi^t by 
Vcanlian, 1'ark,aiHl Greek, nuy II not faa*(> bwu e«iiT«rl#d Ui the pur|iu>« 
vf coutiiucUaii ffoni taiae Arajr fra)[tiinil bejund ihc lenco oflbe I'arilii.-- 
iMa, at boiuy 1(;:Liter aitil laorc eaallj applicable fur tlM>Ir parirusc Itian ihe 
poixUruM block) of Ibn coastnidioD of IctioutT Maf il not iiaio into 
puppOMi; plaud tti«r« by *om« wilji Gm«k to gtm K addlunnal >stur in 
uic ^fei oroae, wh4> wa* «a|[«r for anr frngnipai of Alllc ut, anJ [iro- 
ftiael; liberal td aterjt oae wha ooninbamd to bit cotlMlion I The inlro- 
diKtiao uf theCurialblao order iuuibc PacthcDaD InvulTra lo iiiaiiy acrloua 
^iweiions in Ihe arl, that lie ailupilon matt real upun moid morn aulheucic 
prvo^tban (bat mbicb acciM))iaairi tbi* <|u«»[ioDabl< rracmcKl. But Ul 
nt aMume Ibal !l cave from Ihe Parllicnoii, and wm alMafH lli.'rn ; U il 
(no mndi to rehire Uia mtorer lo (inuse aod roael'Ivr whether thlii may 
■01 ba*tf b< aa a fnjBeal from aonie «tij<^ qtillu dUiliicl frum tlin iirciii' 
lecUirc r fiH m kaow, rrom PauHoiiu, Uiat all the Grerk tiMii)il(T« or auj 
••saaocl rcputaiiou were biled niihtlaioeii cfoaiiat peduainl). L-itnitclabra, 
can, lajtMi, trIpuJt, laxa, Kati, and 9lh«t artfclra uf wouil, oicial, and 
brpoxe; Ike T(<i<e oOwiDg* of lbs conqaetor. lbs tu|'|ilj««ai, ami I'le 
•upeniilioua. Mr. Lacaa baa lotredusad tka lanio ai hu lower order, 
BDd the Cu«iBiblaa abura ; a r^sluralboo more (ontltteDl nlth our pre<'oii- 
tttted aoijoaa, >«( aiitl op^u to leriun* ot>J«<1iuD, Huweier, h« has given 
a regular euiablaiurc lo Lis luni-r onlrr, witercai. jinlKinj; fruiu tke I'lriinu 
Taaiplfi auJ tlie reiuuu uf ibv ibiue, u iiirci- arcliil'ttn- or beau were iiiura j 
flClag^ Bui a lo^irn »erii>ui< vIiJ"c1iub pr<Muls ittrlf in ib< arransouFOt wf 
■ha ceiling, ithtch ■> luaila lo vverliH4i(( tlie up|»M- raaige of colmuun fur ISo 
purjMM of eontraeiing llieapenura of tb« ky)»eihruin. Tbli pretMita w> 
miicb diJlidUliy uf ounnruction, aad seemi »a much In advance of tfae 
•cleaca o( Uic lire«k* at tbat period, that I caanot but coniider it aa apo- 
cryplMl, a> ala^t tbe pcdioirptal (trm of ituine of ihn tuiupariineaia of ub 
taitia(, and Ihe alvpiutf roof uitr tlie uinle* of iliu culla. 

I bare not vriabeJ lo leoKlbeo my rciauka by aUaaioas in detail to aoma 
^nMlioBablu porliuui of tbc aeulplurc. I luay, pcrhapei bo veoturiiiK on 
ground for wliirh I am a* lillle lualiflvd tojudgv, aa Mr. Lucaa ia tufofoi 
an opiataaoliboarcbli«lurv ; but I mu*t own, that I eouH liBvo wiabed 
that the aeulplure had been Riodtll«(l witb a r*liaoi»«at aad fluieh n»on) 
comdpuodlag «Mb Ihe eiquiaita etecuilon of tba matchlss* orJiloal. I 
cucitJ liHve wUbed Ibat ono'a Idcaiof the dtgnlty,lho iplcndour, and pra- 
yurUuu ef lbs Cbrya-elaphantine ataloc, and iha )Lraic iDaJMly and bcnuty 
■fMtotrva berMir bad been Diaie realized than jl La io Ibi* Goacrpdoaj 
aiad il appeara to «e Ibat the naot of puiTc drawiiij^, thn t»tal abuocA of 
Altio ateganca aod correct pr<i;itirttaii ia Din rude illiistmtiocia of hit |>atn- 
»Uel,4« llulejaallee to Ihe iiLielliRence of theaoibor in the latief-prpia. 
1 oould baiv detired thai ilic roudcllinic aad puitinit loKclher of Ibe arclii' 
tfciornl deiiiib bad been k'»i cbarntlvriaed by coaracDCM and want of 
ddJcocy. AuJ I uiuat uvitt, lliul Ike proinincu<« ni'cu lo Ihu Kulplurea of 
Ihe pcdiineot*, the proJ«Kliua* of ihe bead* ao'l limha uf t>ii utany of Ibo 
Sgnrea, leem lo me an much to ial«rfrro with Ihc liitci of tli<> arcbiirctore, 
aad theui&eives to be ao oiuch cut up by the lateneclioo of Ihe corona, aa 
la pruduL'e a uivsi auaatWacIury inuicacj, and diMKre«abIe ooolrail. 
Neither Ike drawiuca of Carry (pcrtpccllvo \kiiTa taken from a law jioiai). 
Dor ibe casual aigus of a water drip, nkicL may have a/laca fruw a luia- 
plated aUb abute, our lUe vulilarj iattarico uf a<|uualiuuttb1ii (OilralatiiMi of 
a (rui;n>entht:tid— more than probably a rabat« lu rncciveUiabroaXE hr>liiipl, 
ftor llic projc-:li'iii oftbe bortu'f jav at a part nbrre no (li^diiw brukii ilir 
eontiiiuoua line uf liitlit, aeetiis lo nie tu juMiTy [lie atiliury iniianre of *a 
marked a pruLHiple, wlucb wuiild ba<e ilMlfcatatillaliird a nilt: liiall future 
caaM, bul wbicb haaaoveft that I am aware, bccB fulluwed lo auy ruc- 
oeedioK iaalaoeca in an«i«ai ormuilcin time>, that ha*u pretcatiuoi lu be 
•onaidcrod aa <U*aio work* of art. I diall conclude nilh on» nmre 
r«fcreace, usd Ih^t iaio ibe pot) ehrDiniiliv noiOclliKhnKMita linidly indicnlril 
over uerUiu |>uni>. Mr. Lucas ataiea, that lie h Dot calind upon [u tun Hby 
tiak of uiakiiiK a xaNflof Ibll rc»loralion of Ibe I'artlierioo, or lo depart 
from ibe ai^irte Biciiplicity, which It the cbaraclrrisUC of all ihe art of 
I'bidiai. Tbe leeiiuiDuy of tradition •■ recorded lo the TranaattloDS of 
Ihia Inttilute, ihc oideuce on the diudh mi-'Ut iUt-lf, ibo frajnieiil* recaaily 
dug up', all prove ihul polyclin-ray Isail its full dcielopaiunl in the ParthnioB. 
Tba fragiuoU diicovered la ibo faundaiiont, atleOird the aoLii|uily nf the 
yraeUee. Will Mr. Lucni veoture lo >ay, that ihe Partbrnoo, nhcn »o 
BinlxllUbed, Muii a caud r Will lio asioioe ibe qucMimi, and iiity Hut tlie 
aimpllcity chataclcneticof all ibvarlof PbiOitia wai (-<>luarli-t> ! M'hat 
ia Ibc toliuvuy boruc by ll>e iriuiiuuiooti of micieot tgjipltan iirciiilcctureF 
What by the prrylucliooeof niediatal atlf 

If, ia regard lo the extent i>f polychruoiaJic eiulif'lUi'liiiii'nl, Mr, Loeat 
aeeilaled aoiuog coufltctioR opii>iani lu golu tlt« full eileol of aunte uf ihc 
advooalea for tiaifualiBed adoplinn of evluur. I could UDd<-n.lai]d liia pru- 
rieoce; Lai It aeroia cqaaily raih to rvjevl all coluuma tonduplil Ihrnugh- 
tjul : aad FeaMiu(ii{ do«t sot •oria to Ju)ti/y the itiUuducliuji uf culuur ia 



onaortwjpnrta only, which by IlidiTeri loJilarliicti GflulnilBaoMbanMy 
with the nA ofthc insdd. 

In tubnirting lo )'>'>r nolie* IbaM obaervalioaa apna tbne Model*, | 
hate fell rnltnd opou lo do lo, la order lo viodlrnia Ibe profrcaiooal 
character ofthe F.nitlitJi arcbitecl, whiob l( porrilled by di« eaaajiieaaa* 
poaltioQ Kivcn lu a work of art, prufea^lai lo be a reiloralloa of the doUm 
iDiiQUuieul of aaliquily.and oailitiX tlio kuowIedKr, Micnce, and letrolne 
ofUiia coaolry. Tfa" locaracy of t!i« CoiiliRh archiioct baa b-ra anjuirrd 
by naay pergonal aa^riBcea, lahonuui invoalixalioaii, and p^iaa-takiif 
aecurncy. Tli« work «f ftluart and th* produetioiu of Ui« XliUli.ui, 
Sodi-ty, bad eftabliriied lh« fainn of the F.n|ll«b,aa the reeitvra aad bt*! 
iltntiratort of Greek art. Itui what will be the opinion of foreigaera apes 
l-ji£liBh arcliiicctf, if (his defective and erroneous rctlorutiua be aMvnet, 
aa the prouf by whiiili Ul oatlinalo Uie reaeareb, aaJ Lnoirlcdce, and aadl 
uf the l'^a|[1i»li architect in ISIU. lo Ihi* I do nuliu niiigh allude lo Mr. 
t.Dcai, BR Id th^Trua(*«iof Ihe Brltiab Moaeum. Mr. I.ueaa ba> been 
imprudent In railing thii a mloralion of the Parihanoa ioall lbe/el«rtt *r 
ittoriitliul 6(fiH>'y nod tpUmdour. Hehai to'ikeil at II merely ai a *«ulp(ur; 
and Ibe arcbitcoiore be liaa cootlderrd aa aiiliordinate lo (hat hla tnt 
object. Tbc Trnalees should huTo caUeil iu ihe advice of tomr o«e m 
more of the niany archilecu wbu have tueatured ihe Partbeaon alou by 
atone. Thrj thuuld ha>e provided Mr. Luc«« teilh Ibo